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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3391, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140000

RESUMO

Large-scale deep-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is now feasible and offers potential advantages for locus discovery. We perform WGS in 16,324 participants from four ancestries at mean depth >29X and analyze genotypes with four quantitative traits-plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Common variant association yields known loci except for few variants previously poorly imputed. Rare coding variant association yields known Mendelian dyslipidemia genes but rare non-coding variant association detects no signals. A high 2M-SNP LDL-C polygenic score (top 5th percentile) confers similar effect size to a monogenic mutation (~30 mg/dl higher for each); however, among those with severe hypercholesterolemia, 23% have a high polygenic score and only 2% carry a monogenic mutation. At these sample sizes and for these phenotypes, the incremental value of WGS for discovery is limited but WGS permits simultaneous assessment of monogenic and polygenic models to severe hypercholesterolemia.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2606, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973585

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a), Lp(a), is a modified low-density lipoprotein particle that contains apolipoprotein(a), encoded by LPA, and is a highly heritable, causal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases that varies in concentrations across ancestries. Here, we use deep-coverage whole genome sequencing in 8392 individuals of European and African ancestry to discover and interpret both single-nucleotide variants and copy number (CN) variation associated with Lp(a). We observe that genetic determinants between Europeans and Africans have several unique determinants. The common variant rs12740374 associated with Lp(a) cholesterol is an eQTL for SORT1 and independent of LDL cholesterol. Observed associations of aggregates of rare non-coding variants are largely explained by LPA structural variation, namely the LPA kringle IV 2 (KIV2)-CN. Finally, we find that LPA risk genotypes confer greater relative risk for incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases compared to directly measured Lp(a), and are significantly associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in African Americans.

6.
Stroke ; 49(7): 1618-1625, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hematoma volume is an important determinant of clinical outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of hematoma volume with the aim of identifying novel biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of primary brain injury in ICH. METHODS: We conducted a 2-stage (discovery and replication) case-only genome-wide association study in patients with ICH of European ancestry. We utilized the admission head computed tomography to calculate hematoma volume via semiautomated computer-assisted technique. After quality control and imputation, 7 million genetic variants were available for association testing with ICH volume, which was performed separately in lobar and nonlobar ICH cases using linear regression. Signals with P<5×10-8 were pursued in replication and tested for association with admission Glasgow coma scale and 3-month post-ICH dichotomized (0-2 versus 3-6) modified Rankin Scale using ordinal and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: The discovery phase included 394 ICH cases (228 lobar and 166 nonlobar) and identified 2 susceptibility loci: a genomic region on 22q13 encompassing PARVB (top single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9614326: ß, 1.84; SE, 0.32; P=4.4×10-8) for lobar ICH volume and an intergenic region overlying numerous copy number variants on 17p12 (top single-nucleotide polymorphism rs11655160: ß, 0.95; SE, 0.17; P=4.3×10-8) for nonlobar ICH volume. The replication included 240 ICH cases (71 lobar and 169 nonlobar) and corroborated the association for 17p12 (P=0.04; meta-analysis P=2.5×10-9; heterogeneity, P=0.16) but not for 22q13 (P=0.49). In multivariable analysis, rs11655160 was also associated with lower admission Glasgow coma scale (odds ratio, 0.17; P=0.004) and increased risk of poor 3-month modified Rankin Scale (odds ratio, 1.94; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: We identified 17p12 as a novel susceptibility risk locus for hematoma volume, clinical severity, and functional outcome in nonlobar ICH. Replication in other ethnicities and follow-up translational studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism mediating the observed association.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(12): 1563-1565, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694993

RESUMO

Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes are enriched in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. In the general population, this class of variants was associated with a decrease in years of education (YOE). This effect was stronger among highly brain-expressed genes and explained more YOE variance than pathogenic copy number variation but less than common variants. Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes influence the determinants of YOE in the general population.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Educação , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(31): 10016-24, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26146955

RESUMO

The thermodynamic stability and kinetic barriers separating protein conformations under native conditions are critical for proper protein function and for understanding dysfunction in diseases of protein conformation. Traditional methods to probe protein unfolding and folding employ denaturants and highly non-native conditions, which may destabilize intermediate species or cause irreversible aggregation, especially at the high protein concentrations typically required. Hydrogen exchange (HX) is ideal for detecting conformational behavior under native conditions without the need for denaturants, but detection by NMR is limited to small highly soluble proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS) can, in principle, greatly extend the applicability of native-state HX to larger proteins and lower concentrations. However, quantitative analysis of HXMS profiles is currently limited by experimental and theoretical challenges. Here we address both limitations, by proposing an approach based on using standards to eliminate the systematic experimental artifacts in HXMS profiles, and developing the theoretical framework to describe HX behavior across all regimes based on the Linderstrøm-Lang formalism. We demonstrate proof of principle by a practical application to native-state HX of a globular protein. The framework and the practical tools developed advance the ability of HXMS to extract thermodynamic and kinetic conformational parameters of proteins under native conditions.


Assuntos
Medição da Troca de Deutério , Microglobulina beta-2/química , Humanos , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Conformação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Termodinâmica , Microglobulina beta-2/metabolismo
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