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2.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(5): 590-598, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the acute success rate, periprocedural complications, and long-term outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) treated with second-generation 28-mm cryoballoon (CB2). BACKGROUND: PLSVC is a cardiac anomaly associated with AF. METHODS: Between July 2012 and October 2018, 8 patients from 4 German high-volume centers referred for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) demonstrated a PLSVC. PVI and ablation within the PLSVC was performed using the CB2. RESULTS: A total of 2,876 patients were treated with CB2-based PVI. Eight patients (0.28%; mean 65 ± 7 years of age, 2 paroxysmal, 6 with persistent AF, mean left atrial size of 44 ± 4 mm) presenting with PLSVC were evaluated. All patients underwent PVI, and 3 of 8 patients with documented triggered activity from PLSVC underwent PLSVC ablation with CB2. Electrical isolation of PLSVC was achieved in 2 of 3 patients. Mean procedure and fluoroscopy times were 120 ± 22 min and 32 ± 18 min, respectively. In 2 of 8 patients, major complications (right phrenic nerve palsy) occurred during right PV ablation. After 3 months, 1 of 2 patients recovered from right phrenic nerve palsy. Two patients underwent a redo procedure after AF recurrence, demonstrating PV reconnection but no triggers from PLSVC. Freedom from AF after 332 days of follow-up was 63%. CONCLUSIONS: CB2 ablation for AF in patients with PLSVC is feasible, with an increased risk for right phrenic nerve palsy. Electrical isolation of PLSVC can be achieved with the CB2 in most patients.

4.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463247

RESUMO

Background: Atrial fibrillation is common in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) and has a negative impact on the clinical outcome of patients with valvular heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the impact of pre-procedural atrial fibrillation on the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with MR undergoing transcatheter mitral valve repair by MitraClip implantation. Methods: We analysed 355 consecutive patients with and without atrial fibrillation with symptomatic, severe MR and inoperability or high surgical risk undergoing MitraClip implantation in a three-year follow-up. Results: In patients with pre-procedural atrial fibrillation undergoing MitraClip implantation, we found advanced age, higher baseline NT-pro-BNP levels, increased left atrial diameter, and higher rate of severe tricuspid regurgitation, compared to patients with sinus rhythm. In the three-year follow-up after MitraClip implantation, mortality and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCE) occur significantly more often in patients with atrial fibrillation, compared to patients without atrial fibrillation. Multivariate regression analysis confirmed atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.39, 95%-confidence interval 1.06⁻5.41, p = 0.036) as an independent predictor for three-year-mortality after MitraClip implantation. Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation is an independent predictor for long-term mortality after MitraClip implantation. We demonstrate the association of atrial fibrillation with mortality and MACCE in the long-term follow-up of patients undergoing MitraClip implantation.

5.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463267

RESUMO

Patients with inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) often suffer from severe heart failure based on impaired cardiac contractility leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) as a part of the cardiac mechanical stretch sensor was found to be an essential genetic regulator of cardiac contractility. Integrin-linked kinase localizes to z-disks and costameres in vertebrate hearts and regulates the activity of the signaling molecule protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) by controlling its phosphorylation. Despite identification of several potential drug targets in the ILK signaling pathway, pharmacological treatment strategies to restore contractile function in ILK-dependent cardiomyopathies have not been established yet. In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a valuable experimental system to model human cardiomyopathies as well as a powerful tool for the straightforward high-throughput in vivo small compound screening of therapeutically active substances. Using the ILK deficient zebrafish heart failure mutant main squeeze (msq), which shows reduced PKB phosphorylation and thereby impaired cardiac contractile force, we identified here, in an automated small compound screen, the protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and okadaic acid significantly restoring myocardial contractile function by reconstituting PKB phosphorylation in msq ILK-deficient zebrafish embryos.

7.
Heart Vessels ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302548

RESUMO

Observation of the time-to-pulmonary vein isolation (TTI) by a spiral mapping catheter has emerged as a valuable procedural parameter in cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The 1st generation spiral mapping catheter (Achieve, SMC1) has been available as an 8-polar catheter with a distal loop diameter of 15 or 20 mm. The novel spiral mapping catheter (Achieve Advance, SMC2) was designed as a true guidewire and is available, in addition to the sizes of the SMC1, as a 10-polar mapping catheter with a distal loop diameter of 25 mm. Whether these novel features of SMC2 influence procedural characteristics of Cryo-PVI in comparison to SMC1 has not been reported. In this prospective cohort study 158 patients (age 65.1 ± 12.4 years, female 39%, paroxysmal AF 60%) undergoing PVI with the 2nd generation cryoballoon were included. SMC1 was used in 57 patients (36%), whereas 101 patients (64%) underwent Cryo-PVI with the SMC2. All PVs (623/623, 100%) were isolated successfully. Mean procedure duration was 72.0 ± 18.9 min in the SMC1 group and 74.4 ± 19.1 min in the SMC2 group (p = 0.432). Mean fluoroscopy time was also not different between both study groups (SMC1 15.7 ± 6.6 min, SMC2 15.7 ± 7.3 min, p = 0.593). TTI was observed in 68.6% of pulmonary veins in the SMC1 group, whereas TTI observation rate was 82.6% in the SMC2 group (p < 0.001). Number of freezes (5.5 ± 1.5 vs. 6.5 ± 1.9; p = 0.001) and total freeze duration (14.1 ± 4.5 vs. 17.6 ± 5.6; p < 0.001) were increased in the SMC2 group. SMC2 significantly increases TTI observation rate during Cryo-PVI. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time are similar and number of freezes and total freeze duration are increased compared to PVI with SMC1 due to decreased stability and maneuverability of SMC2.

8.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 120: 42-52, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750993

RESUMO

The genetic underpinnings that orchestrate the vertebrate heart rate are not fully understood yet, but of high clinical importance, since diseases of cardiac impulse formation and propagation are common and severe human arrhythmias. To identify novel regulators of the vertebrate heart rate, we deciphered the pathogenesis of the bradycardia in the homozygous zebrafish mutant hiphop (hip) and identified a missense-mutation (N851K) in Na+/K+-ATPase α1-subunit (atp1a1a.1). N851K affects zebrafish Na+/K+-ATPase ion transport capacity, as revealed by in vitro pump current measurements. Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase in vivo indicates that hip rather acts as a hypomorph than being a null allele. Consequently, reduced Na+/K+-ATPase function leads to prolonged QT interval and refractoriness in the hip mutant heart, as shown by electrocardiogram and in vivo electrical stimulation experiments. We here demonstrate for the first time that Na+/K+-ATPase plays an essential role in heart rate regulation by prolonging myocardial repolarization.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 255: 80-84, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal freeze duration in cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is unknown. The 3rd generation cryoballoon facilitates observation of the time-to-isolation (TTI) and thereby enables individualized cryoenergy titration. To evaluate the efficacy of an individualized freeze duration we compared the clinical outcome of patients treated with a TTI-guided ablation protocol to the outcome of patients treated with a fixed ablation protocol. METHODS: We compared 100 patients treated with the 3rd generation cryoballoon applying a TTI-based protocol (TTI group) to 100 patients treated by a fixed freeze protocol (fixed group). In the fixed group a 240s freeze cycle was followed by a 240s bonus freeze after acute PV isolation. In the TTI group freeze duration was 180s if TTI was ≥30s and reduced to only 120s, if TTI was <30s. In case of a TTI >60s a 180s bonus freeze was applied. RESULTS: Freedom from atrial arrhythmia recurrence off class I/III antiarrhythmic drugs after one year was not different between the TTI group (73.6%) and the fixed group (75.7%; p=0.75). Mean procedure duration was 85.8±27.3min in the TTI group compared to 115.7±27.1min in the fixed group (p<0.001). Mean fluoroscopy time was 17.5±6.6min in the TTI group and 22.5±9.8min in the fixed group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: TTI-guided cryoenergy titration leads to reduced procedure duration and fluoroscopy time and appears to be as effective as a fixed ablation strategy. A single 2-minute freeze seems to be sufficient in case of short TTI.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Criocirurgia/instrumentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Cardiol ; 69(1): 24-29, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation is an established therapy for symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Despite the fact that incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation increases with age, patients over 75 years of age have been excluded in all major atrial fibrillation ablation trials. Pulmonary vein isolation with the cryoballoon has been shown to be equally effective compared to irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation, but patients over 75 years have also been excluded. The 2nd generation cryoballoon has shown superior efficacy compared to the 1st generation cryoballoon. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation with the 2nd generation cryoballoon for symptomatic atrial fibrillation in elderly patients over 75 years. METHODS: Patients over 75 years of age presenting with symptomatic paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to at least one class I or class III antiarrhythmic drug who underwent pulmonary vein isolation with the 2nd generation cryoballoon were included in this single-center observational study. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with a mean age of 78.3±2.7 years with paroxysmal (n=31; 77.5%) or persistent (n=9; 22.5%) atrial fibrillation were identified. All patients had a successful pulmonary vein isolation procedure with 100% of veins isolated. After a 3-month blanking period during a mean follow-up of 15.1±8.2 months there were 9 (22.5%) arrhythmia recurrences, while 31 patients (77.5%) maintained stable sinus rhythm. Freedom from arrhythmia recurrence was 86.4% at 12 months and 80.2% at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary vein isolation with the 2nd generation cryoballoon appears to be an effective treatment for symptomatic atrial fibrillation also in patients over 75 years of age.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Criocirurgia/métodos , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 47(3): 333-339, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448816

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with the cryoballoon is an established treatment for symptomatic atrial fibrillation. The second-generation cryoballoon increased efficacy in comparison to the first-generation cryoballoon. The third-generation cryoballoon was designed with a shorter distal tip to facilitate real-time recording of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. Here, we compared the rate of real-time recordings of PVI of the second- and third-generation cryoballoon. METHODS: The incidence of real-time recording of PV isolation and time to PV isolation of the first 37 patients treated with the new third-generation cryoballoon at our center were compared to the last 37 patients treated with the second-generation cryoballoon. RESULTS: One hundred forty-nine pulmonary veins (PVs) were identified in each group. All PVs were isolated successfully with the second- or third-generation cryoballoon. Real-time registration of PVI occurred in 83 PVs (55.7 %) with the second-generation cryoballoon and in 124 PVs (83.2 %) with the third-generation cryoballoon (p < 0.001). The rate of observed real-time PVI was significantly higher with the third-generation cryoballoon for each individual PV. The time-to-isolation was 44 ± 25 s with the second-generation cryoballoon vs. 42 ± 22 s with the third-generation cryoballoon (p = 0.25). In a short-term clinical follow-up, there was no significant difference in atrial arrhythmia recurrence rates between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The third-generation cryoballoon facilitates real-time recording of PV isolation with significantly higher rates of observed time-to-isolation. The time to PV isolation is not different between second- and third-generation cryoballoon.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Criocirurgia/instrumentação , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/cirurgia , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Ablação por Cateter/estatística & dados numéricos , Criocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Prevalência , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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