Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 458
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152171

RESUMO

Many workers are daily exposed to occupational agents like gases/fumes, mineral dust or biological dust, which could induce adverse health effects. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play a role. We therefore aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) upon occupational exposures in never-smokers and investigated if these DMRs associated with gene expression levels. To determine the effects of occupational exposures independent of smoking, 903 never-smokers of the LifeLines cohort study were included. We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. DMRs were identified using comb-p in Python. Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). Of the total 21 significant DMRs, 14 DMRs were associated with gases/fumes and 7 with mineral dust. Three of these DMRs were associated with both exposures (RPLP1 and LINC02169 (2×)) and 11 DMRs were located within transcript start sites of gene expression regulating genes. We replicated two DMRs with gases/fumes (VTRNA2-1 and GNAS) and one with mineral dust (CCDC144NL). In addition, nine gases/fumes DMRs and six mineral dust DMRs significantly associated with gene expression levels. Our data suggest that occupational exposures may induce differential methylation of gene expression regulating genes and thereby may induce adverse health effects. Given the millions of workers that are exposed daily to occupational exposures, further studies on this epigenetic mechanism and health outcomes are warranted.

6.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 29(4): 539-547, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of genetics in the respiratory response of asthmatic children to air pollution, with a genome-wide level analysis of gene by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) interaction on lung function and to identify biological pathways involved. METHODS: We used a two-step method for fast linear mixed model computations for genome-wide association studies, exploring whether variants modify the longitudinal relationship between 4-month average pollution and post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 522 Caucasian and 88 African-American asthmatic children. Top hits were confirmed with classic linear mixed-effect models. We used the improved gene set enrichment analysis for GWAS (i-GSEA4GWAS) to identify plausible pathways. RESULTS: Two SNPs near the EPHA3 (rs13090972 and rs958144) and one in TXNDC8 (rs7041938) showed significant interactions with NO2 in Caucasians but we did not replicate this locus in African-Americans. SNP-CO interactions did not reach genome-wide significance. The i-GSEA4GWAS showed a pathway linked to the HO-1/CO system to be associated with CO-related FEV1 changes. For NO2-related FEV1 responses, we identified pathways involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic responses. CONCLUSION: The host lung function response to long-term exposure to pollution is linked to genes involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammatory, and metabolic pathways.

7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(5): 402-416, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small airways dysfunction (SAD) is well recognised in asthma, yet its role in the severity and control of asthma is unclear. This study aimed to assess which combination of biomarkers, physiological tests, and imaging markers best measure the presence and extent of SAD in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this baseline assessment of a multinational prospective cohort study (the Assessment of Small Airways Involvement in Asthma [ATLANTIS] study), we recruited participants with and without asthma (defined as Global Initiative for Asthma severity stages 1-5) from general practices, the databases of chest physicians, and advertisements at 29 centres across nine countries (Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, and Canada). All participants were aged 18-65 years, and participants with asthma had received a clinical diagnosis of asthma more than 6 months ago that had been confirmed by a chest physician. This diagnosis required support by objective evidence at baseline or during the past 5 years, which could be: positive airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, positive reversibility (a change in FEV1 ≥12% and ≥200 mL within 30 min) after treatment with 400 µg of salbutamol in a metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, variability in peak expiratory flow of more than 20% (measured over 7 days), or documented reversibility after a cycle (eg, 4 weeks) of maintenance anti-asthma treatment. The inclusion criteria also required that patients had stable asthma on any previous regular asthma treatment (including so-called rescue ß2-agonists alone) at a stable dose for more than 8 weeks before baseline and had smoked for a maximum of 10 pack-years in their lifetime. Control group participants were recruited by advertisements; these participants were aged 18-65 years, had no respiratory symptoms compatible with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, normal spirometry, and normal airways responsiveness, and had smoked for a maximum of 10 pack-years. We assessed all participants with spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry, multiple breath nitrogen washout, CT (in selected participants), and questionnaires about asthma control, asthma-related quality of life (both in participants with asthma only), and health status. We applied structural equation modelling in participants with asthma to assess the contribution of all physiological and CT variables to SAD, from which we defined clinical SAD and CT SAD scores. We then classified patients with asthma into SAD groups with model-based clustering, and we compared asthma severity, control, and health-care use during the past year by SAD score and by SAD group. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02123667. FINDINGS: Between June 30, 2014, and March 3, 2017, we recruited and evaluated 773 participants with asthma and 99 control participants. All physiological measures contributed to the clinical SAD model with the structural equation modelling analysis. The prevalence of SAD in asthma was dependent on the measure used; we found the lowest prevalence of SAD associated with acinar airway ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin), an outcome determined by multiple breath nitrogen washout that reflects ventilation heterogeneity in the most peripheral, pre-acinar or acinar airways. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry results, which were used to assess dysfunction of small-sized to mid-sized airways, contributed most to the clinical SAD score and differed between the two SAD groups. Participants in clinical SAD group 1 (n=452) had milder SAD than group 2 and comparable multiple breath nitrogen washout Sacin to control participants. Participants in clinical SAD group 2 (n=312) had abnormal physiological SAD results relative to group 1, particularly their impulse oscillometry and spirometry measurements, and group 2 participants also had more severe asthma (with regard to asthma control, treatments, exacerbations, and quality of life) than group 1. Clinical SAD scores were higher (indicating more severe SAD) in group 2 than group 1, and we found that these scores were related to asthma control, severity, and exacerbations. We found no correlation between clinical SAD and CT SAD scores. INTERPRETATION: SAD is a complex and silent signature of asthma that is likely to be directly or indirectly captured by combinations of physiological tests, such as spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry, and multiple breath nitrogen washout. SAD is present across patients with all severities of asthma, but it is particularly prevalent in severe disease. The clinical classification of SAD into two groups (a milder and a more severe group) by use of impulse oscillometry and spirometry, which are easy to use, is meaningful given its association with GINA severity stages, asthma control, quality of life, and exacerbations. FUNDING: Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846474

RESUMO

The aim was to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) expression is modulated by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatmentWe performed genome-wide miRNA analysis on bronchial biopsies of 69 moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients at baseline and after 6- and 30-month treatment with the ICS fluticasone propionate or placebo. The effect of ICS on miRNA expression was validated in differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cultures, and functional studies were conducted in BEAS-2B cells. MiRNAs affected by ICS and their predicted targets were compared to an independent miRNA dataset of bronchial brushings from COPD patients and healthy controls.Treatment with ICS for both 6 and 30 months significantly altered the expression of four miRNAs, including miR-320d, which was increased during ICS treatment compared with placebo. The ICS-induced increase of miR-320d was confirmed in primary airway epithelial cells. MiR-320d negatively correlated targets were enriched for pro-inflammatory genes and were increased in the bronchial brushes of patients with lower lung function in the independent dataset. Overexpression of miR-320d in BEAS-2B cells dampened cigarette smoke extract-induced pro-inflammatory activity via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB.Collectively, we identified miR-320d as a novel mediator of ICS, regulating the pro-inflammatory response of the airway epithelium.

10.
Clin Respir J ; 13(6): 355-367, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) is a heterogenous condition with clinical features shared by both asthma and COPD. OBJECTIVES: This online global survey of respiratory/allergy specialists and primary care practitioners (PCPs) was performed to understand current clinical approaches to the differential diagnosis and management of asthma, COPD and ACO. METHODS: Respondents were recruited through: (a) a global online physician respondent community (49,980 PCPs and 7205 specialists); (b) market research agents; (c) experts; (d) professional societies; (e) colleague invitation. Respondents were presented with a survey including hypothetical clinical scenarios of diagnostic uncertainty to identify management approaches. RESULTS: 891 responses (447 PCPs and 444 specialists) were collected across 13 countries. Reported features used for diagnosis of asthma and COPD were consistent with practice guidelines, but there was variability in those selected for ACO diagnosis. Features typically selected by specialists focused on spirometry/history, while PCPs focused on previous treatment/symptoms. Most respondents could correctly diagnose patients with features of ACO; however, features selected for theoretical diagnosis were often different to those selected in the case scenarios. Additionally, treatment selection was often inconsistent with guidelines, with over half of respondents not recommending inhaled corticosteroids in a patient with ACO and dominant features of asthma. CONCLUSION: While most PCPs and respiratory/allergy specialists can reach a working diagnosis of ACO, there remains uncertainty around which diagnostic features are most important and what constitutes optimal management. It is imperative that clinical studies including patients with ACO are initiated, allowing the generation of evidence-based management strategies.

11.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 256, 2018 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563522

RESUMO

We performed a post-hoc analysis of the OLiVIA-study investigating whether current and ex-smoking asthmatics with small airways dysfunction (SAD) show a better response in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to small particle adenosine after treatment with extrafine compared to non-extrafine particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and to investigate which clinical parameters predict a favorable response to both treatments. We show that smoking and ex-smoking asthmatics with and without SAD have a similar treatment response with either extrafine or non-extrafine particle ICS. We also found that lower blood neutrophils are associated with a smaller ICS-response in smokers and ex-smokers with asthma, independent from the level of blood eosinophils.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Ex-Fumantes , Tamanho da Partícula , Fumantes , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Asma/sangue , Asma/diagnóstico , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumar/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072506

RESUMO

Chronic mucus hypersecretion (CMH) is a common feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with worse prognosis and quality of life. This study aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA regulatory networks underlying CMH.The expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA in bronchial biopsies from 63 COPD patients were associated with CMH using linear regression. Potential mRNA targets of each CMH-associated miRNA were identified using Pearson correlations. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and STRING (search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins) analysis were used to identify key genes and pathways.20 miRNAs and 539 mRNAs were differentially expressed with CMH in COPD. The expression of 10 miRNAs was significantly correlated with the expression of one or more mRNAs. Of these, miR-134-5p, miR-146a-5p and the let-7 family had the highest representation of CMH-associated mRNAs among their negatively correlated predicted targets. KRAS and EDN1 were identified as key regulators of CMH and were negatively correlated predicted targets of miR-134-5p and let-7a-5p, let-7d-5p, and let-7f-5p, respectively. GSEA suggested involvement of MUC5AC-related genes and several other relevant gene sets in CMH. The lower expression of miR-134-5p was confirmed in primary airway fibroblasts from COPD patients with CMH.We identified miR-134-5p, miR-146a-5p and let-7 family, along with their potential target genes including KRAS and EDN1, as potential key miRNA-mRNA networks regulating CMH in COPD.

13.
Front Genet ; 9: 133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725345

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heritable disease, associated with multiple genetic variants. Specific familial types of COPD may be explained by rare variants, which have not been widely studied. We aimed to discover rare genetic variants underlying COPD through a genome-wide linkage scan. Affected-only analysis was performed using the 6K Illumina Linkage IV Panel in 142 cases clustered in 27 families from a genetic isolate, the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study. Potential causal variants were identified by searching for shared rare variants in the exome-sequence data of the affected members of the families contributing most to the linkage peak. The identified rare variants were then tested for association with COPD in a large meta-analysis of several cohorts. Significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 15q14-15q25 [logarithm of the odds (LOD) score = 5.52], 11p15.4-11q14.1 (LOD = 3.71) and 5q14.3-5q33.2 (LOD = 3.49). In the chromosome 15 peak, that harbors the known COPD locus for nicotinic receptors, and in the chromosome 5 peak we could not identify shared variants. In the chromosome 11 locus, we identified four rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.02), predicted pathogenic, missense variants. These were shared among the affected family members. The identified variants localize to genes including neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK), previously associated with blood biomarkers in COPD, phospholipase C Beta 3 (PLCB3), shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness, solute carrier family 22-A11 (SLC22A11), involved in amino acid metabolism and ion transport, and metallothionein-like protein 5 (MTL5), involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Association of SLC22A11 and MTL5 variants were confirmed in the meta-analysis of 9,888 cases and 27,060 controls. In conclusion, we have identified novel rare variants in plausible genes related to COPD. Further studies utilizing large sample whole-genome sequencing should further confirm the associations at chromosome 11 and investigate the chromosome 15 and 5 linked regions.

14.
Respirology ; 23(11): 1023-1031, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is present to a variable degree and composition in patients with COPD. This study investigates associations between both eosinophils and neutrophils in blood, sputum, airway wall biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and their potential use as biomarkers for clinical response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). METHODS: In total, 114 steroid-naïve COPD patients of the Groningen Leiden Universities Corticosteroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (GLUCOLD) study using ICS or placebo during 30-month follow-up were included. Cell counts in blood, sputum, biopsies and BAL were evaluated at baseline. In addition, at baseline, 6 and 30 months, forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1 ), residual volume/total lung capacity (hyperinflation) and Clinical COPD Questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses at baseline showed that higher blood eosinophils were significantly associated with higher eosinophil counts in sputum, biopsies and BAL. However, blood neutrophils did not significantly correlate with neutrophil counts in the other compartments. Baseline eosinophils and neutrophils, in whichever compartment measured, did not predict longitudinal FEV1 changes. Higher baseline biopsy eosinophils were associated with an increase in symptoms during 6- and 30-month ICS treatment. In addition, higher biopsy neutrophils were associated with a more marked reduction in hyperinflation during 6-month ICS treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that blood eosinophils reflect eosinophils in other compartments, in contrast to neutrophils, in ICS-naïve COPD patients. Both baseline eosinophils and neutrophils do not predict ICS-induced lung function changes over a period of 6-30 months. The associations of biopsy eosinophils with worsening respiratory symptoms and biopsy neutrophils with improvement in hyperinflation during ICS treatment deserve further investigation.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 51(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519908

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation of IL1RL1 protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association between IL1RL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations of IL1RL1 SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNA IL1RL1 methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association of IL1RL1 CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101).IL1RL1 asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated with IL1RL1 methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10-16) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10-56). IL1RL1 methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associated IL1RL1 SNPs strongly regulate IL1RL1 methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither these IL1RL1-methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 709-722, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422661

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden in adults and cigarette smoking is considered the most important environmental risk factor of COPD. Chromosome 15q25.1 locus is associated with both COPD and smoking. Our study aims at understanding the mechanism underlying the association of chromosome 15q25.1 with COPD through epigenetic and transcriptional variation in a population-based setting. To assess if COPD-associated variants in 15q25.1 are methylation quantitative trait loci, epigenome-wide association analysis of four genetic variants, previously associated with COPD (P < 5 × 10-8) in the 15q25.1 locus (rs12914385:C>T-CHRNA3, rs8034191:T>C-HYKK, rs13180:C>T-IREB2 and rs8042238:C>T-IREB2), was performed in the Rotterdam study (n = 1489). All four variants were significantly associated (P < 1.4 × 10-6) with blood DNA methylation of IREB2, CHRNA3 and PSMA4, of which two, including IREB2 and PSMA4, were also differentially methylated in COPD cases and controls (P < 0.04). Further additive and multiplicative effects of smoking were evaluated and no significant effect was observed. To evaluate if these four genetic variants are expression quantitative trait loci, transcriptome-wide association analysis was performed in 1087 lung samples. All four variants were also significantly associated with differential expression of the IREB2 3'UTR in lung tissues (P < 5.4 × 10-95). We conclude that regulatory mechanisms affecting the expression of IREB2 gene, such as DNA methylation, may explain the association between genetic variants in chromosome 15q25.1 and COPD, largely independent of smoking.

17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(2): 027004, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29410382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure is negatively associated with lung function, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully clear. Differential DNA methylation may explain this association. OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to study the association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide methylation study using robust linear regression models in 1,017 subjects from the LifeLines cohort study to analyze the association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5, fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm; PM10, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) and PM2.5absorbance, indicator of elemental carbon content (estimated with land-use-regression models) with DNA methylation in whole blood (Illumina® HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). Replication of the top hits was attempted in two independent samples from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg studies (KORA). RESULTS: Depending on the p-value threshold used, we found significant associations between NO2 exposure and DNA methylation for seven CpG sites (Bonferroni corrected threshold p<1.19×10-7) or for 4,980 CpG sites (False Discovery Rate<0.05). The top associated CpG site was annotated to the PSMB9 gene (i.e., cg04908668). None of the seven Bonferroni significant CpG-sites were significantly replicated in the two KORA-cohorts. No associations were found for PM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term NO2 exposure was genome-wide significantly associated with DNA methylation in the identification cohort but not in the replication cohort. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying NO2-exposure-related respiratory disease. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2045.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 22(4): 2272-2282, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411515

RESUMO

Inflammation and ageing are intertwined in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The histone deacetylase SIRT1 and the related activation of FoxO3 protect from ageing and regulate inflammation. The role of SIRT1/FoxO3 in COPD is largely unknown. This study evaluated whether cigarette smoke, by modulating the SIRT1/FoxO3 axis, affects airway epithelial pro-inflammatory responses. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from COPD patients and controls were treated with/without cigarette smoke extract (CSE), Sirtinol or FoxO3 siRNA. SIRT1, FoxO3 and NF-κB nuclear accumulation, SIRT1 deacetylase activity, IL-8 and CCL20 expression/release and the release of 12 cytokines, neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotaxis were assessed. In PBECs, the constitutive FoxO3 expression was lower in patients with COPD than in controls. Furthermore, CSE reduced FoxO3 expression only in PBECs from controls. In 16HBE, CSE decreased SIRT1 activity and nuclear expression, enhanced NF-κB binding to the IL-8 gene promoter thus increasing IL-8 expression, decreased CCL20 expression, increased the neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased lymphocyte chemotaxis. Similarly, SIRT1 inhibition reduced FoxO3 expression and increased nuclear NF-κB. FoxO3 siRNA treatment increased IL-8 and decreased CCL20 expression in 16HBE. In conclusion, CSE impairs the function of SIRT1/FoxO3 axis in bronchial epithelium, dysregulating NF-κB activity and inducing pro-inflammatory responses.

19.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(6): 427-435, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational pesticide exposure is associated with a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases, but it is largely unknown how pesticides influence airway disease pathogenesis. A potential mechanism might be through epigenetic mechanisms, like DNA methylation. Therefore, we assessed associations between occupational exposure to pesticides and genome-wide DNA methylation sites. METHODS: 1561 subjects of LifeLines were included with either no (n=1392), low (n=108) or high (n=61) exposure to any type of pesticides (estimated based on current or last held job). Blood DNA methylation levels were measured using Illumina 450K arrays. Associations between pesticide exposure and 420 938 methylation sites (CpGs) were assessed using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. In addition, we performed genome-wide stratified and interaction analyses by gender, smoking and airway obstruction status, and assessed associations between gene expression and methylation for genome-wide significant CpGs (n=2802). RESULTS: In total for all analyses, high pesticide exposure was genome-wide significantly (false discovery rate P<0.05) associated with differential DNA methylation of 31 CpGs annotated to 29 genes. Twenty of these CpGs were found in subjects with airway obstruction. Several of the identified genes, for example, RYR1, ALLC, PTPRN2, LRRC3B, PAX2 and VTRNA2-1, are genes previously linked to either pesticide exposure or lung-related diseases. Seven out of 31 CpGs were associated with gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that occupational exposure to pesticides is genome-wide associated with differential DNA methylation. Further research should reveal whether this differential methylation plays a role in the airway disease pathogenesis induced by pesticides.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(2): 396-405, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092026

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the major health burdens in adults. While cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor, a growing number of genetic variations have been discovered to influence disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modifications may mediate the response of the genome to smoking and regulate gene expression. Chromosome 19q13.2 region is associated with both smoking and COPD, yet its functional role is unclear. Our study aimed to determine whether rs7937 (RAB4B, EGLN2), a top genetic variant in 19q13.2 region identified in genome-wide association studies of COPD, is associated with differential DNA methylation in blood (N = 1490) and gene expression in blood (N = 721) and lungs (N = 1087). We combined genetic and epigenetic data from the Rotterdam Study (RS) to perform the epigenome-wide association analysis of rs7937. Further, we used genetic and transcriptomic data from blood (RS) and from lung tissue (Lung expression quantitative trait loci mapping study), to perform the transcriptome-wide association study of rs7937. Rs7937 was significantly (FDR < 0.05) and consistently associated with differential DNA methylation in blood at 4 CpG sites in cis, independent of smoking. One methylation site (cg11298343-EGLN2) was also associated with COPD (P = 0.001). Additionally, rs7937 was associated with gene expression levels in blood in cis (EGLN2), 42% mediated through cg11298343, and in lung tissue, in cis and trans (NUMBL, EGLN2, DNMT3A, LOC101929709 and PAK2). Our results suggest that changes of DNA methylation and gene expression may be intermediate steps between genetic variants and COPD, but further causal studies in lung tissue should confirm this hypothesis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA