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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(7): 496-507, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350827

RESUMO

The addition of a methyl group to, typically, a cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) creates distinct DNA methylation patterns across the genome that can regulate gene expression. Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG sites has been associated with many psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and suicide. Using the SureSelectXT system, Methyl-Seq, we investigated the DNA methylation status of CpG sites throughout the genome in 50 BD individuals (23 subjects who died by suicide and 27 subjects who died from other causes) and 31 nonpsychiatric controls. We identified differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from three analyses: (a) BD subjects compared to nonpsychiatric controls (BD-NC), (b) BD subjects who died by suicide compared to nonpsychiatric controls (BDS-NC), and (c) BDS subjects compared to BD subjects who died from other causes (BDS-BDNS). One DMR from the BDS-NC analysis, located in ARHGEF38, was significantly hypomethylated (23.4%) in BDS subjects. This finding remained significant after multiple testing (PBootstrapped = 9.0 × 10-3 ), was validated using pyrosequencing, and was more significant in males. A secondary analysis utilized Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify enrichment in nominally significant DMRs. This identified an association with several pathways including axonal guidance signaling, calcium signaling, ß-adrenergic signaling, and opioid signaling. Our comprehensive study provides further support that DNA methylation alterations influence the risk for BD and suicide. However, further investigation is required to confirm these associations and identify their functional consequences.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

5.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 73(6): 323-330, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821055

RESUMO

AIM: Glucocorticoids play a major role in regulating the stress response, and an imbalance of glucocorticoids has been implicated in stress-related disorders. Within mouse models, CpGs across the genome have been shown to be differentially methylated in response to glucocorticoid treatment, and using the Infinium 27K array, it was shown that humans given synthetic glucocorticoids had DNA methylation (DNAm) changes in blood. However, further investigation of the extent to which glucocorticoids affect DNAm across a larger proportion of the genome is needed. METHODS: Buccal samples were collected before and after synthetic glucocorticoid treatment in the context of a dental procedure. This included 30 tooth extraction surgery patients who received 10 mg of dexamethasone. Genome-wide DNAm was assessed with the Infinium HumanMethylationEPIC array. RESULTS: Five CpGs showed genome-wide significant DNAm changes that were >10%. These differentially methylated CpGs were in or nearest the following genes: ZNF438, KLHDC10, miR-544 or CRABP1, DPH5, and WDFY2. Using previously published datasets of human blood gene expression changes following dexamethasone exposure, a significant proportion of genes with false-discovery-rate-adjusted significant CpGs were also differentially expressed. A pathway analysis of the genes with false-discovery-rate-adjusted significant CpGs revealed significant enrichment of olfactory transduction, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways. CONCLUSION: High-dose synthetic glucocorticoid administration in the setting of a dental procedure was significantly associated with DNAm changes within buccal samples. These findings are consistent with prior findings of an influence of glucocorticoids on DNAm in humans.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 47, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705257

RESUMO

Differential DNA methylation in the brain is associated with many psychiatric diseases, but access to brain tissues is essentially limited to postmortem samples. The use of surrogate tissues has become common in identifying methylation changes associated with psychiatric disease. In this study, we determined the extent to which peripheral tissues can be used as surrogates for DNA methylation in the brain. Blood, saliva, buccal, and live brain tissue samples from 27 patients with medically intractable epilepsy undergoing brain resection were collected (age range 5-61 years). Genome-wide methylation was assessed with the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (n = 12) and HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays (n = 21). For the EPIC methylation data averaged for each CpG across subjects, the saliva-brain correlation (r = 0.90) was higher than that for blood-brain (r = 0.86) and buccal-brain (r = 0.85) comparisons. However, within individual CpGs, blood had the highest proportion of CpGs correlated to brain at nominally significant levels (20.8%), as compared to buccal tissue (17.4%) and saliva (15.1%). For each CpG and each gene, levels of brain-peripheral tissue correlation varied widely. This indicates that to determine the most useful surrogate tissue for representing brain DNA methylation, the patterns specific to the genomic region of interest must be considered. To assist in that objective, we have developed a website, IMAGE-CpG, that allows researchers to interrogate DNA methylation levels and degree of cross-tissue correlation in user-defined locations across the genome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Affect Disord ; 243: 16-22, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large sample GWAS is needed to identify genetic factors associated with depression. This study used genome-wide genotypic and phenotypic data from the COPDGene study to identify genetic risk factors for depression. METHODS: Data were from 9716 COPDGene subjects with ≥10 pack-year history. Depression was defined as antidepressant use and/or a HADS depression subscale score ≥8. Non-Hispanic White (6576) and African-American (3140) subsets were analyzed. A GWAS pipeline identified SNPs associated with depression in each group. Network analysis software analyzed gene interactions through common biological pathways, genetic interactions, and tissue-specific gene expression. RESULTS: The mean age was 59.4 years (SD 9.0) with 46.5% female subjects. Depression was in 24.7% of the NHW group (1622) and 12.5% of the AA group (391). No SNPs had genome-wide significance. One of the top SNPs, rs12036147 (p = 1.28 × 10-6), is near CHRM3. Another SNP was near MDGA2 (rs17118176, p = 3.52 × 10-6). Top genes formed networks for synaptic transmission with a statistically significant level of more co-expression in brain than other tissues, particularly in the basal ganglia (p = 1.00 × 10-4). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included a depression definition based on antidepressant use and a limited HADS score subgroup, which could increase false negatives in depressed patients not on antidepressants. Antidepressants used for smoking cessation in non-depressed patients could lead to false positives. CONCLUSIONS: Systems biology analysis identified statistically significant pathways whereby multiple genes influence depression. The gene set pathway analysis and COPDGene data can help investigate depression in future studies.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Fumar/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia , Biologia de Sistemas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

9.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(1)2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549495

RESUMO

The International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG) created a Residency Education Committee with the purpose of identifying key genetic knowledge that should be taught in psychiatric training programs. Thirteen committee members were appointed by the ISPG Board of Directors, based on varied training, expertise, gender, and national origin. The Committee has met quarterly for the past 2 years, with periodic reports to the Board and to the members of the Society. The information summarized includes the existing literature in the field of psychiatric genetics and the output of ongoing large genomics consortia. An outline of clinically relevant areas of genetic knowledge was developed, circulated, and approved. This document was expanded and annotated with appropriate references, and the manuscript was developed. Specific information regarding the contribution of common and rare genetic variants to major psychiatric disorders and treatment response is now available. Current challenges include the following: (1) Genetic testing is recommended in the evaluation of autism and intellectual disability, but its use is limited in current clinical practice. (2) Commercial pharmacogenomic testing is widely available, but its utility has not yet been clearly established. (3) Other methods, such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing, will soon be clinically applicable. The need for informed genetic counseling in psychiatry is greater than ever before, knowledge in the field is rapidly growing, and genetic education should become an integral part of psychiatric training.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 190, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217971

RESUMO

Family and twin studies have shown a genetic component to seasonal affective disorder (SAD). A number of candidate gene studies have examined the role of variations within biologically relevant genes in SAD susceptibility, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to date. The authors aimed to identify genetic risk variants for SAD through GWAS. The authors performed a GWAS for SAD in 1380 cases and 2937 controls of European-American (EA) origin, selected from samples for GWAS of major depressive disorder and of bipolar disorder. Further bioinformatic analyses were conducted to examine additional genomic and biological evidence associated with the top GWAS signals. No susceptibility loci for SAD were identified at a genome-wide significant level. The strongest association was at an intronic variant (rs139459337) within ZBTB20 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, p = 8.4 × 10-7), which encodes a transcriptional repressor that has roles in neurogenesis and in adult brain. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis showed that the risk allele "T" of rs139459337 is associated with reduced mRNA expression of ZBTB20 in human temporal cortex (p = 0.028). Zbtb20 is required for normal murine circadian rhythm and for entrainment to a shortened day. Of the 330 human orthologs of murine genes directly repressed by Zbtb20, there were 32 associated with SAD in our sample (at p < 0.05), representing a significant enrichment of ZBTB20 targets among our SAD genetic association signals (fold = 1.93, p = 0.001). ZBTB20 is a candidate susceptibility gene for SAD, based on a convergence of genetic, genomic, and biological evidence. Further studies are necessary to confirm its role in SAD.

11.
Epigenetics ; 13(6): 627-641, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943663

RESUMO

Chronic stress resulting from prolonged exposure to negative life events increases the risk of mood and anxiety disorders. Although chronic stress can change gene expression relevant for behavior, molecular regulators of this change have not been fully determined. One process that could play a role is DNA methylation, an epigenetic process whereby a methyl group is added onto nucleotides, predominantly cytosine in the CpG context, and which can be induced by chronic stress. It is unknown to what extent chronic social defeat, a model of human social stress, influences DNA methylation patterns across the genome. Our study addressed this question by using a targeted-capture approach called Methyl-Seq to investigate DNA methylation patterns of the dentate gyrus at putative regulatory regions across the mouse genome from mice exposed to 14 days of social defeat. Findings were replicated in independent cohorts by bisulfite-pyrosequencing. Two differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified. One DMR was located at intron 9 of Drosha, and it showed reduced methylation in stressed mice. This observation replicated in one of two independent cohorts. A second DMR was identified at an intergenic region of chromosome X, and methylation in this region was increased in stressed mice. This methylation difference replicated in two independent cohorts and in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) postmortem brains. These results highlight a region not previously known to be differentially methylated by chronic social defeat stress and which may be involved in MDD.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(18): 4767-4772, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669919

RESUMO

To evaluate whether germline variants in genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the coding regions of CPB1 and other genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes and known pancreatitis susceptibility genes (PRSS1, CPA1, CTRC, and SPINK1) in a hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Variants in CPB1, CPA1 (encoding carboxypeptidase B1 and A1), and CTRC were evaluated in a second set of cases with familial pancreatic cancer and controls. More deleterious CPB1 variants, defined as having impaired protein secretion and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in transfected HEK 293T cells, were found in the hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases (5/986, 0.5%) than in controls (0/1,045, P = 0.027). Among familial pancreatic cancer cases, ER stress-inducing CPB1 variants were found in 4 of 593 (0.67%) vs. 0 of 967 additional controls (P = 0.020), with a combined prevalence in pancreatic cancer cases of 9/1,579 vs. 0/2,012 controls (P < 0.01). More ER stress-inducing CPA1 variants were also found in the combined set of hospital and familial cases with pancreatic cancer than in controls [7/1,546 vs. 1/2,012; P = 0.025; odds ratio, 9.36 (95% CI, 1.15-76.02)]. Overall, 16 (1%) of 1,579 pancreatic cancer cases had an ER stress-inducing CPA1 or CPB1 variant, compared with 1 of 2,068 controls (P < 0.00001). No other candidate genes had statistically significant differences in variant prevalence between cases and controls. Our study indicates ER stress-inducing variants in CPB1 and CPA1 are associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and implicate ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells in pancreatic cancer development.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase B , Carboxipeptidases A , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboxipeptidase B/genética , Carboxipeptidase B/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases A/genética , Carboxipeptidases A/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
13.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(2): 143-167, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243873

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD. Here, we review the mechanisms governing the regulation of BDNF expression, and discuss how disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can alter these mechanisms, and influence MDD. As negative stressors increase the likelihood of MDD, we will also discuss the impact of these stressors on BDNF expression, the cellular effect of such a change, and its impact on behavior in animal models of stress. We will also describe epigenetic processes that mediate this change in BDNF expression. Similarities in BDNF expression between animal models of stress and those in MDD will be highlighted. We will also contrast epigenetic patterns at the BDNF locus between animal models of stress, and MDD patients, and address limitations to current clinical studies. Future work should focus on validating current genetic and epigenetic findings in tightly controlled clinical studies. Regions outside of BDNF promoters should also be explored, as should other epigenetic marks, to improve identification of biomarkers for MDD.

14.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(1): 12-15, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256967

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between methylation patterns of the histone deacetylase 4 gene and eating disorders in a site previously associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N=28) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (N=19) were age-matched and sex-matched to controls (N=45). We obtained saliva-derived DNA and use bisulfite pyrosequencing to examine region-specific methylation differences between cases and controls. The region assayed includes 15 CpGs. We found no significant association between the previously implicated CpG and either AN or BN. We found that three CpGs were nominally associated with AN (P=0.02-0.03); the largest difference was a 9% hypermethylation in AN. One CpG was nominally associated with BN (P=0.04), with 4% hypomethylation. None of these results remained significant after correction for multiple testing. We did not replicate previous findings, though through expanded coverage, we identified additional CpGs that were nominally associated with eating disorders.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/enzimologia , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Bulimia Nervosa/enzimologia , Bulimia Nervosa/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/enzimologia , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
15.
Genetics ; 207(3): 883-891, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878002

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used for identifying common variants associated with complex diseases. Traditional analysis of GWAS typically examines one marker at a time, usually single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify individual variants associated with a disease. However, due to the small effect sizes of common variants, the power to detect individual risk variants is generally low. As a complementary approach to SNP-level analysis, a variety of gene-based association tests have been proposed. However, the power of existing gene-based tests is often dependent on the underlying genetic models, and it is not known a priori which test is optimal. Here we propose a combined association test (COMBAT) for genes, which incorporates strengths from existing gene-based tests and shows higher overall performance than any individual test. Our method does not require raw genotype or phenotype data, but needs only SNP-level P-values and correlations between SNPs from ancestry-matched samples. Extensive simulations showed that COMBAT has an appropriate type I error rate, maintains higher power across a wide range of genetic models, and is more robust than any individual gene-based test. We further demonstrated the superior performance of COMBAT over several other gene-based tests through reanalysis of the meta-analytic results of GWAS for bipolar disorder. Our method allows for the more powerful application of gene-based analysis to complex diseases, which will have broad use given that GWAS summary results are increasingly publicly available.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Software , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(1): 1-11, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879196

RESUMO

Suicidal behavior is a complex and devastating phenotype with a heritable component that has not been fully explained by existing common genetic variant analyses. This study represents the first large-scale DNA sequencing project designed to assess the role of rare functional genetic variation in suicidal behavior risk. To accomplish this, whole-exome sequencing data for ∼19,000 genes were generated for 387 bipolar disorder subjects with a history of suicide attempt and 631 bipolar disorder subjects with no prior suicide attempts. Rare functional variants were assessed in all exome genes as well as pathways hypothesized to contribute to suicidal behavior risk. No result survived conservative Bonferroni correction, though many suggestive findings have arisen that merit additional attention. In addition, nominal support for past associations in genes, such as BDNF, and pathways, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, was also observed. Finally, a novel pathway was identified that is driven by aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Ultimately, this investigation explores variation left largely untouched by existing efforts in suicidal behavior, providing a wealth of novel information to add to future investigations, such as meta-analyses.

17.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-13, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lithium remains the oldest and most effective treatment for mood stabilisation in bipolar disorder (BD), even though at least half of patients are only partially responsive or do not respond. This study aimed to identify biomarkers associated with lithium response in BD, based on comparing RNA sequencing information derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of lithium-responsive (LR) versus lithium non-responsive (LNR) BD patients, to assess gene expression variations that might bear on treatment outcome. METHODS: RNA sequencing was carried out on 24 LCLs from female BD patients (12 LR and 12 LNR) followed by qPCR validation in two additional independent cohorts (41 and 17 BD patients, respectively). RESULTS: Fifty-six genes showed nominal differential expression comparing LR and LNR (FC ≥ |1.3|, P ≤ 0.01). The differential expression of HDGFRP3 and ID2 was validated by qPCR in the independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: We observed higher expression levels of HDGFRP3 and ID2 in BD patients who favourably respond to lithium. Both of these genes are involved in neurogenesis, and HDGFRP3 has been suggested to be a neurotrophic factor. Additional studies in larger BD cohorts are needed to confirm the potential of HDGFRP3 and ID2 expression levels in blood cells as tentative favourable lithium response biomarkers.

18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(11): 1153-1160, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813562

RESUMO

Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. Objective: To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Design, Settings, and Participants: Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Results from a meta-analysis of MDD (9240 patients with MDD and 9519 controls) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were applied to calculate PRS at thresholds from P < .05 to P ≤ .99 in each AD GWAS data set. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between MDD PRS and AD. Results: Participants analyzed included 788 cases (548 [69.5%] men; mean [SD] age, 38.2 [10.8] years) and 522 controls (151 [28.9.%] men; age [SD], 43.9 [11.6] years) from COGA; 631 cases (333 [52.8%] men; age [SD], 35.0 [7.7] years) and 756 controls (260 [34.4%] male; age [SD] 36.1 [7.7] years) from SAGE; 2135 cases (1375 [64.4%] men; age [SD], 39.4 [11.5] years) and 350 controls (126 [36.0%] men; age [SD], 43.5 [13.9] years) from Yale-Penn; and 317 cases (295 [93.1%] men; age [SD], 59.1 [13.1] years) and 1719 controls (1545 [89.9%] men; age [SD], 64.5 [13.3] years) from NHRVS. Higher MDD PRS was associated with a significantly increased risk of AD in all samples (COGA: best P = 1.7 × 10-6, R2 = 0.026; SAGE: best P = .001, R2 = 0.01; Yale-Penn: best P = .035, R2 = 0.0018; and NHRVS: best P = .004, R2 = 0.0074), with stronger evidence for association after meta-analysis of the 4 samples (best P = 3.3 × 10-9). In analyses adjusted for MDD status in 3 AD GWAS data sets, similar patterns of association were observed (COGA: best P = 7.6 × 10-6, R2 = 0.023; Yale-Penn: best P = .08, R2 = 0.0013; and NHRVS: best P = .006, R2 = 0.0072). After recalculating MDD PRS using MDD GWAS data sets without comorbid MDD-AD cases, significant evidence was observed for an association between the MDD PRS and AD in the meta-analysis of 3 GWAS AD samples without MDD cases (best P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that shared genetic susceptibility contributes modestly to MDD and AD comorbidity. Individuals with elevated polygenic risk for MDD may also be at risk for AD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Comorbidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(9): 1182-1192, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634997

RESUMO

Precision medicine aims to predict a patient's disease risk and best therapeutic options by using that individual's genetic sequencing data. The Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) is a community experiment consisting of genotype-phenotype prediction challenges; participants build models, undergo assessment, and share key findings. For CAGI 4, three challenges involved using exome-sequencing data: Crohn's disease, bipolar disorder, and warfarin dosing. Previous CAGI challenges included prior versions of the Crohn's disease challenge. Here, we discuss the range of techniques used for phenotype prediction as well as the methods used for assessing predictive models. Additionally, we outline some of the difficulties associated with making predictions and evaluating them. The lessons learned from the exome challenges can be applied to both research and clinical efforts to improve phenotype prediction from genotype. In addition, these challenges serve as a vehicle for sharing clinical and research exome data in a secure manner with scientists who have a broad range of expertise, contributing to a collaborative effort to advance our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Fenótipo , Varfarina/farmacologia
20.
Nat Methods ; 14(7): 699-702, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530654

RESUMO

Identifying interactions between genetics and the environment (GxE) remains challenging. We have developed EAGLE, a hierarchical Bayesian model for identifying GxE interactions based on associations between environmental variables and allele-specific expression. Combining whole-blood RNA-seq with extensive environmental annotations collected from 922 human individuals, we identified 35 GxE interactions, compared with only four using standard GxE interaction testing. EAGLE provides new opportunities for researchers to identify GxE interactions using functional genomic data.


Assuntos
Alelos , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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