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1.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 522-532, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462735

RESUMO

We report assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) status and its association with outcome in rituximab-refractory follicular lymphoma (FL) in the randomized GADOLIN trial (NCT01059630). Patients received obinutuzumab (G) plus bendamustine (Benda) induction followed by G maintenance, or Benda induction alone. Patients with a clonal marker (t[14;18] translocation and/or immunoglobulin heavy or light chain rearrangement) detected at study screening were assessed for MRD at mid-induction (MI), end of induction (EOI), and every 6-24 months post-EOI/discontinuation by real-time quantitative PCR. At MI, 41/52 (79%) patients receiving G-Benda were MRD-negative vs. 17/36 (47%) patients receiving Benda alone (p = 0.0029). At EOI, 54/63 (86%) patients receiving G-Benda were MRD-negative vs. 30/55 (55%) receiving Benda alone (p = 0.0002). MRD-negative patients at EOI had improved progression-free survival (HR, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.19-0.56, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (HR, 0.39, 95% CI, 0.19-0.78, p = 0.008) vs. MRD-positive patients, and maintained their MRD-negative status for longer if they received G maintenance than if they did not. These results suggest that the addition of G to Benda-based treatment during induction can significantly contribute to the speed and depth of response, and G maintenance in MRD-negative patients potentially delays lymphoma regrowth.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 248-256, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In an update of the randomized, open-label, phase III European Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Elderly trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00209209), published in 2012, we aimed to confirm results on long-term outcome focusing on efficacy and safety of long-term use of rituximab maintenance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed MCL underwent a first random assignment between rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) induction, followed by a second random assignment in 316 responders between rituximab and interferon alfa maintenance, to be continued until progression. We compared progression-free survival from the second randomization and overall survival (OS) from the first or second randomizations. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 7.6 years, the previously described difference in OS between the induction arms persisted (median, 6.4 years after R-CHOP [n = 280] v 3.9 years after R-FC [n = 280]; P = .0054). Patients responding to R-CHOP had median progression-free survival and OS times of 5.4 and 9.8 years, respectively, when randomly assigned to rituximab (n = 87), compared with 1.9 years (P < .001) and 7.1 years (P = .0026), respectively, when randomly assigned to interferon alfa (n = 97). In 58% and 32% of patients treated with R-CHOP, rituximab maintenance was still ongoing 2 and 5 years from start of maintenance, respectively. After R-FC, rituximab maintenance was associated with an unexpectedly high cumulative incidence of death in remission (22% at 5 years). Toxicity of rituximab maintenance was low after R-CHOP (grade 3-4 leukopenia or infection < 5%) but more prominent in patients on rituximab maintenance after R-FC, in whom grade 3-4 leukopenia (up to 40%) and infections were frequent (up to 15%). CONCLUSION: The excellent results of R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance until progression for older patients with MCL persisted in a mature follow-up. Prolongation of rituximab maintenance beyond 2 years is effective and safe.

3.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 177, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to gain insight into the contribution of DNA methylation to disease progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), using 450K Illumina arrays, we determined the DNA methylation profiles in paired pre-treatment/relapse samples from 34 CLL patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy, mostly (n = 31) with the fludarabine-cyclophosphamide-rituximab (FCR) regimen. RESULTS: The extent of identified changes in CLL cells versus memory B cells from healthy donors was termed "epigenetic burden" (EB) whereas the number of changes between the pre-treatment versus the relapse sample was termed "relapse changes" (RC). Significant (p < 0.05) associations were identified between (i) high EB and short time-to-first-treatment (TTFT); and, (ii) few RCs and short time-to-relapse. Both the EB and the RC clustered in specific genomic regions and chromatin states, including regulatory regions containing binding sites of transcription factors implicated in B cell and CLL biology. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we show that DNA methylation in CLL follows different dynamics in response to chemoimmunotherapy. These epigenetic alterations were linked with specific clinical and biological features.

4.
Trials ; 20(1): 544, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large field irradiation had been standard for early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) for a long time. Although involved field radiotherapy (IF-RT) was recently favored because of the toxicity of large field irradiation, smaller irradiation fields have been accompanied with an increased risk of out-of-field recurrence. The MIR (MabThera® and Involved field Radiation) trial has shown that the combination of IF-RT at a dose of 30-40 Gy with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has led to similar efficacy compared with large field irradiation but with markedly reduced side effects. Immune modulating radiation therapy alone using low-dose radiotherapy (LDRT) of 2 × 2 Gy has been shown to be effective in FL. The GAZAI (GAZyvaro and response Adapted Involved-site Radiotherapy) trial aims to prove the efficacy of LDRT in combination with a novel anti-CD20 therapy. METHODS/DESIGN: The GAZAI trial is a non-randomized, open, non-controlled, German, multi-center phase II trial that includes patients with early-stage (I and II) nodular FL (grades 1 and 2) confirmed by central histological review. A maximum of 93 patients will be included in the trial. Patients will receive a combined approach of immunotherapy with the fully humanized anti-CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (Gazyvaro®) and involved site radiotherapy (IS-RT) with 2 × 2 Gy. The primary endpoint of the trial is the rate of metabolic complete response (CR), based on fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, after obinutuzumab and 2 × 2 Gy IS-RT in week 18. Secondary endpoints are morphologic CR rate in weeks 7 and 18 and month 6, progression-free survival, toxicity, recurrence patterns, overall survival, and quality of life. Additionally, minimal residual disease response is assessed. The risk for a potentially higher recurrence rate after LDRT will be minimized by additional salvage radiation up to the "full dose" of 40 Gy for patients who have less than a metabolic CR and morphologic partial response/CR, which will be evaluated in week 18, offering a response-adapted approach. DISCUSSION: The goal of this trial is a further reduction of the radiation dose in patients with nodal early-stage FL showing a good response to a combination of LDRT and anti-CD20 immunotherapy and a comparison with the currently published MIR trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2016-002059-89. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03341520 .

5.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2241-2253, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243313

RESUMO

Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin (IG) and T-cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangements for clonality assessment, marker identification and quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in lymphoid neoplasms has been the focus of intense research, development and application. However, standardization and validation in a scientifically controlled multicentre setting is still lacking. Therefore, IG/TR assay development and design, including bioinformatics, was performed within the EuroClonality-NGS working group and validated for MRD marker identification in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Five EuroMRD ALL reference laboratories performed IG/TR NGS in 50 diagnostic ALL samples, and compared results with those generated through routine IG/TR Sanger sequencing. A central polytarget quality control (cPT-QC) was used to monitor primer performance, and a central in-tube quality control (cIT-QC) was spiked into each sample as a library-specific quality control and calibrator. NGS identified 259 (average 5.2/sample, range 0-14) clonal sequences vs. Sanger-sequencing 248 (average 5.0/sample, range 0-14). NGS primers covered possible IG/TR rearrangement types more completely compared with local multiplex PCR sets and enabled sequencing of bi-allelic rearrangements and weak PCR products. The cPT-QC showed high reproducibility across all laboratories. These validated and reproducible quality-controlled EuroClonality-NGS assays can be used for standardized NGS-based identification of IG/TR markers in lymphoid malignancies.

6.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2227-2240, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197258

RESUMO

One of the hallmarks of B lymphoid malignancies is a B cell clone characterized by a unique footprint of clonal immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangements that serves as a diagnostic marker for clonality assessment. The EuroClonality/BIOMED-2 assay is currently the gold standard for analyzing IG heavy chain (IGH) and κ light chain (IGK) gene rearrangements of suspected B cell lymphomas. Here, the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group presents a multicentre technical feasibility study of a novel approach involving next-generation sequencing (NGS) of IGH and IGK loci rearrangements that is highly suitable for detecting IG gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. By employing gene-specific primers for IGH and IGK amplifying smaller amplicon sizes in combination with deep sequencing technology, this NGS-based IG clonality analysis showed robust performance, even in DNA samples of suboptimal DNA integrity, and a high clinical sensitivity for the detection of clonal rearrangements. Bioinformatics analyses of the high-throughput sequencing data with ARResT/Interrogate, a platform developed within the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group, allowed accurate identification of clonotypes in both polyclonal cell populations and monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders. This multicentre feasibility study is an important step towards implementation of NGS-based clonality assessment in clinical practice, which will eventually improve lymphoma diagnostics.

7.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2254-2265, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227779

RESUMO

Assessment of clonality, marker identification and measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) of immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangements in lymphoid neoplasms using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently under intensive development for use in clinical diagnostics. So far, however, there is a lack of suitable quality control (QC) options with regard to standardisation and quality metrics to ensure robust clinical application of such approaches. The EuroClonality-NGS Working Group has therefore established two types of QCs to accompany the NGS-based IG/TR assays. First, a central polytarget QC (cPT-QC) is used to monitor the primer performance of each of the EuroClonality multiplex NGS assays; second, a standardised human cell line-based DNA control is spiked into each patient DNA sample to work as a central in-tube QC and calibrator for MRD quantification (cIT-QC). Having integrated those two reference standards in the ARResT/Interrogate bioinformatic platform, EuroClonality-NGS provides a complete protocol for standardised IG/TR gene rearrangement analysis by NGS with high reproducibility, accuracy and precision for valid marker identification and quantification in diagnostics of lymphoid malignancies.

8.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 27, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germinal center-derived B cell lymphomas are tumors of the lymphoid tissues representing one of the most heterogeneous malignancies. Here we characterize the variety of transcriptomic phenotypes of this disease based on 873 biopsy specimens collected in the German Cancer Aid MMML (Molecular Mechanisms in Malignant Lymphoma) consortium. They include diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), Burkitt's lymphoma, mixed FL/DLBCL lymphomas, primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, IRF4-rearranged large cell lymphoma, MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma with chr. 11q aberration and mantle cell lymphoma. METHODS: We apply self-organizing map (SOM) machine learning to microarray-derived expression data to generate a holistic view on the transcriptome landscape of lymphomas, to describe the multidimensional nature of gene regulation and to pursue a modular view on co-expression. Expression data were complemented by pathological, genetic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: We present a transcriptome map of B cell lymphomas that allows visual comparison between the SOM portraits of different lymphoma strata and individual cases. It decomposes into one dozen modules of co-expressed genes related to different functional categories, to genetic defects and to the pathogenesis of lymphomas. On a molecular level, this disease rather forms a continuum of expression states than clearly separated phenotypes. We introduced the concept of combinatorial pattern types (PATs) that stratifies the lymphomas into nine PAT groups and, on a coarser level, into five prominent cancer hallmark types with proliferation, inflammation and stroma signatures. Inflammation signatures in combination with healthy B cell and tonsil characteristics associate with better overall survival rates, while proliferation in combination with inflammation and plasma cell characteristics worsens it. A phenotypic similarity tree is presented that reveals possible progression paths along the transcriptional dimensions. Our analysis provided a novel look on the transition range between FL and DLBCL, on DLBCL with poor prognosis showing expression patterns resembling that of Burkitt's lymphoma and particularly on 'double-hit' MYC and BCL2 transformed lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome map provides a tool that aggregates, refines and visualizes the data collected in the MMML study and interprets them in the light of previous knowledge to provide orientation and support in current and future studies on lymphomas and on other cancer entities.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
Cancer Res ; 79(12): 3125-3138, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000522

RESUMO

Oncogenic MYC activation promotes proliferation in Burkitt lymphoma, but also induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis mediated by p53, a tumor suppressor that is mutated in 40% of Burkitt lymphoma cases. To identify molecular dependencies in Burkitt lymphoma, we performed RNAi-based, loss-of-function screening in eight Burkitt lymphoma cell lines and integrated non-Burkitt lymphoma RNAi screens and genetic data. We identified 76 genes essential to Burkitt lymphoma, including genes associated with hematopoietic cell differentiation (FLI1, BCL11A) or B-cell development and activation (PAX5, CDKN1B, JAK2, CARD11) and found a number of context-specific dependencies including oncogene addiction in cell lines with TCF3/ID3 or MYD88 mutation. The strongest genotype-phenotype association was seen for TP53. MDM4, a negative regulator of TP53, was essential in TP53 wild-type (TP53wt) Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. MDM4 knockdown activated p53, induced cell-cycle arrest, and decreased tumor growth in a xenograft model in a p53-dependent manner. Small molecule inhibition of the MDM4-p53 interaction was effective only in TP53wt Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, primary TP53wt Burkitt lymphoma samples frequently acquired gains of chromosome 1q, which includes the MDM4 locus, and showed elevated MDM4 mRNA levels. 1q gain was associated with TP53wt across 789 cancer cell lines and MDM4 was essential in the TP53wt-context in 216 cell lines representing 19 cancer entities from the Achilles Project. Our findings highlight the critical role of p53 as a tumor suppressor in Burkitt lymphoma and identify MDM4 as a functional target of 1q gain in a wide range of cancers that is therapeutically targetable. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting MDM4 to alleviate degradation of p53 can be exploited therapeutically across Burkitt lymphoma and other cancers with wild-type p53 harboring 1q gain, the most frequent copy number alteration in cancer.

10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(6): 1645-1650, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommends quantification of BCR-ABL1 transcripts by real-time quantitative PCR every 3 months during TKI treatment. Since a proportion of patients in deep molecular response (DMR: MR4, MR4.5, MR5) maintain remission after treatment stop, assessment of DMR is crucial. However, systematically collected molecular data, monitored with sensitive standardized assays, are not available outside clinical trials. METHODS: Data were collected on the standardized assessment of molecular response in the context of real-life practice. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels after > 2 years of TKI therapy were evaluated for DMR by local laboratories as well as standardized EUTOS laboratories. Since standardized molecular monitoring is a prerequisite for treatment discontinuation, central surveillance of the performance of the participating laboratories was carried out. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 3377 peripheral blood samples from 1117 CML patients were shipped to 11 standardized reference laboratories in six European countries. BCR-ABL1 transcript types were b3a2 (41.63%), b2a2 (29.99%), b2a2/b3a2 (3.58%) and atypical (0.54%). For 23.72% of the patients, the initial transcript type had not been reported. Response levels (EUTOS laboratory) were: no MMR, n = 197 (6.51%); MMR, n = 496 (16.40%); MR4, n = 685 (22.64%); MR4.5, n = 937 (30.98%); MR5, n = 710 (23.47%). With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.708, a substantial agreement between EUTOS-certified and local laboratories was shown. CONCLUSIONS: Multicenter DMR assessment is feasible in the context of real-life clinical practice in Europe. Information on the BCR-ABL1 transcript type at diagnosis is crucial to accurately monitor patients' molecular response during or after TKI therapy.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Laboratórios/normas , Laboratórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide de Fase Crônica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
11.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(6): 544-557, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Long-term impact of stage-adapted field reduction in a large cohort of gastric marginal zone lymphoma (gMZL) patients treated conservatively with curative radiation therapy (RT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective analysis of paper records of 290 patients with stage IE-IIE gMZL, treated in 78 radiotherapeutic institutions in Germany from 1992-2013. Stage-adapted radiation fields decreased from extended field (EF) to involved field (IF) over the course of three consecutive prospective trials of the German Study Group on Gastrointestinal Lymphoma (DSGL). Treatment results were compared between the three cohorts. RESULTS: Overall collective with median age of 60 years, slight male predominance (m:f = 1.1:1) and ratio of disease stage I:stage II = 2.1:1. Median follow-up 6.4 years in total: 13.0 years in the first gastrointestinal study (GIT 1992), 8.2 years in the second (GIT 1996) and 4.7 years in the third study (DSGL 01/2003). Stage-adapted radiation field decrease together with further technological development led to reduced relative frequencies of acute/chronic adverse effects and until now was accompanied by lower disease recurrence. The third study design with smallest field size (IF in stage I, locoregional EF in stage II) achieved the best survival outcome at the 5­year follow-up (overall survival 92.7%, event-free survival 89.5% and lymphoma-specific survival 100.0%). Disease relapse observed in 10 patients. Cumulative incidence of disease-specific death was 1.7% of the followed patients. Primary disease stage associated with lymphoma-specific survival. CONCLUSION: Stage-adapted reduction towards IF in gMZL resulted in favorable adverse effects, local control and survival rates. These results support further decreases in modern RT of gMZL.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/radioterapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/radioterapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1956: 199-228, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779036

RESUMO

Minimal residual disease (MRD) diagnostics is of high clinical relevance in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and serves as a surrogate parameter to evaluate treatment effectiveness and long-term prognosis. MRD diagnostics performed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) is still the gold standard and currently the most sensitive and the most broadly applied method in follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Alternatively, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for MRD monitoring in multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma with comparable sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility.The most broadly applicable MRD target in B-NHL is the junctional regions of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGHV). Chromosomal translocations like the t(14;18) translocation in FL and t(11;14) translocation in MCL can be used as MRD target in selected lymphoma subtypes. In patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, both flow-cytometry and RQ-PCR are equally suited for MRD assessment as long as a sensitivity of 10-4 shall be achieved.MRD diagnostics targeting the IGHV gene is complex and requires extensive knowledge and experience because the junctional regions of each lymphoma have to be identified before the patient-specific RQ-PCR assays can be designed for MRD monitoring. In addition, the presence and load of somatic hypermutation (SHM) within the rearranged IG heavy variable (IGHV) gene occurring as during B-cell development of germinal center and post-germinal center lymphomas may hamper appropriate primer binding leading to false-negative results. The translocations mentioned above have the advantage that consensus forward primers and probes, both placed in the breakpoint regions of chromosome 18 in FL and chromosome 11 in MCL, can be used in combination with a reverse primer placed in the IGH joining region of chromosome 14. RQ-PCR-based methods can reach a good sensitivity (≤10-4). This chapter provides all relevant background information and technical aspects for the complete laboratory process from detection of the clonal IGHV gene rearrangement and the chromosomal translocations at diagnosis to the actual MRD measurements in clinical follow-up samples of B-NHL. However, it should be noted that MRD diagnostics for clinical treatment protocols has to be accompanied by regular international quality control rounds to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of the MRD results.


Assuntos
Rearranjo Gênico , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Translocação Genética , DNA/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/métodos , Humanos , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico
13.
Int J Cancer ; 144(11): 2695-2706, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447004

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) stereotyped subsets #6 and #8 include cases expressing unmutated B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) (U-CLL). Subset #6 (IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20) is less aggressive compared to subset #8 (IGHV4-39/IGKV1(D)-39) which has the highest risk for Richter's transformation among all CLL. The underlying reasons for this divergent clinical behavior are not fully elucidated. To gain insight into this issue, here we focused on epigenomic signatures and their links with gene expression, particularly investigating genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in subsets #6 and #8 as well as other U-CLL cases not expressing stereotyped BcR IG. We found that subset #8 showed a distinctive DNA methylation profile compared to all other U-CLL cases, including subset #6. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression revealed significant correlation for several genes, particularly highlighting a relevant role for the TP63 gene which was hypomethylated and overexpressed in subset #8. This observation was validated by quantitative PCR, which also revealed TP63 mRNA overexpression in additional nonsubset U-CLL cases. BcR stimulation had distinct effects on p63 protein expression, particularly leading to induction in subset #8, accompanied by increased CLL cell survival. This pro-survival effect was also supported by siRNA-mediated downregulation of p63 expression resulting in increased apoptosis. In conclusion, we report that DNA methylation profiles may vary even among CLL patients with similar somatic hypermutation status, supporting a compartmentalized approach to dissecting CLL biology. Furthermore, we highlight p63 as a novel prosurvival factor in CLL, thus identifying another piece of the complex puzzle of clinical aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Apoptose/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/sangue , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Nat Med ; 25(1): 119-129, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455436

RESUMO

Ibrutinib plus venetoclax is a highly effective combination in mantle cell lymphoma. However, strategies to enable the evaluation of therapeutic response are required. Our prospective analyses of patients within the AIM study revealed genomic profiles that clearly dichotomized responders and nonresponders. Mutations in ATM were present in most patients who achieved a complete response, while chromosome 9p21.1-p24.3 loss and/or mutations in components of the SWI-SNF chromatin-remodeling complex were present in all patients with primary resistance and two-thirds of patients with relapsed disease. Circulating tumor DNA analysis revealed that these alterations could be dynamically monitored, providing concurrent information on treatment response and tumor evolution. Functional modeling demonstrated that compromise of the SWI-SNF complex facilitated transcriptional upregulation of BCL2L1 (Bcl-xL) providing a selective advantage against ibrutinib plus venetoclax. Together these data highlight important insights into the molecular basis of therapeutic response and provide a model for real-time assessment of innovative targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Mutação/genética , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
15.
Leukemia ; 33(1): 148-158, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955130

RESUMO

The predominant usage of VH4-34 and V3-21 and reports of stereotyped CDR3s suggest a shared antigenic target of B-cell receptors (BCR) from mantle cell lymphomas (MCL). To identify the target antigens of MCL-BCRs, BCRs from 21 patients and seven MCL cell lines were recombinantly expressed and used for antigen screening. The BCRs from 8/21 patients and 2/7 MCL cell lines reacted specifically with the autoantigen low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-associated protein 1 (LRPAP1). High-titered and light chain-restricted anti-LRPAP1 serum antibodies were found in MCL patients, but not in controls. LRPAP1 induced proliferation by BCR pathway activation, while an LRPAP1-ETA' toxin-conjugate specifically killed MCL cells with LRPAP1-specific BCRs. Our results suggest a role of LRPAP1 in lymphomagenesis and maintenance of a considerable proportion of MCL cases by chronic autoantigenic stimulation, likely evolving from a chronic autoreactive B-cell response. Importantly, LRPAP1 can be used for a novel therapeutic approach that targets MCL with LRPAP1-reactive BCRs with high specificity.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteína Associada a Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/imunologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Proteína Associada a Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
16.
N Engl J Med ; 378(13): 1211-1223, 2018 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib and the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax are active as monotherapy in the treatment of mantle-cell lymphoma. Complete response rates of 21% have been observed for each agent when administered as long-term continuous therapy. Preclinical models predict synergy in combination. METHODS: We conducted a single-group, phase 2 study of daily oral ibrutinib and venetoclax in patients, as compared with historical controls. Patients commenced ibrutinib monotherapy at a dose of 560 mg per day. After 4 weeks, venetoclax was added in stepwise, weekly increasing doses to 400 mg per day. Both drugs were continued until progression or an unacceptable level of adverse events. The primary end point was the rate of complete response at week 16. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed by flow cytometry in bone marrow and by allele-specific oligonucleotide-polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) in blood. RESULTS: The study included 24 patients with relapsed or refractory mantle-cell lymphoma (23 patients) or previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma (1 patient). Patients were 47 to 81 years of age, and the number of previous treatments ranged from none to six. Half the patients had aberrations of TP53, and 75% had a high-risk prognostic score. The complete response rate according to computed tomography at week 16 was 42%, which was higher than the historical result of 9% at this time point with ibrutinib monotherapy (P<0.001). The rate of complete response as assessed by positron-emission tomography was 62% at week 16 and 71% overall. MRD clearance was confirmed by flow cytometry in 67% of the patients and by ASO-PCR in 38%. In a time-to-event analysis, 78% of the patients with a response were estimated to have an ongoing response at 15 months. The tumor lysis syndrome occurred in 2 patients. Common side effects were generally low grade and included diarrhea (in 83% of the patients), fatigue (in 75%), and nausea or vomiting (in 71%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving historical controls, dual targeting of BTK and BCL2 with ibrutinib and venetoclax was consistent with improved outcomes in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma who had been predicted to have poor outcomes with current therapy. (Funded by Janssen and others; AIM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02471391 .).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Exame de Medula Óssea , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasia Residual , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Hemasphere ; 2(6): e160, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723798

RESUMO

The MabThera and Involved field Radiotherapy study investigated efficacy and safety of involved field (IF) radiotherapy in combination with the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab for early-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) in a prospective, single-arm multicenter phase 2 design. Eighty-five stage I-II FL patients received 8 cycles of Rituximab (375 mg/m2) and IF irradiation (30/40 Gy). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) 2 years from treatment start. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), complete response rates, toxicity, quality of life, and minimal residual disease (MRD) response with protocol defined visits up to month 30. For the primary endpoint, PFS at 2 years was 85% for the intention-to-treat set. Long-term data were captured in selected sites and evaluated as post hoc analysis in the per protocol (PP) set: PFS and OS were 78% and 96% at 5 years with a median follow-up of 66 or 78 months, respectively. There were 17/76 recurrences in the PP set, of which 14 were outside the radiation volume only. MRD analyses revealed a clonal marker in 36% of patients at diagnosis. All but 1 marker positive patients experienced a molecular treatment response. There were 13 serious adverse events (4 related to the therapy) during the first 30 months. IF radiotherapy combined with Rituximab is well tolerated and highly efficient with low rates of recurrence in the first years in early-stage FL. The efficacy is comparable with more aggressive therapy approaches without compromising the quality of life and maintains for an extended follow-up of more than 5 years.

18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(17): 5292-5301, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28536306

RESUMO

Purpose: We sought to investigate whether B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) stereotypy is associated with particular clinicobiological features among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients expressing mutated BcR IG (M-CLL) encoded by the IGHV4-34 gene, and also ascertain whether these associations could refine prognostication.Experimental Design: In a series of 19,907 CLL cases with available immunogenetic information, we identified 339 IGHV4-34-expressing cases assigned to one of the four largest stereotyped M-CLL subsets, namely subsets #4, #16, #29 and #201, and investigated in detail their clinicobiological characteristics and disease outcomes.Results: We identified shared and subset-specific patterns of somatic hypermutation (SHM) among patients assigned to these subsets. The greatest similarity was observed between subsets #4 and #16, both including IgG-switched cases (IgG-CLL). In contrast, the least similarity was detected between subsets #16 and #201, the latter concerning IgM/D-expressing CLL. Significant differences between subsets also involved disease stage at diagnosis and the presence of specific genomic aberrations. IgG subsets #4 and #16 emerged as particularly indolent with a significantly (P < 0.05) longer time-to-first-treatment (TTFT; median TTFT: not yet reached) compared with the IgM/D subsets #29 and #201 (median TTFT: 11 and 12 years, respectively).Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that BcR IG stereotypy further refines prognostication in CLL, superseding the immunogenetic distinction based solely on SHM load. In addition, the observed distinct genetic aberration landscapes and clinical heterogeneity suggest that not all M-CLL cases are equal, prompting further research into the underlying biological background with the ultimate aim of tailored patient management. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5292-301. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenética , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Masculino
19.
J Immunol ; 198(10): 3765-3774, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416603

RESUMO

Analysis and interpretation of Ig and TCR gene rearrangements in the conventional, low-throughput way have their limitations in terms of resolution, coverage, and biases. With the advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, a deeper analysis of Ig and/or TCR (IG/TR) gene rearrangements is now within reach, which impacts on all main applications of IG/TR immunogenetic analysis. To bridge the generation gap from low- to high-throughput analysis, the EuroClonality-NGS Consortium has been formed, with the main objectives to develop, standardize, and validate the entire workflow of IG/TR NGS assays for 1) clonality assessment, 2) minimal residual disease detection, and 3) repertoire analysis. This concerns the preanalytical (sample preparation, target choice), analytical (amplification, NGS), and postanalytical (immunoinformatics) phases. Here we critically discuss pitfalls and challenges of IG/TR NGS methodology and its applications in hemato-oncology and immunology.


Assuntos
Hematologia/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Imunogenética/métodos , Técnicas Imunológicas , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Rearranjo Gênico , Genes de Imunoglobulinas , Genes Codificadores dos Receptores de Linfócitos T/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Imunogenética/normas
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