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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3254, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668106

RESUMO

Carriers of germline biallelic pathogenic variants in the MUTYH gene have a high risk of colorectal cancer. We test 5649 colorectal cancers to evaluate the discriminatory potential of a tumor mutational signature specific to MUTYH for identifying biallelic carriers and classifying variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Using a tumor and matched germline targeted multi-gene panel approach, our classifier identifies all biallelic MUTYH carriers and all known non-carriers in an independent test set of 3019 colorectal cancers (accuracy = 100% (95% confidence interval 99.87-100%)). All monoallelic MUTYH carriers are classified with the non-MUTYH carriers. The classifier provides evidence for a pathogenic classification for two VUS and a benign classification for five VUS. Somatic hotspot mutations KRAS p.G12C and PIK3CA p.Q546K are associated with colorectal cancers from biallelic MUTYH carriers compared with non-carriers (p = 2 × 10-23 and p = 6 × 10-11, respectively). Here, we demonstrate the potential application of mutational signatures to tumor sequencing workflows to improve the identification of biallelic MUTYH carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , DNA Glicosilases , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação
2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide gene-environment interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the use of any MHT, estrogen-only, and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy with CRC risk, among 28,486 postmenopausal women (11,519 cases and 16,967 controls) from 38 studies, using logistic regression, two-step method, and 2- or 3-degree-of-freedom (d.f.) joint test. A set-based score test was applied for rare genetic variants. RESULTS: The use of any MHT, estrogen-only and estrogen-progestogen were associated with a reduced CRC risk [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.71 (0.64-0.78), 0.65 (0.53-0.79), and 0.73 (0.59-0.90), respectively]. The two-step method identified a statistically significant interaction between a GRIN2B variant rs117868593 and MHT use, whereby MHT-associated CRC risk was significantly reduced in women with the GG genotype [0.68 (0.64-0.72)] but not within strata of GC or CC genotypes. A statistically significant interaction between a DCBLD1 intronic variant at 6q22.1 (rs10782186) and MHT use was identified by the 2-d.f. joint test. The MHT-associated CRC risk was reduced with increasing number of rs10782186-C alleles, showing ORs of 0.78 (0.70-0.87) for TT, 0.68 (0.63-0.73) for TC, and 0.66 (0.60-0.74) for CC genotypes. In addition, five genes in rare variant analysis showed suggestive interactions with MHT (two-sided P < 1.2x10-4). CONCLUSION: Genetic variants that modify the association between MHT and CRC risk were identified, offering new insights into pathways of CRC carcinogenesis and potential mechanisms involved.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 151(3): 348-360, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383926

RESUMO

Diabetes is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. However, colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease and it is not well understood whether diabetes is more strongly associated with some tumor molecular subtypes than others. A better understanding of the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes could provide important insights into the biology of this association. We used data on lifestyle and clinical characteristics from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), including 9756 colorectal cancer cases (with tumor marker data) and 9985 controls, to evaluate associations between reported diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer according to molecular subtypes. Tumor markers included BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype. In the multinomial logistic regression model, comparing colorectal cancer cases to cancer-free controls, diabetes was positively associated with colorectal cancer regardless of subtype. The highest OR estimate was found for BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer, n = 1086 (ORfully adj : 1.67, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.36-2.05), with an attenuated association observed between diabetes and colorectal cancer without BRAF-mutations, n = 7959 (ORfully adj : 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48). In the case only analysis, BRAF-mutation was differentially associated with diabetes (Pdifference  = .03). For the other markers, associations with diabetes were similar across tumor subtypes. In conclusion, our study confirms the established association between diabetes and colorectal cancer risk, and suggests that it particularly increases the risk of BRAF-mutated tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
4.
Thyroid ; 32(3): 306-314, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915752

RESUMO

Background: Although previous meta-analyses have suggested a dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and thyroid cancer risk, limited evidence has been presented about Asian populations. To assess this association among Asian populations, where underweight is more prevalent than in other regions, a pooled analysis from the Asia Cohort Consortium was conducted. Methods: Baseline height and weight were measured in five cohorts and self-reported in eight cohorts. Thyroid cancer incidence was ascertained by linkage to local cancer registries. Cohorts were treated as a stratum in the Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) from the estimates for each cohort. All analyses were stratified by sex. Results: A total of 538,857 men and women from 13 cohorts from mainland China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore were included in the analysis. During a mean of 15.1 years of follow-up, 1132 thyroid cancer cases were ascertained. Using a BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 as a reference, an elevated risk of thyroid cancer was observed for groups with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 (HR: 1.31, [CI: 0.95-1.80]) and a BMI of 30 kg/m2 and greater (HR: 1.84, [CI: 0.89-3.81]) in men. Thyroid cancer risk was elevated in women with a BMI of 23-24.9 kg/m2 (HR: 1.26, [CI: 1.07-1.48]). The HRs for 5-U increment of BMI showed a linear association among men (HR: 1.25, [CI 1.10-1.55]) but not among women (HR: 1.07, [CI: 0.97-1.18]). Although the overall thyroid cancer risk was lower among underweight men and women, the papillary cancer risk may be elevated among underweight men (HR: 2.24, [CI: 0.75-6.66]). Conclusion: While higher BMI is associated with an elevated risk of thyroid cancer in both men and women, the association of underweight BMI may differ by sex and histological subtype.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Ásia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that consuming coffee may lower the risk of death, but evidence regarding tea consumption in Asians is limited. We examined the association between coffee and tea consumption and mortality in Asian populations. METHODS: We used data from 12 prospective cohort studies including 248 050 men and 280 454 women from the Asia Cohort Consortium conducted in China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. We estimated the study-specific association of coffee, green tea and black tea consumption with mortality using Cox proportional-hazards regression models and the pooled study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 94 744 deaths were identified during the follow-up, which ranged from an average of 6.5 to 22.7 years. Compared with coffee non-drinkers, men and women who drank at least five cups of coffee per day had a 24% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%, 29%] and a 28% (95% CI 19%, 37%) lower risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Similarly, we found inverse associations for coffee consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among both men and women. Green tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality from all causes, CVD and other causes but not from cancer. The association of drinking green tea with CVD-specific mortality was particularly strong, with HRs (95% CIs) of 0.79 (0.68, 0.91) for men and 0.78 (0.68, 0.90) for women who drank at least five cups per day of green tea compared with non-drinkers. The association between black tea consumption and mortality was weak, with no clear trends noted across the categories of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian populations, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death overall and with lower risks of death from CVD and cancer. Green tea consumption is associated with lower risks of death from all causes and CVD.

7.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 16: 100265, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to increase participation in cervical-cancer screening. In Aotearoa New Zealand, there are long-standing ethnic inequalities in cervical-cancer screening, incidence, and mortality, particularly for indigenous Maori women, as well as Pacific and Asian women. METHODS: We invited never- and markedly under-screened (≥5 years overdue) 30-69-year-old Maori, Pacific, and Asian women to participate in an open-label, three-arm, community-based, randomised controlled trial, with a nested sub-study. We aimed to assess whether two specific invitation methods for self-sampling improved screening participation over usual care among the least medically served populations. Women were individually randomised 3:3:1 to: clinic-based self-sampling (CLINIC - invited to take a self-sample at their usual general practice); home-based self-sampling (HOME - mailed a kit and invited to take a self-sample at home); and usual care (USUAL - invited to attend a clinic for collection of a standard cytology sample). Neither participants nor research staff could be blinded to the intervention. In a subset of general practices, women who did not participate within three months of invitation were opportunistically invited to take a self-sample, either next time they attended a clinic or by mail. FINDINGS: We randomised 3,553 women: 1,574 to CLINIC, 1,467 to HOME, and 512 to USUAL. Participation was highest in HOME (14.6% among Maori, 8.8% among Pacific, and 18.5% among Asian) with CLINIC (7.0%, 5.3% and 6.9%, respectively) and USUAL (2.0%, 1.7% and 4.5%, respectively) being lower. In fully adjusted models, participation was statistically significantly more likely in HOME than USUAL: Maori OR=9.7, (95%CI 3.0-31.5); Pacific OR=6.0 (1.8-19.5); and Asian OR=5.1 (2.4-10.9). There were no adverse outcomes reported. After three months, 2,780 non-responding women were invited to participate in a non-randomised, opportunistic, follow-on substudy. After 6 months,192 (6.9%) additional women had taken a self-sample. INTERPRETATION: Using recruitment methods that mimic usual practice, we provide critical evidence that self-sampling increases screening among the groups of women (never and under-screened) who experience the most barriers in Aotearoa New Zealand, although the absolute level of participation through this population approach was modest. Follow-up for most women was routine but a small proportion required intensive support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12618000367246 (date registered 12/3/2018) https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371741&isReview=true; UTN: U1111-1189-0531. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC 16/405). PROTOCOL: http://publichealth.massey.ac.nz/assets/Uploads/Study-protocol-V2.1Self-sampling-for-HPV-screening-a-community-trial.pdf.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122837, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477853

RESUMO

Importance: The association between long sleep duration and mortality appears stronger in East Asian populations than in North American or European populations. Objectives: To assess the sex-specific association between sleep duration and all-cause and major-cause mortality in a pooled longitudinal cohort and to stratify the association by age and body mass index. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study of individual-level data from 9 cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2002. The final population included participants from Japan, China, Singapore, and Korea. Mean (SD) follow-up time was 14.0 (5.0) years for men and 13.4 (5.3) years for women. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2018, to May 31, 2021. Exposures: Self-reported sleep duration, with 7 hours as the reference category. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, including deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression with shared frailty models adjusted for age and the key self-reported covariates of marital status, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of diabetes and hypertension, and menopausal status (for women). Results: For 322 721 participants (mean [SD] age, 54.5 [9.2] years; 178 542 [55.3%] female), 19 419 deaths occurred among men (mean [SD] age of men, 53.6 [9.0] years) and 13 768 deaths among women (mean [SD] age of women, 55.3 [9.2] years). A sleep duration of 7 hours was the nadir for associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and other-cause mortality in both men and women, whereas 8 hours was the mode sleep duration among men and the second most common sleep duration among women. The association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was J-shaped for both men and women. The greatest association for all-cause mortality was with sleep durations of 10 hours or longer for both men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.26-1.44) and women (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.36-1.61). Sex was a significant modifier of the association between sleep duration and mortality from cardiovascular disease (χ25 = 13.47, P = .02), cancer (χ25 = 16.04, P = .007), and other causes (χ25 = 12.79, P = .03). Age was a significant modifier of the associations among men only (all-cause mortality: χ25 = 41.49, P < .001; cancer: χ25 = 27.94, P < .001; other-cause mortality: χ25 = 24.51, P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that sleep duration is a behavioral risk factor for mortality in both men and women. Age was a modifier of the association between sleep duration in men but not in women. Sleep duration recommendations in these populations may need to be considered in the context of sex and age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Sono , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Causas de Morte , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais , Singapura
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(7): 1336-1348, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies evaluating associations between sex steroid hormones and colorectal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. To elucidate the role of circulating levels of testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in colorectal cancer risk, we conducted observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. METHODS: The observational analyses included 333,530 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank with testosterone and SHBG measured. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. For MR analyses, genetic variants robustly associated with hormone levels were identified and their association with colorectal cancer (42,866 cases/42,752 controls) was examined using two-sample MR. RESULTS: In the observational analysis, there was little evidence that circulating levels of total testosterone were associated with colorectal cancer risk; the MR analyses showed a greater risk for women (OR per 1-SD = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17), although pleiotropy may have biased this result. Higher SHBG concentrations were associated with greater colorectal cancer risk for women (HR per 1-SD = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29), but was unsupported by the MR analysis. There was little evidence of associations between free testosterone and colorectal cancer in observational and MR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating concentrations of sex hormones are unlikely to be causally associated with colorectal cancer. Additional experimental studies are required to better understand the possible role of androgens in colorectal cancer development. IMPACT: Our results from large-scale analyses provide little evidence for sex hormone pathways playing a causal role in colorectal cancer development.See related commentary by Hang and Shen, p. 1302.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Epidemiol ; 60: 15-20, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895242

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the associations between ovarian cancer and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs), and partner vasectomy. METHODS: We undertook a New Zealand-wide population-based case-control study. During 2013-2015, 205 eligible cases were identified from the cancer registry (152 [74%] participated) and 1,735 eligible controls were randomly selected from the electoral roll (837 [48%] participated). A postal questionnaire was used to gather information. RESULTS: Ever-use of vasectomy was inversely associated with ovarian cancer in age-adjusted analysis, but not in multivariable analysis (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.96, and OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.54-1.23, respectively). A suggestive trend towards lower risk with longer duration of reliance on partner vasectomy was observed (P-trend = 0.08). Ever-use and duration of use of DMPA were not associated with ovarian cancer. Although ever-use of IUDs was not associated with ovarian cancer, duration of use of IUDs was associated with higher risk (P-trend = 0.04). There were also statistically significant inverse associations between ovarian cancer and use of oral contraceptives, parity, and breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged use of IUDs may increase the risk of ovarian cancer. It is also possible that an inverse association exists between ovarian cancer and partner vasectomy.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Vasectomia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Vasectomia/efeitos adversos
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1279-1282, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between prediagnostic antibody responses to Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer is not established. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 8,126 participants in a consortium of 10 prospective cohorts in the United States. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of any F. nucleatum antibody was observed among non-White participants (51.1%) compared with White participants (31.2%). We did not find any statistically significant association between seropositivity to any of the eight F. nucleatum proteins and colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic antibody responses to F. nucleatum proteins were not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. IMPACT: Future studies may consider a more specific detection of the immunoglobulin isotypes or focus on examining F. nucleatum in stool or tissue samples.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos
13.
Tob Control ; 30(3): 328-335, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts. METHODS: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.


Assuntos
Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 38-47, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg/m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk among 14 059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14 416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included 2-step (ie, Cocktail method) and single-step (ie, case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11 to 1.18; P = 9.75 × 10-17) than for men (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.32; P = 2.13 × 10-24). The 2-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; Pobserved = .0009; Pthreshold = .005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint P = 2.43 × 10-10). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.32; P = 2.60 × 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19; P = 1.04 × 10-8) or TT (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14; P = .02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Smad7/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143263

RESUMO

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both Helicobacter pylori (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or Streptococcus gallolyticus (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (pinteraction = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2729-2734, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies to tumor suppressor p53 are found in a subset of patients with colorectal cancer. A recent prospective study in the United States has reported a significant 1.8-fold increased odds for colorectal cancer development with prediagnostic seropositivity to p53. In this study, we sought to examine this association in a U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium to evaluate the potential utility of p53 auto-antibodies as an early biomarker for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Auto-antibodies to p53 were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 3,702 incident colorectal cancer cases and 3,702 controls, matched by age, race, and sex, from 9 U.S. prospective cohorts. The association of seropositivity to p53 with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis, was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 5% of controls and 7% of cases were seropositive to p53, resulting in a statistically significant 33% increased colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.61]. By follow-up time, the association was only significant with colorectal cancer diagnoses within 4 years after blood draw (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.19), but not thereafter (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: In this large consortium of prospective cohorts, we found that prediagnostic seropositivity to tumor suppressor p53 was significantly associated with an over 2-fold increased odds of developing colorectal cancer within 4 years after blood draw. IMPACT: Our finding suggests that p53 seropositivity may not be a useful predictor of long-term colorectal cancer risk; however, it might be considered as a marker to aid in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2084-2092, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, the main risk factor for gastric cancer, has been decreasing in the United States; however, there remains a substantial racial disparity. Moreover, the time-trends for prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, the most virulent form, are unknown in the U.S. POPULATION: We sought to assess prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection over time by race in the United States. METHODS: We utilized multiplex serology to quantify antibody responses to H. pylori antigens in 4,476 participants across five cohorts that sampled adults from 1985 to 2009. Using log-binomial regression models, we calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence and birth year by race. RESULTS: African Americans were three times more likely to be H. pylori-CagA sero-positive than Whites. After adjustment, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence was lower with increasing birth year among Whites (P trend = 0.001), but remained stable for African Americans. When stratified by sex and education separately, the decline in H. pylori-CagA sero-positivity among Whites remained only for females (P trend < 0.001) and was independent of educational attainment. Among African Americans, there was no difference by sex; furthermore, sero-prevalence increased with increasing birth year among those with a high school education or less (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals in the United States born from the 1920s to 1960s, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence has declined among Whites, but not among African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings suggest a widening racial disparity in the prevalence of the most virulent form of H. pylori, the main cause of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Fatores Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Frutas , Verduras , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1817-1824, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with colorectal cancer-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected P = 0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or colorectal cancer-specific survival in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted. IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on colorectal cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
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