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J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2915-2929, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196447


BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain debatable. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical outcomes with aspirin for primary prevention of CVD after the recent publication of large trials adding >45,000 individuals to the published data. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials comparing clinical outcomes with aspirin versus control for primary prevention with follow-up duration of ≥1 year were included. Efficacy outcomes included all-cause death, cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and major adverse cardiovascular events. Safety outcomes included major bleeding, intracranial bleeding, fatal bleeding, and major gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios (RRs) for outcomes were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 15 randomized controlled trials including 165,502 participants (aspirin n = 83,529, control n = 81,973) were available for analysis. Compared with control, aspirin was associated with similar all-cause death (RR: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93 to 1.01), CV death (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.00), and non-CV death (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.05), but a lower risk of nonfatal MI (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.94), TIA (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.89), and ischemic stroke (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.95). Aspirin was associated with a higher risk of major bleeding (RR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.69), intracranial bleeding (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.55), and major GI bleeding (RR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.73), with similar rates of fatal bleeding (RR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.55) compared with the control subjects. Total cancer and cancer-related deaths were similar in both groups within the follow-up period of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin for primary prevention reduces nonfatal ischemic events but significantly increases nonfatal bleeding events.

J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(17): 2166-2177, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846341


BACKGROUND: The relationship between respiratory diseases and individual cardiovascular diseases, and the impact of cardiovascular diseases on mortality in patients with respiratory disease, are unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and interstitial lung disease (ILD), and individual cardiovascular diseases, and evaluate the impact of individual cardiovascular diseases on all-cause mortality in respiratory conditions. METHODS: The authors conducted a cohort study of all patients admitted to 7 National Health Service hospitals across the North West of England, between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013, with relevant respiratory diagnoses, with age-matched and sex-matched control groups. RESULTS: A total of 31,646 COPD, 60,424 asthma, and 1,662 ILD patients were included. Control groups comprised 158,230, 302,120, and 8,310 patients, respectively (total follow-up 2,968,182 patient-years). COPD was independently associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), atrial fibrillation, and peripheral vascular disease, all of which were associated with all-cause mortality (e.g., odds ratio for the association of COPD with HF: 2.18 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.08 to 2.26]; hazard ratio for the contribution of HF to mortality in COPD: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.61 to 1.68]). Asthma was independently associated with IHD, and multiple cardiovascular diseases contributed to mortality (e.g., HF hazard ratio: 1.81 [95% CI: 1.75 to 1.87]). ILD was independently associated with IHD and HF, both of which were associated with mortality. Patients with lung disease were less likely to receive coronary revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: Lung disease is independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly IHD and HF, which contribute significantly to all-cause mortality. However, patients with lung disease are less likely to receive coronary revascularization.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872618809319, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407069


BACKGROUND:: Myocardial inflammation often complicates leptospirosis, a re-emerging global zoonosis. Leptospirosis associated myocardial dysfunction is equivocal and the pattern of cardiac involvement may not differ from that of sepsis associated myocarditis. METHODS:: We prospectively compared cardiac involvement in 113 intensive care unit patients with severe leptospirosis to 31 patients with sepsis syndrome using a comprehensive assessment comprising of clinical presentation, electrocardiography, two-dimensional echocardiography (with global longitudinal strain calculation), and cardiac biomarker evaluation. Binomial logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in leptospirosis. RESULTS:: Compared to sepsis syndrome, leptospirosis patients were younger, had higher body mass index measurements and were more likely to be smokers. Electrocardiography abnormalities were common and similar in both groups. Myocardial systolic dysfunction was common in both groups (leptospirosis: 55.86% vs sepsis syndrome: 51.61%, p=0.675) with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction (characterized by abnormal global longitudinal strain and normal left ventricular ejection fraction) being most frequent followed by isolated right ventricular systolic dysfunction, isolated left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and bi-ventricular systolic dysfunction (leptospirosis: 31.43%, 18.42%, 13.16%, 10.53%, respectively; sepsis syndrome: 22.22%, 12.00%, 12.00%, 8.00%, respectively ( p>0.05 for each comparator)). Leptospirosis patients had a trend towards greater troponin-T elevation (61.0% vs 40.0%, p=0.057). ST-segment elevation and elevated troponin were independent predictors of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in leptospirosis. CONCLUSIONS:: Cardiac involvement in leptospirosis appears to be similar to that of sepsis syndrome, with myocardial systolic dysfunction being common. As such, clinical vigilance pertaining to cardiac status is paramount in these high-risk patients.

J Thorac Dis ; 10(1): 102-105, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600032
Int J Cardiol ; 252: 117-121, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29249421


BACKGROUND: There is concern that the development of heart failure and atrial fibrillation has a detrimental influence on clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess all-cause mortality and length of hospital stay in patients with chronic and new-onset concomitant AF and HF. METHODS: Using the ACALM registry, we analysed adults hospitalised between 2000 and 2013 with AF and HF and assessed prevalence, mortality and length of hospital stay. Patients with HF and/or AF at baseline (study-entry) were compared with patients who developed new-onset disease during follow-up. RESULTS: Of 929,552 patients, 31,695 (3.4%) were in AF without HF, 20,768 (2.2%) had HF in sinus rhythm, and 10,992 (1.2%) had HF in AF. Patients with HF in AF had the greatest all-cause mortality (70.8%), followed by HF in sinus rhythm (64.1%) and AF alone (45.1%, p<0.0001). Patients that developed new-onset AF, HF or both had significantly worse mortality (58.5%, 70.7% and 74.8% respectively) compared to those already with the condition at baseline (48.5%, 63.7% and 67.2% respectively, p<0.0001). Patients with HF in AF had the longest length of hospital stay (9.41days, 95% CI 8.90-9.92), followed by HF in sinus rhythm (7.67, 95% CI 7.34-8.00) and AF alone (6.05, 95% CI 5.78-6.31). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF in AF are at a greater risk of mortality and longer hospital stay compared to patients without the combination. New-onset AF or HF is associated with significantly worse prognosis than long-standing disease.

Algoritmos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Int J Cardiol ; 207: 292-6, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26814630


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major healthcare problem contributing significantly to hospital admission stays and National Health Service (NHS) spending. Reducing length of hospital stay (LoS) in HF is paramount in reducing this burden and is influenced by factors relating to the condition, sociodemographics and comorbidities. Psychiatric comorbidities are being increasingly identified amongst HF patients but their impact on LoS has not been studied in the UK. METHODS: We investigated the impact of psychiatric comorbidities on LoS amongst 31,760 HF patients admitted to hospitals in North England between 1st January 2000 and 31st March 2013 from the ACALM (Algorithm for Comorbidities, Associations, Length of stay and Mortality) study. The ACALM protocol uses ICD-10 and OPCS-4 coding to trace HF patients, psychiatric comorbidities and demographics including LoS. RESULTS: Amongst 31,760 HF patients mean LoS in the absence of psychiatric comorbidities was 11.2days. The presence of a psychiatric comorbidity increased LoS by 3.3days. Logistic regression accounting for age, gender and ethnicity showed that LoS was significantly longer in patients suffering from depression (3.4days, p<0.001), bipolar disorder (8.8days, p<0.001) and all types of dementia (4.2days, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that psychiatric comorbidities have a significant and clinically important impact on LoS in HF patients in the UK. Clinicians should be actively aware of psychiatric conditions amongst HF patients and manage them to reduce LoS and ultimately the risk for patients and financial burden for the NHS.

Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Tempo de Internação , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Int J Neurosci ; 125(4): 256-63, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24894046


Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and acquired disability; however, there has been no comprehensive comparison of co-morbid risk factors between different stroke subtypes. The aim of this study was to compare risk factors and mortality for subdural haematoma (SDH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. We compiled a database of all patients admitted with these conditions to a large teaching hospital in Birmingham, United Kingdom during the period 2000-2007 using the International Classification of Disease (ICD) 10th revision codes. Generalised linear models were constructed to calculate relative risks (RRs) associated with co-morbidities. In total, 4804 patients were admitted with diagnoses of SDH (1004), SAH (807), ischaemic stroke (2579) and haemorrhagic stroke (414). Patients with SDH were less likely to have pneumonia (0.492, 95% CI, 0.330-0.734; p < 0.001), whereas alcohol abuse (4.21, 95% CI, 2.82-6.28; p < 0.001) was more common. In SAH, ischaemic heart disease (0.56, 95% CI, 0.40-0.79; p < 0.001) was less common. As expected, a range of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with ischaemic stroke. Epilepsy was positively associated with ischaemic stroke (1.94, 95% CI, 1.36-2.76; p < 0.001), indicating a role for targeted primary prevention in patients with epilepsy. Five-year survival was lower in ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes (41% and 40% respectively, vs. 73% in SDH and 64% in SAH; p < 0.001). These findings may guide clinical risk stratification, and improve the prognostic information given to patients.

Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia