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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 23(2): 467-475, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27752079

RESUMO

Mice lacking DIX domain containing-1 (DIXDC1), an intracellular Wnt/ß-catenin signal pathway protein, have abnormal measures of anxiety, depression and social behavior. Pyramidal neurons in these animals' brains have reduced dendritic spines and glutamatergic synapses. Treatment with lithium or a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor corrects behavioral and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in these animals. Analysis of DIXDC1 in over 9000 cases of autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia reveals higher rates of rare inherited sequence-disrupting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in these individuals compared with psychiatrically unaffected controls. Many of these SNVs alter Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activity of the neurally predominant DIXDC1 isoform; a subset that hyperactivate this pathway cause dominant neurodevelopmental effects. We propose that rare missense SNVs in DIXDC1 contribute to psychiatric pathogenesis by reducing spine and glutamatergic synapse density downstream of GSK3 in the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 21(5): 650-5, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26216301

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the leading causes of worldwide disability. Despite its significant heritability, large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of MDD have yet to identify robustly associated common variants. Although increased sample sizes are being amassed for the next wave of GWAS, few studies have as yet focused on rare genetic variants in the study of MDD. We sequenced the exons of 1742 synaptic genes previously identified by proteomic experiments. PLINK/SEQ was used to perform single variant, gene burden and gene set analyses. The GeneMANIA interaction database was used to identify protein-protein interaction-based networks. Cases were selected from a familial collection of early-onset, recurrent depression and were compared with screened controls. After extensive quality control, we analyzed 259 cases with familial, early-onset MDD and 334 controls. The distribution of association test statistics for the single variant and gene burden analyses were consistent with the null hypothesis. However, analysis of prioritized gene sets showed a significant association with damaging singleton variants in a Cav2-adaptor gene set (odds ratio=2.6; P=0.0008) that survived correction for all gene sets and annotation categories tested (empirical P=0.049). In addition, we also found statistically significant evidence for an enrichment of rare variants in a protein-based network of 14 genes involved in actin polymerization and dendritic spine formation (nominal P=0.0031). In conclusion, we have identified a statistically significant gene set and gene network of rare variants that are over-represented in MDD, providing initial evidence that calcium signaling and dendrite regulation may be involved in the etiology of depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteoma/genética , Sinapses/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Proteômica/métodos
3.
Psychol Med ; 46(4): 759-70, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26526099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene-environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD. METHOD: The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them. RESULTS: PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10(-6)). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10(-4) and p = 5.12 × 10(-20), respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples. CONCLUSIONS: CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene-environment interactions in complex traits.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Herança Multifatorial , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 5: e600, 2015 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171981

RESUMO

Epigenetics may have an important role in mood stabilizer action. Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and lithium (Li) may have downstream epigenetic actions. To identify genes commonly affected by both mood stabilizers and to assess potential epigenetic mechanisms that may be involved in their mechanism of action, we administered Li (N = 12), VPA (N = 12), and normal chow (N = 12) to Brown Norway rats for 30 days. Genomic DNA and mRNA were extracted from the hippocampus. We used the mRNA to perform gene expression analysis on Affymetrix microarray chips, and for genes commonly regulated by both Li and VPA, we validated expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. To identify potential mechanisms underlying expression changes, genomic DNA was bisulfite treated for pyrosequencing of key CpG island 'shores' and promoter regions, and chromatin was prepared from both hippocampal tissue and a hippocampal-derived cell line to assess modifications of histones. For most genes, we found little evidence of DNA methylation changes in response to the medications. However, we detected histone H3 methylation and acetylation in the leptin receptor gene, Lepr, following treatment with both drugs. VPA-mediated effects on histones are well established, whereas the Li effects constitute a novel mechanism of transcriptional derepression for this drug. These data support several shared transcriptional targets of Li and VPA, and provide evidence suggesting leptin signaling as an epigenetic target of two mood stabilizers. Additional work could help clarify whether leptin signaling in the brain has a role in the therapeutic action of Li and VPA in bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Receptores para Leptina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Animais , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Transcriptoma
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(6): 735-43, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25917368

RESUMO

An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Escolaridade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Estônia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão
6.
Psychol Med ; 45(11): 2437-46, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25851411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing bipolar disorder (BP) from major depressive disorder (MDD) has important relevance for prognosis and treatment. Prior studies have identified clinical features that differ between these two diseases but have been limited by heterogeneity and lack of replication. We sought to identify depression-related features that distinguish BP from MDD in large samples with replication. METHOD: Using a large, opportunistically ascertained collection of subjects with BP and MDD we selected 34 depression-related clinical features to test across the diagnostic categories in an initial discovery dataset consisting of 1228 subjects (386 BPI, 158 BPII and 684 MDD). Features significantly associated with BP were tested in an independent sample of 1000 BPI cases and 1000 MDD cases for classifying ability in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Seven clinical features showed significant association with BPI compared with MDD: delusions, psychomotor retardation, incapacitation, greater number of mixed symptoms, greater number of episodes, shorter episode length, and a history of experiencing a high after depression treatment. ROC analyses of a model including these seven factors showed significant evidence for discrimination between BPI and MDD in an independent dataset (area under the curve = 0.83). Only two features (number of mixed symptoms, and feeling high after an antidepressant) showed an association with BPII versus MDD. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that clinical features distinguishing depression in BPI versus MDD have important classification potential for clinical practice, and should also be incorporated as 'baseline' features in the evaluation of novel diagnostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Curva ROC
8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 19(12): 1267-74, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24296977

RESUMO

A study of genome-wide gene expression in major depressive disorder (MDD) was undertaken in a large population-based sample to determine whether altered expression levels of genes and pathways could provide insights into biological mechanisms that are relevant to this disorder. Gene expression studies have the potential to detect changes that may be because of differences in common or rare genomic sequence variation, environmental factors or their interaction. We recruited a European ancestry sample of 463 individuals with recurrent MDD and 459 controls, obtained self-report and semi-structured interview data about psychiatric and medical history and other environmental variables, sequenced RNA from whole blood and genotyped a genome-wide panel of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We used analytical methods to identify MDD-related genes and pathways using all of these sources of information. In analyses of association between MDD and expression levels of 13 857 single autosomal genes, accounting for multiple technical, physiological and environmental covariates, a significant excess of low P-values was observed, but there was no significant single-gene association after genome-wide correction. Pathway-based analyses of expression data detected significant association of MDD with increased expression of genes in the interferon α/ß signaling pathway. This finding could not be explained by potentially confounding diseases and medications (including antidepressants) or by computationally estimated proportions of white blood cell types. Although cause-effect relationships cannot be determined from these data, the results support the hypothesis that altered immune signaling has a role in the pathogenesis, manifestation, and/or the persistence and progression of MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Autorrelato , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 18(3): 340-6, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22212596

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic study of top susceptibility variants from a genome-wide association (GWA) study of bipolar disorder to gain insight into the functional consequences of genetic variation influencing disease risk. We report here the results of experiments to explore the effects of these susceptibility variants on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human cerebellum samples. Among the top susceptibility variants, we identified an enrichment of cis regulatory loci on mRNA expression (eQTLs), and a significant excess of quantitative trait loci for DNA CpG methylation, hereafter referred to as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Bipolar disorder susceptibility variants that cis regulate both cerebellar expression and methylation of the same gene are a very small proportion of bipolar disorder susceptibility variants. This finding suggests that mQTLs and eQTLs provide orthogonal ways of functionally annotating genetic variation within the context of studies of pathophysiology in brain. No lymphocyte mQTL enrichment was found, suggesting that mQTL enrichment was specific to the cerebellum, in contrast to eQTLs. Separately, we found that using mQTL information to restrict the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied enhances our ability to detect a significant association. With this restriction a priori informed by the observed functional enrichment, we identified a significant association (rs12618769, P(bonferroni)<0.05) from two other GWA studies (TGen+GAIN; 2191 cases and 1434 controls) of bipolar disorder, which we replicated in an independent GWA study (WTCCC). Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of integrating functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression and DNA methylation to advance the biological understanding of bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Metilação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 2: e180, 2012 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23092984

RESUMO

Mood-incongruent psychotic features (MICP) are familial symptoms of bipolar disorder (BP) that also occur in schizophrenia (SZ), and may represent manifestations of shared etiology between the major psychoses. In this study we have analyzed three large samples of BP with imputed genome-wide association data and have performed a meta-analysis of 2196 cases with MICP and 8148 controls. We found several regions with suggestive evidence of association (P<10(-6)), although no marker met genome-wide significance criteria. The top associations were on chromosomes: 6q14.2 within the PRSS35/SNAP91 gene complex (rs1171113, P=9.67 × 10(-8)); 3p22.2 downstream of TRANK/LBA1 (rs9834970, P=9.71 × 10(-8)); and 14q24.2 in an intron of NUMB (rs2333194, P=7.03 × 10(-7)). These associations were present in all three samples, and both rs1171113 and rs2333194 were found to be overrepresented in an analysis of MICP cases compared with all other BP cases. To test the relationship of MICP with SZ, we performed polygenic analysis using the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium SZ results and found evidence of association between SZ polygenes and the presence of MICP in BP cases (meta-analysis P=0.003). In summary, our analysis of the MICP phenotype in BP has provided suggestive evidence for association of common variants in several genes expressed in the nervous system. The results of our polygenic analysis provides support for a modest degree of genetic overlap between BP with MICP and SZ, highlighting that phenotypic correlations across syndromes may be due to the influence of polygenic risk factors.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Antígenos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Monoméricas de Montagem de Clatrina/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Serina Proteases/genética
11.
Psychol Med ; 42(7): 1449-59, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22099954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is common and often associated with greater illness severity. This study investigates clinical correlates and familiality of four anxiety disorders in a large sample of bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) pedigrees. METHOD: The sample comprised 566 BP families with 1416 affected subjects and 675 MDD families with 1726 affected subjects. Clinical characteristics and familiality of panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined in BP and MDD pedigrees with multivariate modeling using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Co-morbidity between mood and anxiety disorders was associated with several markers of clinical severity, including earlier age of onset, greater number of depressive episodes and higher prevalence of attempted suicide, when compared with mood disorder without co-morbid anxiety. Familial aggregation was found with co-morbid panic and OCD in both BP and MDD pedigrees. Specific phobia showed familial aggregation in both MDD and BP families, although the findings in BP were just short of statistical significance after adjusting for other anxiety co-morbidities. We found no evidence for familiality of social phobia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that co-morbidity of MDD and BP with specific anxiety disorders (OCD, panic disorder and specific phobia) is at least partly due to familial factors, which may be of relevance to both phenotypic and genetic studies of co-morbidity.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Linhagem , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 17(4): 433-44, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21423239

RESUMO

The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. Although attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11-12 and 6q25-26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. In all, 2507 SNPs with evidence for association at P<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (P=5.07 × 10(-8)). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 (acid phosphatase 1) gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 17(8): 818-26, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21769101

RESUMO

Because of the high costs associated with ascertainment of families, most linkage studies of Bipolar I disorder (BPI) have used relatively small samples. Moreover, the genetic information content reported in most studies has been less than 0.6. Although microsatellite markers spaced every 10 cM typically extract most of the genetic information content for larger multiplex families, they can be less informative for smaller pedigrees especially for affected sib pair kindreds. For these reasons we collaborated to pool family resources and carried out higher density genotyping. Approximately 1100 pedigrees of European ancestry were initially selected for study and were genotyped by the Center for Inherited Disease Research using the Illumina Linkage Panel 12 set of 6090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Of the ~1100 families, 972 were informative for further analyses, and mean information content was 0.86 after pruning for linkage disequilibrium. The 972 kindreds include 2284 cases of BPI disorder, 498 individuals with bipolar II disorder (BPII) and 702 subjects with recurrent major depression. Three affection status models (ASMs) were considered: ASM1 (BPI and schizoaffective disorder, BP cases (SABP) only), ASM2 (ASM1 cases plus BPII) and ASM3 (ASM2 cases plus recurrent major depression). Both parametric and non-parametric linkage methods were carried out. The strongest findings occurred at 6q21 (non-parametric pairs LOD 3.4 for rs1046943 at 119 cM) and 9q21 (non-parametric pairs logarithm of odds (LOD) 3.4 for rs722642 at 78 cM) using only BPI and schizoaffective (SA), BP cases. Both results met genome-wide significant criteria, although neither was significant after correction for multiple analyses. We also inspected parametric scores for the larger multiplex families to identify possible rare susceptibility loci. In this analysis, we observed 59 parametric LODs of 2 or greater, many of which are likely to be close to maximum possible scores. Although some linkage findings may be false positives, the results could help prioritize the search for rare variants using whole exome or genome sequencing.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 16(2): 193-201, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20125088

RESUMO

A genome-wide association study was carried out in 1020 case subjects with recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (onset before age 31) and 1636 control subjects screened to exclude lifetime MDD. Subjects were genotyped with the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. After extensive quality control procedures, 671 424 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 25 068 X chromosome SNPs with minor allele frequency greater than 1% were available for analysis. An additional 1 892 186 HapMap II SNPs were analyzed based on imputed genotypic data. Single-SNP logistic regression trend tests were computed, with correction for ancestry-informative principal component scores. No genome-wide significant evidence for association was observed, assuming that nominal P<5 × 10(-8) approximates a 5% genome-wide significance threshold. The strongest evidence for association was observed on chromosome 18q22.1 (rs17077540, P=1.83 × 10(-7)) in a region that has produced some evidence for linkage to bipolar-I or -II disorder in several studies, within an mRNA detected in human brain tissue (BC053410) and approximately 75 kb upstream of DSEL. Comparing these results with those of a meta-analysis of three MDD GWAS data sets reported in a companion article, we note that among the strongest signals observed in the GenRED sample, the meta-analysis provided the greatest support (although not at a genome-wide significant level) for association of MDD to SNPs within SP4, a brain-specific transcription factor. Larger samples will be required to confirm the hypothesis of association between MDD (and particularly the recurrent early-onset subtype) and common SNPs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores Sexuais , Fator de Transcrição Sp4/genética
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 16(2): 202-15, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20038947

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) in 1221 cases from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study and 1636 screened controls. No genome-wide evidence for association was detected. We also carried out a meta-analysis of three European-ancestry MDD GWAS data sets: STAR*D, Genetics of Recurrent Early-onset Depression and the publicly available Genetic Association Information Network-MDD data set. These data sets, totaling 3957 cases and 3428 controls, were genotyped using four different platforms (Affymetrix 6.0, 5.0 and 500 K, and Perlegen). For each of 2.4 million HapMap II single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using genotyped data where available and imputed data otherwise, single-SNP association tests were carried out in each sample with correction for ancestry-informative principal components. The strongest evidence for association in the meta-analysis was observed for intronic SNPs in ATP6V1B2 (P=6.78 x 10⁻7), SP4 (P=7.68 x 10⁻7) and GRM7 (P=1.11 x 10⁻6). Additional exploratory analyses were carried out for a narrower phenotype (recurrent MDD with onset before age 31, N=2191 cases), and separately for males and females. Several of the best findings were supported primarily by evidence from narrow cases or from either males or females. On the basis of previous biological evidence, we consider GRM7 a strong MDD candidate gene. Larger samples will be required to determine whether any common SNPs are significantly associated with MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp4/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 153B(2): 549-553, 2010 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19691043

RESUMO

The Reelin gene (RELN) encodes a secretory glycoprotein critical for brain development and synaptic plasticity. Post-mortem studies have shown lower Reelin protein levels in the brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP) compared with controls. In a recent genome-wide association study of schizophrenia, the strongest association was found in a marker within RELN, although this association was seen only in women. In this study, we investigated whether genetic variation in RELN is associated with BP in a large family sample. We genotyped 75 tagSNPs and 6 coding SNPs in 1,188 individuals from 318 nuclear families, including 554 affected offspring. Quality control measures, transmission-disequilibrium tests (TDTs), and empirical simulations were performed in PLINK. We found a significant overtransmission of the C allele of rs362719 to BP offspring (OR = 1.47, P = 5.9 x 10(-4)); this withstood empirical correction for testing of multiple markers (empirical P = 0.048). In a hypothesis-driven secondary analysis, we found that the association with rs362719 was almost entirely accounted for by overtransmission of the putative risk allele to affected females (OR(Female) = 1.79, P = 8.9 x 10(-5) vs. OR(Male) = 1.12, P = 0.63). These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in RELN is associated with susceptibility to BP and, in particular, to BP in females. However, our findings should be interpreted with caution until further replication and functional assays provide convergent support.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Alelos , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 14(8): 755-63, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19488044

RESUMO

To identify bipolar disorder (BD) genetic susceptibility factors, we conducted two genome-wide association (GWA) studies: one involving a sample of individuals of European ancestry (EA; n=1001 cases; n=1033 controls), and one involving a sample of individuals of African ancestry (AA; n=345 cases; n=670 controls). For the EA sample, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the strongest statistical evidence for association included rs5907577 in an intergenic region at Xq27.1 (P=1.6 x 10(-6)) and rs10193871 in NAP5 at 2q21.2 (P=9.8 x 10(-6)). For the AA sample, SNPs with the strongest statistical evidence for association included rs2111504 in DPY19L3 at 19q13.11 (P=1.5 x 10(-6)) and rs2769605 in NTRK2 at 9q21.33 (P=4.5 x 10(-5)). We also investigated whether we could provide support for three regions previously associated with BD, and we showed that the ANK3 region replicates in our sample, along with some support for C15Orf53; other evidence implicates BD candidate genes such as SLITRK2. We also tested the hypothesis that BD susceptibility variants exhibit genetic background-dependent effects. SNPs with the strongest statistical evidence for genetic background effects included rs11208285 in ROR1 at 1p31.3 (P=1.4 x 10(-6)), rs4657247 in RGS5 at 1q23.3 (P=4.1 x 10(-6)), and rs7078071 in BTBD16 at 10q26.13 (P=4.5 x 10(-6)). This study is the first to conduct GWA of BD in individuals of AA and suggests that genetic variations that contribute to BD may vary as a function of ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 14(4): 376-80, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19114987

RESUMO

An overall burden of rare structural genomic variants has not been reported in bipolar disorder (BD), although there have been reports of cases with microduplication and microdeletion. Here, we present a genome-wide copy number variant (CNV) survey of 1001 cases and 1034 controls using the Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 SNP and CNV platform. Singleton deletions (deletions that appear only once in the dataset) more than 100 kb in length are present in 16.2% of BD cases in contrast to 12.3% of controls (permutation P=0.007). This effect was more pronounced for age at onset of mania

Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Risco
19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 14(3): 261-8, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18180755

RESUMO

The FKBP5 gene product forms part of a complex with the glucocorticoid receptor and can modulate cortisol-binding affinity. Variations in the gene have been associated with increased recurrence of depression and with rapid response to antidepressant treatment. We sought to determine whether common FKBP5 variants confer risk for bipolar disorder. We genotyped seven tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5, plus two SNPs previously associated with illness, in 317 families with 554 bipolar offspring, derived primarily from two studies. Single marker and haplotypic analyses were carried out with FBAT and EATDT employing the standard bipolar phenotype. Association analyses were also conducted using 11 disease-related variables as covariates. Under an additive genetic model, rs4713902 showed significant overtransmission of the major allele (P=0.0001), which was consistent across the two sample sets (P=0.004 and 0.006). rs7757037 showed evidence of association that was strongest under the dominant model (P=0.001). This result was consistent across the two datasets (P=0.017 and 0.019). The dominant model yielded modest evidence for association (P<0.05) for three additional markers. Covariate-based analyses suggested that genetic variation within FKBP5 may influence attempted suicide and number of depressive episodes in bipolar subjects. Our results are consistent with the well-established relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which mediates the stress response through regulation of cortisol, and mood disorders. Ongoing whole-genome association studies in bipolar disorder and major depression should further clarify the role of FKBP5 and other HPA genes in these illnesses.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Ligação a Tacrolimo/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Haplótipos , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 12(7): 630-9, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17505464

RESUMO

Despite compelling evidence that genetic factors contribute to bipolar disorder (BP), attempts to identify susceptibility genes have met with limited success. This may be due to the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. We sought to identify susceptibility loci for BP in a genome-wide linkage scan with and without clinical covariates that might reflect the underlying heterogeneity of the disorder. We genotyped 428 subjects in 98 BP families at the Center for Inherited Disease Research with 402 microsatellite markers. We first carried out a non-parametric linkage analysis with MERLIN, and then reanalyzed the data with LODPAL to incorporate clinical covariates for age at onset (AAO), psychosis and comorbid anxiety. We sought to further examine the top findings in the covariate analysis in an independent sample of 64 previously collected BP families. In the non-parametric linkage analysis, three loci were nominally significant under a narrow diagnostic model and seven other loci were nominally significant under a broader model. The top findings were on chromosomes 2q24 and 3q28. The covariate analyses yielded additional evidence for linkage on 3q28 with AAO in the primary and independent samples. Although none of the linked loci were genome-wide significant, their congruence with prior results and, for the covariate analyses, their identification in two separate samples increases the likelihood that they are true positives and deserve further investigation. These findings further demonstrate the value of considering clinical features that may reflect the underlying heterogeneity of disease in order to facilitate gene mapping.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/classificação , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Linhagem , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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