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1.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143263

RESUMO

Previously, we found that risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increased in individuals with serum antibody response to both Helicobacter pylori (HP) Vacuolating Cytotoxin (VacA) toxin or Streptococcus gallolyticus (SGG) pilus protein Gallo2178. In the present analysis, we tested the hypothesis that combined seropositivity to both antigens is a better indicator of CRC risk than seropositivity to single antigens. We used multiplex serologic assays to analyze pre-diagnostic serum for antibody responses from 4063 incident CRC cases and 4063 matched controls from 10 US cohorts. To examine whether combined SGG Gallo2178 and HP VacA sero-status was associated with CRC risk, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to dual sero-negative individuals, there was no increased risk for individuals sero-positive to SGG Gallo2178 only (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.66-1.31) or to HP VacA only (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.98-1.19). However, dual sero-positive individuals had a >50% increased odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.16-2.04), suggesting an interaction between antibody responses to these two pathogens and CRC risk (pinteraction = 0.06). In conclusion, this study suggests that dual sero-positivity to HP VacA and SGG Gallo2178 is an indicator of increased risk of CRC.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2729-2734, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies to tumor suppressor p53 are found in a subset of patients with colorectal cancer. A recent prospective study in the United States has reported a significant 1.8-fold increased odds for colorectal cancer development with prediagnostic seropositivity to p53. In this study, we sought to examine this association in a U.S. colorectal cancer cohort consortium to evaluate the potential utility of p53 auto-antibodies as an early biomarker for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Auto-antibodies to p53 were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 3,702 incident colorectal cancer cases and 3,702 controls, matched by age, race, and sex, from 9 U.S. prospective cohorts. The association of seropositivity to p53 with colorectal cancer risk, overall and by time between blood draw and diagnosis, was determined by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 5% of controls and 7% of cases were seropositive to p53, resulting in a statistically significant 33% increased colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.61]. By follow-up time, the association was only significant with colorectal cancer diagnoses within 4 years after blood draw (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.62-3.19), but not thereafter (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: In this large consortium of prospective cohorts, we found that prediagnostic seropositivity to tumor suppressor p53 was significantly associated with an over 2-fold increased odds of developing colorectal cancer within 4 years after blood draw. IMPACT: Our finding suggests that p53 seropositivity may not be a useful predictor of long-term colorectal cancer risk; however, it might be considered as a marker to aid in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2084-2092, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, the main risk factor for gastric cancer, has been decreasing in the United States; however, there remains a substantial racial disparity. Moreover, the time-trends for prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, the most virulent form, are unknown in the U.S. POPULATION: We sought to assess prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection over time by race in the United States. METHODS: We utilized multiplex serology to quantify antibody responses to H. pylori antigens in 4,476 participants across five cohorts that sampled adults from 1985 to 2009. Using log-binomial regression models, we calculated prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence and birth year by race. RESULTS: African Americans were three times more likely to be H. pylori-CagA sero-positive than Whites. After adjustment, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence was lower with increasing birth year among Whites (P trend = 0.001), but remained stable for African Americans. When stratified by sex and education separately, the decline in H. pylori-CagA sero-positivity among Whites remained only for females (P trend < 0.001) and was independent of educational attainment. Among African Americans, there was no difference by sex; furthermore, sero-prevalence increased with increasing birth year among those with a high school education or less (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals in the United States born from the 1920s to 1960s, H. pylori-CagA sero-prevalence has declined among Whites, but not among African Americans. IMPACT: Our findings suggest a widening racial disparity in the prevalence of the most virulent form of H. pylori, the main cause of gastric cancer.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1817-1824, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with colorectal cancer-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected P = 0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or colorectal cancer-specific survival in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted. IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on colorectal cancer prognosis.

7.
Tob Control ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the health harms associated with low-intensity smoking in Asians who, on average, smoke fewer cigarettes and start smoking at a later age than their Western counterparts. METHODS: In this pooled analysis of 738 013 Asians from 16 prospective cohorts, we quantified the associations of low-intensity (<5 cigarettes/day) and late initiation (≥35 years) of smoking with mortality outcomes. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression. Cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years, 92 068 deaths were ascertained. Compared with never smokers, current smokers who consumed <5 cigarettes/day or started smoking after age 35 years had a 16%-41% increased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease mortality and a >twofold risk of lung cancer mortality. Furthermore, current smokers who started smoking after age 35 and smoked <5 cigarettes/day had significantly elevated risks of all-cause (HRs (95% CIs)=1.14 (1.05 to 1.23)), CVD (1.27 (1.08 to 1.49)) and respiratory disease (1.54 (1.17 to 2.01)) mortality. Even smokers who smoked <5 cigarettes/day but quit smoking before the age of 45 years had a 16% elevated risk of all-cause mortality; however, the risk declined further with increasing duration of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that smokers who smoked a small number of cigarettes or started smoking later in life also experienced significantly elevated all-cause and major cause-specific mortality but benefited from cessation. There is no safe way to smoke-not smoking is always the best choice.

8.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 688-696, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364799

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral cancer (OC) is the leading cancer in 25% of Indian cancer registries, and 80% of OCs are diagnosed in advanced stages. OC screening is a topic of debate. Studies from other countries have used a variety of study designs as OC screening strategies. There are not many studies from India on strategic screening, and there is a need to review the literature to provide insights and knowledge about screening programs. The purpose of this narrative review is to present broad epidemiologic evidence on the OC burden in India, to discuss and summarize the currently available evidence for OC screening strategies, and to highlight a feasible opportunistic screening strategy for addressing OC burden in India. METHODS: Medline and EMBASE were used to identify articles. Data from GLOBOCAN and government reports were obtained from websites. As many key concepts and divergent views cannot be addressed with a single research question, a narrative review was considered appropriate, but to ensure a comprehensive literature search, a systematic review search strategy was used. RESULTS: OC rates are rising more rapidly in India than projected. Wide variations in OC incidence within India reflect regional diversity of risk factors. Studies abroad have demonstrated the feasibility of opportunistic screening of oral potentially malignant disorders by dentists; however, although recommendations exist in India, no studies of opportunistic screening by dentists have been reported. CONCLUSION: The projected major increases in the OC burden necessitate an OC screening program; opportunistic screening of high-risk groups by dentists using oral visual examination is recommended as a cost-effective strategy. As a way forward, a pilot project to assess the feasibility of regional opportunistic screening is in progress.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

11.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(7): 903-910, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall incidence of colorectal carcinoma is declining in Western populations; however, single country series demonstrate an increase in young-onset (<50 years) colorectal carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pattern of increasing incidence of young-onset colorectal carcinoma is consistent across 3 Western populations. DESIGN: This is a population incidence study. SETTINGS: National cancer registries of New Zealand, Sweden, and Scotland were used. PATIENTS: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma was calculated from population data for 3 countries over 2 to 4 decades. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of colorectal carcinoma was measured. Incidence rate ratios were determined and data were stratified by subsite (colon versus rectum), sex, and age (<50, 50-79, and ≥80 y). RESULTS: Overall colorectal carcinoma rates declined in New Zealand, remained stable in Scotland, and increased in Sweden. In all 3 populations, there was an increasing incidence of rectal carcinoma in those aged <50 years. Young-onset rectal carcinoma increased in New Zealand (1995-2012: incidence rate ratio = 1.18 (men) and 1.13 (women)), with declining incidence in all other age groups. Colon carcinoma did not increase in the population aged <50 years, with the exception of distal colonic carcinoma in men. Overall, rectal carcinoma incidence increased (1970-2014) in Sweden; however, increases in those <50 years of age exceeded increases in other age groups (incidence rate ratio = 1.14 (males) and 1.12 (females)). Distal colon carcinoma increases were most marked in the population aged <50 years. In Scotland (1990-2014), young-onset rectal carcinoma incidence increased (incidence rate ratio = 1.23 (males) and 1.27 (females)), with a smaller increase in colon carcinoma. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include its registry-based, population incidence research. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an increase in young-onset rectal carcinoma in 3 national populations; this observation may provide a focus for looking at the role of environmental influences on the etiology of this increase and therefore to explore strategies for prevention. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B194. AUMENTO DE LA INCIDENCIA DE CARCINOMA COLORRECTAL DE INICIO JOVEN: UN ANÁLISIS DE POBLACIÓN DE TRES PAÍSES: La incidencia global de carcinoma colorrectal está disminuyendo en las poblaciones occidentales. Sin embargo, las series de un solo país demuestran un aumento en el carcinoma colorrectal de inicio joven (pacientes menores de 50 años).Determinar si el patrón de incidencia en aumento de carcinoma colorrectal de inicio joven es consistente en tres poblaciones occidentales.Estudio de incidencias de población en tres países.Registros nacionales de cáncer de Nueva Zelanda, Suecia y Escocia.la incidencia de carcinoma colorrectal se calculó a partir de datos de población de tres países durante dos o a cuatro décadas.Incidencia de carcinoma colorrectal. Se determinaron las tasas de incidencia y los datos se estratificaron por subsitio (colon versus recto), además de sexo y edad (<50, 50-79 y ≥ 80).las tasas generales de carcinoma colorrectal disminuyeron en Nueva Zelanda, se mantuvieron estables en Escocia y aumentaron en Suecia. En las tres poblaciones, hubo una incidencia creciente de carcinoma rectal en pacientes menores de 50 años. El carcinoma rectal de inicio juvenil aumentó en Nueva Zelanda (1995-2012): tasa de incidencia de 1,18 [varones] y 1,13 [mujeres], con una disminución de la incidencia en todos los demás grupos de edad. El carcinoma de colon no aumentó en la población de < 50 años, con la excepción del carcinoma de colon distal en hombres. En general, la incidencia de carcinoma rectal aumentó (1970-2014) en Suecia; sin embargo, los aumentos en aquellos de <50 años excedieron los aumentos en otros grupos de edad: tasa de incidencia 1.14 [hombres] y 1.12 [mujeres]. Los aumentos del carcinoma de colon distal fueron más marcados en la población de < 50 años. En Escocia (1990-2014), la incidencia de carcinoma rectal de inicio juvenil aumentó: relación de tasa de incidencia 1.23 [hombres] y 1.27 [mujeres], con un aumento menor en el carcinoma de colon.Investigación de incidencia poblacional basada en registros nacionales.Este estudio muestra un aumento en el carcinoma rectal de inicio joven en tres poblaciones nacionales. Esta observación puede indicar un enfoque para la examinación de influencias ambientales en la etiología de este aumento y, por lo tanto, explorar estrategias para la prevención. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B194. (Traducción-Dr Adrián Ortega).

12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nutr Cancer ; 72(1): 1-4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842617

RESUMO

Was the Annals of Internal Medicine recently acting as a mouthpiece for meat-industry propaganda? Five papers underpinned recommendations on meat consumption; their central deceit was to review only randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, which, in research on the associations between common foods and disease outcomes, are nearer to the bottom than the top of the evidence hierarchy. Despite concluding that their own recommendations were "weak and based on low certainty evidence", the authors were happy to recommend that there is "No need to reduce red or processed meat consumption for good health." What we actually know is that: red meat consumption is an order of magnitude higher now than through most of human history; red meat is a probable, and processed meat is a definite, human carcinogen; saturated fat increases risk of heart disease; and vegans and vegetarians have better lipid profiles, lower risk of chronic disease, and greater longevity than meat eaters. There are other consequences of meat consumption too, including: altered sexual development; widespread antimicrobial resistance; and disrupted planetary health, including depletion of aquifers, groundwater pollution, and increased greenhouse gases. The pseudoscience presented in the Annals of Internal Medicine appears to have been written solely to create doubt and confusion in the wider population. Scientists and journals should hold themselves to a higher standard.


Assuntos
Manteiga/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Vegetarianos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/patologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1198, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maori, Pacific and Asian women in New Zealand have lower cervical-cancer screening rates than European women, and there are persistent inequities in cervical cancer outcomes for Maori and Pacific women. Innovative ways to address access barriers are required. New Zealand is transitioning to screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing, which could allow women themselves, rather than a clinician, to take the sample. Internationally, self-sampling has been found to increase screening participation rates. The aim of this open-label community-based randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether self-sampling increases screening participation among un- and under-screened Maori, Pacific and Asian women in New Zealand. METHODS/DESIGN: We aim to invite at least 3550 un- or under-screened (≥5 years overdue) Maori, Pacific and Asian women (1050, 1250, 1250 respectively), aged 30-69 years, for screening. The three study arms are: usual care in which women are invited to attend a clinic for a standard clinician-collected cytology test; clinic-based self-sampling in which women are invited to take a self-sample at their usual general practice; and mail-out self-sampling in which women are mailed a kit and invited to take a self-sample at home. Women will be randomised 3:3:1 to the clinic and mail-out self-sampling groups, and usual care. There is also a nested sub-study in which non-responding women in all allocation groups, when they subsequently present to the clinic for other reasons, are offered clinic or home-kit self-sampling. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate (by taking a self-sample or cytology test). DISCUSSION: This trial is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of mailed self-sampling in New Zealand and will be one of the first internationally to evaluate the effectiveness of opportunistic in-clinic invitations for self-sampling. The trial will provide robust evidence on the impact on participation proportions from different invitation approaches for HPV self-sampling in New Zealand un- and under-screened Maori, Pacific and Asian women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12618000367246 (date registered 12/3/2018) https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371741&isReview=true; UTN: U1111-1189-0531.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Autocuidado/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Manejo de Espécimes , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
16.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 6(1): e000339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875139

RESUMO

Objective: 'Environmental' factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk include modifiable and non-modifiable variables. Whether those with different non-modifiable baseline risks will benefit similarly from reducing their modifiable CRC risks remains unclear. Design: Using 7945 cases and 8893 controls from 11 population-based studies, we combined 17 risk factors to characterise the overall environmental predisposition to CRC (environmental risk score (E-score)). We estimated the absolute risks (ARs) of CRC of 10 and 30 years across E-score using incidence-rate data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results programme. We then combined the modifiable risk factors and estimated ARs across the modifiable risk score, stratified by non-modifiable risk profile based on genetic predisposition, family history and height. Results: Higher E-score was associated with increased CRC risk (ORquartile, 1.33; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.37). Across E-scores, 30-year ARs of CRC increased from 2.5% in the lowest quartile (Q1) to 5.9% in the highest (Q4) quartile for men, and from 2.1% to 4.5% for women. The modifiable risk score had a stronger association in those with high non-modifiable risk (relative excess risk due to interaction=1.2, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.9). For those in Q4 of non-modifiable risk, a decrease in modifiable risk reduced 30-year ARs from 8.9% to 3.4% for men and from 6.0% to 3.2% for women, a level lower or comparable to the average population risk. Conclusions: Changes in modifiable risk factors may result in a substantial decline in CRC risk in both sexes. Those with high inherited risk may reap greater benefit from lifestyle modifications. Our results suggested comprehensive evaluation of environmental factors may facilitate CRC risk stratification.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e026225, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association of educational level and risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer among Asian populations. DESIGN: A pooled analysis of 15 population-based cohort studies. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 694 434 Asian individuals from 15 prospective cohorts within the Asia Cohort Consortium. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality, as well as for CVD-specific mortality and cancer-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 694 434 participants (mean age at baseline=53.2 years) were included in the analysis. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 years, 103 023 deaths were observed, among which 33 939 were due to cancer and 34 645 were due to CVD. Higher educational levels were significantly associated with lower risk of death from all causes compared with a low educational level (≤primary education); HRs and 95% CIs for secondary education, trade/technical education and ≥university education were 0.88 (0.85 to 0.92), 0.81 (0.73 to 0.90) and 0.71 (0.63 to 0.80), respectively (ptrend=0.002). Similarly, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), 0.86 (0.78 to 0.94) and 0.81 (0.73 to 0.89) for cancer death, and 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93), 0.77 (0.66 to 0.91) and 0.67 (0.58 to 0.77) for CVD death with increasing levels of education (both ptrend <0.01). The pattern of the association among East Asians and South Asians was similar compared with ≤primary education; HR (95% CI) for all-cause mortality associated with ≥university education was 0.72 (0.63 to 0.81) among 539 724 East Asians (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) and 0.61 (0.54 to 0.69) among 154 710 South Asians (Indians and Bangladeshis). CONCLUSION: Higher educational level was associated with substantially lower risk of death among Asian populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
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