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3.
Oncologist ; 27(9): e755-e758, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35766876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about patient outcomes with advanced melanoma following inpatient initiation or continuation of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single institution retrospective case series of advanced melanoma patients who initiated ICB as an inpatient (initial inpatient cohort, n = 9), or continued ICB as an inpatient after previously starting as an outpatient (outpatient then inpatient cohort, n = 5). One patient had a partial response to ICB initiated as an inpatient, but ultimately died of melanoma after 13.5 months. Median overall survival for initial inpatient cohort was 1.0 month (95% CI: 0.2-11.2), and 1.4 months (95% CI: 0.4-58.0) for the outpatient then inpatient cohort. Three patients were alive >6 months after inpatient ICB administration. CONCLUSION: Despite overall poor outcomes, some patients may benefit from inpatient ICB. This study provides additional information for clinicians to appropriately counsel patients on expectations following inpatient ICB.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Melanoma , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565428

RESUMO

The impact of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on clinical outcomes with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with metastatic melanoma was previously analyzed in the phase II study, CheckMate 069. This retrospective analysis utilized data from three phase II/III studies of first-line ICI therapy in untreated advanced melanoma: CheckMate 066, 067, and 069. All randomized patients with PPI use ≤ 30 days before initiating study treatment were included in the PPI-use subgroup. Possible associations between baseline PPI use and efficacy were evaluated within each treatment arm of each study using multivariable modeling. Approximately 20% of 1505 randomized patients across the studies reported baseline PPI use. The median follow-up was 52.6-58.5 months. Objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival analyses provided insufficient evidence of a meaningful association between PPI use and efficacy outcomes with nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab, nivolumab, or ipilimumab therapy. In five of the six ICI treatment arms, 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios or hazard ratios traversed 1. Significant associations were observed in the CheckMate 069 combination arm between PPI use and poorer ORR and PFS. This multivariable analysis found insufficient evidence to support meaningful associations between PPI use and ICI efficacy in patients with advanced melanoma.

5.
Oncologist ; 27(4): e350-e352, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380715

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related colitis is a common complication of immunotherapy use in patients with cancer. Current guidelines recommend treatment with standard dose infliximab (IFX) for corticosteroid-refractory colitis; however, this case series suggests IFX dose escalation may be a viable treatment option for refractory cases.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 179, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449104

RESUMO

As part of the 2021 Immunotherapy Bridge virtual congress (December 1-2, Naples, Italy), the Great Debate sessions featured experts who were assigned counter opposing views on four important questions in immunotherapy today. The first topic was whether oncolytic viruses or other specific immunomodulators were the more promising approach for intralesional therapy. The second was whether early surrogate endpoints, such as response rate or progression-free survival, correlate with long-term overall survival was considered. Thirdly, whether vaccines can transform cold into hot tumors was discussed and, finally, broad versus deep analytic profiling approaches to gain insights into immune-oncology development were compared. As with previous Bridge congresses, presenters were invited by the meeting Chairs and positions taken during the debates may not have reflected their respective personal view. In addition, the views summarised in this article are based on available evidence but may reflect personal interpretation of these data, clinical experience and subjective opinion of the speaker.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Oncologia , Melanoma/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(14): 3002-3010, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enhanced MAPK pathway signaling and cell-cycle checkpoint dysregulation are frequent in NRAS-mutant melanoma and, as such, the regimen of the MEK inhibitor binimetinib and the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib is a rational combination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a phase Ib/II, open-label study of ribociclib + binimetinib in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma (NCT01781572). Primary objectives were to estimate the MTD/recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of the combination (phase Ib) and to characterize combination antitumor activity at the RP2D (phase II). Tumor genomic characterization and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Ten patients (16.4%) experienced dose-limiting toxicities in cycle 1 of phase Ib. Overall response rate in the phase II cohort (n = 41) for the selected RP2D (binimetinib 45 mg twice daily + ribociclib 200 mg once daily, 21 days on/7 days off) was 19.5% [8/41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 8.8-34.9]. The response rate was 32.5% (13/40; 95% CI, 20.1-48.0) in patients with NRAS mutation with concurrent alterations of CDKN2A, CDK4, or CCND1. Median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 3.5-5.6) and median overall survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 9.3-14.2) for all patients. Common treatment-related toxicities included creatine phosphokinase elevation, rash, edema, anemia, nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue. Pharmacokinetics and safety were consistent with single-agent data, supporting a lack of drug-drug interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Ribociclib + binimetinib can be safely administered and is clinically active in patients with NRAS-mutant melanoma. Co-mutations of cell-cycle genes may define a population with greater likelihood of treatment benefit. See related commentary by Moschos, p. 2977.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Aminopiridinas/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Purinas
8.
Cell ; 185(3): 563-575.e11, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120664

RESUMO

Metastatic progression is the main cause of death in cancer patients, whereas the underlying genomic mechanisms driving metastasis remain largely unknown. Here, we assembled MSK-MET, a pan-cancer cohort of over 25,000 patients with metastatic diseases. By analyzing genomic and clinical data from this cohort, we identified associations between genomic alterations and patterns of metastatic dissemination across 50 tumor types. We found that chromosomal instability is strongly correlated with metastatic burden in some tumor types, including prostate adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and HR+/HER2+ breast ductal carcinoma, but not in others, including colorectal cancer and high-grade serous ovarian cancer, where copy-number alteration patterns may be established early in tumor development. We also identified somatic alterations associated with metastatic burden and specific target organs. Our data offer a valuable resource for the investigation of the biological basis for metastatic spread and highlight the complex role of chromosomal instability in cancer progression.


Assuntos
Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(3): 385-392, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050320

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Existing criteria to estimate the benefit of a therapy in patients with cancer rely almost exclusively on tumor size, an approach that was not designed to estimate survival benefit and is challenged by the unique properties of immunotherapy. More accurate prediction of survival by treatment could enhance treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: To validate, using radiomics and machine learning, the performance of a signature of quantitative computed tomography (CT) imaging features for estimating overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced melanoma treated with immunotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prognostic study used radiomics and machine learning to retrospectively analyze CT images obtained at baseline and first follow-up and their associated clinical metadata. Data were prospectively collected in the KEYNOTE-002 (Study of Pembrolizumab [MK-3475] Versus Chemotherapy in Participants With Advanced Melanoma; 2017 analysis) and KEYNOTE-006 (Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Two Different Dosing Schedules of Pembrolizumab [MK-3475] Compared to Ipilimumab in Participants With Advanced Melanoma; 2016 analysis) multicenter clinical trials. Participants included 575 patients with a diagnosis of advanced melanoma who were randomly assigned to training and validation sets. Data for the present study were collected from November 20, 2012, to June 3, 2019, and analyzed from July 1, 2019, to September 15, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: KEYNOTE-002 featured trial groups testing intravenous pembrolizumab, 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 2 or every 3 weeks based on randomization, or investigator-choice chemotherapy; KEYNOTE-006 featured trial groups testing intravenous ipilimumab, 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks and intravenous pembrolizumab, 10 mg/kg every 2 or 3 weeks based on randomization. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The performance of the signature CT imaging features for estimating OS at the month 6 posttreatment landmark in patients who received pembrolizumab was measured using an area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: A random forest model combined 25 imaging features extracted from tumors segmented on CT images to identify the combination (signature) that best estimated OS with pembrolizumab in 575 patients. The signature combined 4 imaging features, 2 related to tumor size and 2 reflecting changes in tumor imaging phenotype. In the validation set (287 patients treated with pembrolizumab), the signature reached an AUC for estimation of OS status of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.89-0.95). The standard method, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1, achieved an AUC of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.84) and classified tumor outcomes as partial or complete response (93 of 287 [32.4%]), stable disease (90 of 287 [31.3%]), or progressive disease (104 of 287 [36.2%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this prognostic study suggest that the radiomic signature discerned from conventional CT images at baseline and on first follow-up may be used in clinical settings to provide an accurate early readout of future OS probability in patients with melanoma treated with single-agent programmed cell death 1 blockade.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Nucl Med ; 63(5): 720-726, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413145

RESUMO

There is a need for in vivo diagnostic imaging probes that can noninvasively measure tumor-infiltrating CD8+ leukocytes. Such imaging probes could be used to predict early response to cancer immunotherapy, help select effective single or combination immunotherapies, and facilitate the development of new immunotherapies or immunotherapy combinations. This study was designed to optimize conditions for performing CD8 PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C and determine whether CD8 PET imaging could provide a safe and effective noninvasive method of visualizing the whole-body biodistribution of CD8+ leukocytes. Methods: We conducted a phase 1 first-in-humans PET imaging study using an anti-CD8 radiolabeled minibody, 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C, to detect whole-body and tumor CD8+ leukocyte distribution in patients with metastatic solid tumors. Patients received 111 MBq of 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C followed by serial PET scanning over 5-7 d. A 2-stage design included a dose-escalation phase and a dose-expansion phase. Biodistribution, radiation dosimetry, and semiquantitative evaluation of 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C uptake were performed in all patients. Results: Fifteen subjects with metastatic melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled. No drug-related adverse events or abnormal laboratory results were noted except for a transient increase in antidrug antibodies in 1 subject. 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C accumulated in tumors and CD8-rich tissues (e.g., spleen, bone marrow, nodes), with maximum uptake at 24-48 h after injection and low background activity in CD8-poor tissues (e.g., muscle and lung). Radiotracer uptake in tumors was noted in 10 of 15 subjects, including 7 of 8 subjects on immunotherapy, 1 of 2 subjects on targeted therapy, and 2 of 5 treatment-naïve subjects. In 3 patients with advanced melanoma or hepatocellular carcinoma on immunotherapy, posttreatment CD8 PET/CT scans demonstrated increased 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C uptake in tumor lesions, which correlated with response. Conclusion: CD8 PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-IAB22M2C is safe and has the potential to visualize the whole-body biodistribution of CD8+ leukocytes in tumors and reference tissues, and may predict early response to immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Linfócitos T , Distribuição Tecidual , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Zircônio
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(6): 808-818, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have published patient-reported quality of life (QOL), but the size and heterogeneity of this literature can make patient education difficult. This meta-analysis aimed to describe change in QOL and symptomatology in patients receiving ICIs for cancer. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, databases were searched through November 2019 for articles or abstracts of prospective, original studies reporting longitudinal QOL in adult cancer patients treated with ICIs. The prespecified primary outcomes were change in global QOL among patients treated with ICIs and difference in change since baseline in global QOL between patients treated with ICI vs non-ICI active treatment. Secondary outcomes included physical functioning and symptomatology. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: Of 20 323 publications, 26 met inclusion criteria. Global QOL did not change over time in patients treated with ICIs (k = 26, n = 6974; P = .19). Larger improvements in global QOL was observed in patients receiving ICI vs non-ICI regimens (k = 16, ICI: n = 3588; non-ICI: n = 2948; P < .001). Physical functioning did not change in patients treated with ICIs (k = 14, n = 3169; P = .47); there were no differences in mean change between ICI vs non-ICI regimens (k = 11, n = 4630; P = .94). Regarding symptoms, appetite loss, insomnia, and pain severity decreased, but dyspnea severity increased in patients treated with ICIs (k = 14, n = 3243-3499; P < .001). Insomnia severity was higher in patients treated with ICIs than non-ICI regimens (k = 11, n = 4791; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to quantitatively summarize QOL in patients treated with ICIs. Findings suggest ICI recipients report no change in global QOL and higher QOL than patients treated with non-ICI regimens.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Neoplasias , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(4): 499-506, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725502

RESUMO

Only a fraction of patients with cancer respond to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment, but current decision-making procedures have limited accuracy. In this study, we developed a machine learning model to predict ICB response by integrating genomic, molecular, demographic and clinical data from a comprehensively curated cohort (MSK-IMPACT) with 1,479 patients treated with ICB across 16 different cancer types. In a retrospective analysis, the model achieved high sensitivity and specificity in predicting clinical response to immunotherapy and predicted both overall survival and progression-free survival in the test data across different cancer types. Our model significantly outperformed predictions based on tumor mutational burden, which was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this purpose1. Additionally, the model provides quantitative assessments of the model features that are most salient for the predictions. We anticipate that this approach will substantially improve clinical decision-making in immunotherapy and inform future interventions.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(10): 1059-1067, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nivolumab + ipilimumab (nivo + ipi) is highly efficacious but has high toxicity. Standard treatment in advanced melanoma is four doses of nivo + ipi followed by nivo alone. Whether four doses of nivo + ipi are needed is unclear. METHODS: The Adaptively Dosed ImmunoTherapy Trial (ADAPT-IT) study (NCT03122522) is a multicenter, single-arm phase II clinical trial. Patients received two doses of nivo (1 mg/kg) + ipi (3 mg/kg) followed by a computed tomography scan at week 6. Patients without new lesions or index lesion tumor growth of > 4% had protocol-defined early favorable antitumor effect (FATE) and ceased nivo + ipi, transitioning to nivo monotherapy. Patients without FATE at week 6 received the standard third and fourth doses of nivo + ipi followed by nivo monotherapy. The primary end point was response rate by RECIST 1.1 at week 12. Secondary end points included additional efficacy assessments and safety. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled; 41 patients (68%) had FATE at week 6 and met criteria for stopping nivo + ipi. Best overall response rates by RECIST at week 12 or any time afterward were 48% (95% CI, 35 to 62) and 58% (95% CI, 45 to 71), respectively. With a median follow-up of 25 months, the estimated 18-month progression-free survival and overall survival are 52% and 80%, respectively. Fifty seven percent of patients had grade 3-5 treatment-related toxicity. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and toxicity of standard four dose nivo + ipi induction therapy in melanoma is likely driven by the first two doses. An interim computed tomography scan after two doses guided cessation of combination dosing and identified almost all responders. Longer follow-up and further study are needed to fully understand the implications of a shortened induction course of nivo + ipi.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Nivolumabe , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Ipilimumab , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(7): 1250-1257, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921018

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has expanded across a wide spectrum of oncology indications. Immune-related adverse events (irAE) from ICIs represent a significant source of morbidity, and in rare instances, can lead to treatment-related mortality. There are significant opportunities to better identify patients at increased risk for immune-related toxicity, diagnose irAEs more accurately and earlier in their course, and develop more individualized therapeutic strategies once complications arise. Clinical characteristics, germline and somatic genetic features, microbiome composition, and circulating biomarkers have all been associated with higher risk of developing irAEs in retrospective series. Many of these data suggest that both antitumor and anti-host ICI-associated immune reactions may be driven by common features of either the tumor or the patient's preexisting immune milieu. While irAE diagnosis is currently based on clinical history, exclusion of alternative etiologies, and sometimes pathologic confirmation, novel blood-based and radiographic assays are in development to identify these complications more precisely. Anecdotal reports and small case series have highlighted the potential role of targeted immunomodulatory agents to treat irAEs, though further prospective investigation is needed to evaluate more rigorously their use in these settings. In this review, we highlight the current state of knowledge about predicting, diagnosing, and treating irAEs with a translational focus and discuss emerging strategies which aim to improve each of these domains.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment-free survival (TFS) characterizes disease control after discontinuation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) until subsequent therapy or death. We previously evaluated TFS in a pooled analysis of the CheckMate 067 and CheckMate 069 trials of the ICIs nivolumab and ipilimumab, alone or in combination, in patients with advanced melanoma after minimum follow-up of 36 months. This analysis investigated TFS differences between treatments in CheckMate 067 after a minimum follow-up of 60 months, and their relation to overall survival (OS) differences. METHODS: Data were from 937 patients who initiated treatment (nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, or ipilimumab) in CheckMate 067 (NCT01844505). TFS was defined as the area between the Kaplan-Meier curves for time to protocol therapy cessation and time to subsequent systemic therapy initiation or death, each measured from randomization. TFS was partitioned as time with and without toxicity. Toxicity included persistent and late-onset grade ≥2 select treatment-related adverse events (ie, those of potential immunologic etiology). The area between Kaplan-Meier curves was estimated by the difference in 60-month restricted-mean times of the endpoints. Between-group differences were estimated with bootstrapped 95% CIs. RESULTS: At 60 months from randomization, 39%, 24%, and 11% of patients assigned to treatment with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, and ipilimumab, respectively, had survived and were treatment-free. The 60-month mean TFS was approximately twice as long with the combination (19.7 months) than with nivolumab (9.9 months; absolute difference, 9.8 (95% CI 6.7 to 12.8)) or ipilimumab (11.9 months; absolute difference, 7.8 (95% CI 4.6 to 11.0)). In the respective groups, mean TFS represented 33% (8% with and 25% without toxicity), 17% (2% and 14%), and 20% (3% and 17%) of the 60-month period. Compared with 36-month estimates, mean TFS over the 60-month period represented slightly greater percentages of time in the nivolumab-containing regimen groups and a lesser percentage in the ipilimumab group. TFS differences between the combination and either monotherapy increased with longer follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Along with improved long-term OS with the nivolumab-containing regimens versus ipilimumab, TFS without toxicity was sustained with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus either monotherapy, demonstrating larger between-group differences with extended follow-up.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): 1692-1704, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab was efficacious in patients with asymptomatic melanoma brain metastases (MBM) in CheckMate 204, but showed low efficacy in patients with symptomatic MBM. Here, we provide final 3-year follow-up data from the trial. METHODS: This open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study (CheckMate 204) included adults (aged ≥18 years) with measurable MBM (0·5-3·0 cm in diameter). Asymptomatic patients (cohort A) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1 and no neurological symptoms or baseline corticosteroid use; symptomatic patients (cohort B) had an ECOG performance status of 0-2 with stable neurological symptoms and could be receiving low-dose dexamethasone. Nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg was given intravenously every 3 weeks for four doses, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 2 years, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was intracranial clinical benefit rate (complete responses, partial responses, or stable disease lasting ≥6 months) assessed in all treated patients. Intracranial progression-free survival and overall survival were key secondary endpoints. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02320058. FINDINGS: Between Feb 19, 2015, and Nov 1, 2017, 119 (72%) of 165 screened patients were enrolled and treated: 101 patients were asymptomatic (cohort A; median follow-up 34·3 months [IQR 14·7-36·4]) and 18 were symptomatic (cohort B; median follow-up 7·5 months [1·2-35·2]). Investigator-assessed intracranial clinical benefit was observed in 58 (57·4% [95% CI 47·2-67·2]) of 101 patients in cohort A and three (16·7% [3·6-41·4]) of 18 patients in cohort B; investigator-assessed objective response was observed in 54 (53·5% [43·3-63·5]) patients in cohort A and three (16·7% [3·6-41·4]) patients in cohort B. 33 (33%) patients in cohort A and three (17%) patients in cohort B had an investigator-assessed intracranial complete response. For patients in cohort A, 36-month intracranial progression-free survival was 54·1% (95% CI 42·7-64·1) and overall survival was 71·9% (61·8-79·8). For patients in cohort B, 36-month intracranial progression-free survival was 18·9% (95% CI 4·6-40·5) and overall survival was 36·6% (14·0-59·8). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (15 [15%] of 101 patients each) in cohort A; no grade 3 TRAEs occurred in more than one patient each in cohort B, and no grade 4 events occurred. The most common serious TRAEs were colitis, diarrhoea, hypophysitis, and increased alanine aminotransferase (five [5%] of each among the 101 patients in cohort A); no serious TRAE occurred in more than one patient each in cohort B. There was one treatment-related death (myocarditis in cohort A). INTERPRETATION: The durable 3-year response, overall survival, and progression-free survival rates for asymptomatic patients support first-line use of nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Symptomatic disease in patients with MBM remains difficult to treat, but some patients achieve a long-term response with the combination. FUNDING: Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In melanoma patients who progress after prior ipilimumab/nivolumab (ipi/nivo) combination immunotherapy, there is no information regarding the risks and benefits of reinduction ipi/nivo. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 26 melanoma patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) since 2012 who received reinduction ipi/nivo at least 6 months following completion of an initial course of ipi/nivo. We collected data on demographics, genetics, immune-related adverse events (irAEs), best overall responses (BORs), time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The BOR rate (complete response+partial response) was 74% (95% CI 52% to 90%) after the first course of ipi/nivo but only 23% (95% CI 8% to 45%)) after reinduction. Response to reinduction did not correlate with response to the initial course. Among the 16 patients who had an objective response to the first course, only four (25%) responded to reinduction. Of five patients who did not respond to the first course, one responded to reinduction. For all patients, median TTF was 5.3 months after reinduction; TTF was shorter for reinduction than for the first course in 85% of patients. Median OS from reinduction was 8.4 months; estimated 2-year OS was 18%. Although reinduction was associated with fewer irAEs than the initial course of ipi/nivo (58% of patients vs 85% of patients in the initial course), eight (31%) patients experienced at least one new irAE after the second course. CONCLUSIONS: BOR rate and TTF were markedly less favorable after reinduction with ipi/nivo than after the initial course of ipi/nivo. Reinduction ipi/nivo was associated with frequent irAEs although less frequent than for the initial course.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(608)2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433638

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blocking antibodies are a cornerstone in cancer treatment; however, they benefit only a subset of patients and biomarkers to guide immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment choices are lacking. We designed this study to identify blood-based correlates of clinical outcome in ICB-treated patients. We performed immune profiling of 188 ICB-treated patients with melanoma using multiparametric flow cytometry to characterize immune cells in pretreatment peripheral blood. A supervised statistical learning approach was applied to a discovery cohort to classify phenotypes and determine their association with survival and treatment response. We identified three distinct immune phenotypes (immunotypes), defined in part by the presence of a LAG-3+CD8+ T cell population. Patients with melanoma with a LAG+ immunotype had poorer outcomes after ICB with a median survival of 22.2 months compared to 75.8 months for those with the LAG- immunotype (P = 0.031). An independent cohort of 94 ICB-treated patients with urothelial carcinoma was used for validation where LAG+ immunotype was significantly associated with response (P = 0.007), survival (P < 0.001), and progression-free survival (P = 0.004). Multivariate Cox regression and stratified analyses further showed that the LAG+ immunotype was an independent marker of outcome when compared to known clinical prognostic markers and previously described markers for the clinical activity of ICB, PD-L1, and tumor mutation burden. The pretreatment peripheral blood LAG+ immunotype detects patients who are less likely to benefit from ICB and suggests a strategy for identifying actionable immune targets for further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Linfócitos T
19.
Nat Med ; 27(8): 1432-1441, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239137

RESUMO

Treatment with combined immune checkpoint blockade (CICB) targeting CTLA-4 and PD-1 is associated with clinical benefit across tumor types, but also a high rate of immune-related adverse events. Insights into biomarkers and mechanisms of response and toxicity to CICB are needed. To address this, we profiled the blood, tumor and gut microbiome of 77 patients with advanced melanoma treated with CICB, with a high rate of any ≥grade 3 immune-related adverse events (49%) with parallel studies in pre-clinical models. Tumor-associated immune and genomic biomarkers of response to CICB were similar to those identified for ICB monotherapy, and toxicity from CICB was associated with a more diverse peripheral T-cell repertoire. Profiling of gut microbiota demonstrated a significantly higher abundance of Bacteroides intestinalis in patients with toxicity, with upregulation of mucosal IL-1ß in patient samples of colitis and in pre-clinical models. Together, these data offer potential new therapeutic angles for targeting toxicity to CICB.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Melanoma , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 278, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193182

RESUMO

Advances in immune checkpoint therapy and targeted therapy have led to improvement in overall survival for patients with advanced melanoma. Single agent checkpoint PD-1 blockade and combination with BRAF/MEK targeted therapy demonstrated benefit in overall survival (OS). Superior response rates have been demonstrated with combined PD-1/CTLA-4 blockade, with a significant OS benefit compared with single-agent PD-1 blockade. Despite the progress in diagnosis of melanocytic lesions, correct classification of patients, selection of appropriate adjuvant and systemic therapies, and prediction of response to therapy remain real challenges in melanoma. Improved understanding of the tumor microenvironment, tumor immunity and response to therapy has prompted extensive translational and clinical research in melanoma. Development of novel biomarker platforms may help to improve diagnostics and predictive accuracy for selection of patients for specific treatment. There is a growing evidence that genomic and immune features of pre-treatment tumor biopsies may correlate with response in patients with melanoma and other cancers but they have yet to be fully characterized and implemented clinically. Overall, the progress in melanoma therapeutics and translational research will help to optimize treatment regimens to overcome resistance and develop robust biomarkers to guide clinical decision-making. During the Melanoma Bridge meeting (December 3rd-5th, 2020, Italy) we reviewed the currently approved systemic and local therapies for advanced melanoma and discussed novel biomarker strategies and advances in precision medicine.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Melanoma , Humanos , Itália , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Microambiente Tumoral
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