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2.
Can J Public Health ; 111(1): 21-30, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2014-2015, over 400 social housing units were constructed in selected communities in Nunavik and Nunavut, two Inuit regions in northern Canada where housing shortages and poor quality housing are endemic and undermine population health. This paper presents results from a before-and-after study examining the effects of rehousing, i.e., relocating to a newly constructed or pre-existing social housing unit, on psychosocial health and asthma-related symptoms for Inuit adults. METHODS: Baseline data were collected 1-6 months before, and follow-up data 15-18 months after rehousing. Of the 289 participants at baseline, 186 were rehoused. Of the 169 participants eligible at follow-up, 102 completed the study. Self-reported health measures included psychological distress, perceived stress in daily life, perceived control over one's life, and asthma-related symptoms. Data are analyzed using multilevel models for longitudinal data. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, and region of residence, participants reported significantly lower levels of psychological distress and perceived stress in daily life, and improved sense of control over their lives 15 to 18 months after rehousing. Participants were also significantly less likely to report asthma-related symptoms at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Significant positive health impacts are observed for adults who relocated to newly constructed or pre-existing social housing units. Increasing investments to redress the housing situation across Inuit Nunangat is required, not only to improve living conditions but also to improve the health and well-being of the population.

3.
Can J Public Health ; 110(6): 685-687, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797246
4.
Health Place ; : 102238, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735517

RESUMO

Neighbourhood community life has been widely recognized as an important determinant of population health. This systematic review of reviews provides an overview of the evidence for the ecological correlation between neighbourhood community life and population health. Nine databases were searched from 2008 to 2018 in order to identify systematic reviews of studies examining the association between neighbourhood community life and population health in urban neighbourhoods within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Two reviewers completed selection and data extraction, then assessed the methodological quality of reviews using the Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. We identified three high quality reviews and five of moderate quality. The reviews vary in quality of methodology, concepts, and measures. Most of the reviews examined the influence of social cohesion, social capital, and social interactions on health. Reviews found evidence supporting a consistently favourable correlation between social cohesion and physical activity, as well as a favourable trend in the relationship between social cohesion and healthy weight. They also found evidence of a favourable trend in the correlation between social capital and healthy weight. Reviews identified studies supporting a consistently favourable correlation between social interaction and depression. We identify evidence of a positive association between neighbourhood community life and several population health outcomes. Future research should define and conceptualize neighbourhood community life factors and health indicators to improve the comparison between studies and the process of evidence synthesis. This will also enable policy makers to take appropriate decisions.

5.
Food Nutr Bull ; 40(4): 544-561, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307235

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a continuing educational strategy (ie, "the manual") in primary health-care improves infant feeding practices among infants under 1 year of age. METHODS: A before and after study was conducted at primary health-care units in Embu das Artes, Brazil. The intervention was the use of a manual created to support continuing educational activities on breastfeeding and complementary feeding to be performed by tutors of Estratégia Amamenta e Alimenta Brasil with health-care teams, in a period of 8 months. Five hundred sixty-one mothers before and 598 mothers after intervention were interviewed about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson multilevel regression to test the hypothesis. RESULTS: Lack of minimum food diversity (before 62.9%; after 50.3%) and lack of food adequacy (before 77.5%; after 63.3%) decreased significantly. Regression analysis confirmed that infants after the intervention had lower prevalence of inadequacy of complementary feeding. While the intervention did not show significant association with exclusive breastfeeding, it showed association with the improvement of complementary feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: The manual is a continuing educational strategy that improved complementary feeding practices in primary health care.

7.
Trials ; 20(1): 285, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An international workshop on population health intervention research (PHIR) was organized to foster exchanges between experts from different disciplines and different fields. This paper aims to summarize the discussions around some of the issues addressed: (1) the place of theories in PHIR, (2) why theories can be useful, and (3) how to choose and use the most relevant of them in evaluating PHIR. METHODS: The workshop included formal presentations by participants and moderated discussions. An oral synthesis was produced by a rapporteur to validate, through an expert consensus, the key points of the discussion and the recommendations. All discussions were recorded and have been fully transcribed. RESULTS: The following recommendations were generated through a consensus in the workshop discussions: (i) The evaluation of interventions, like their development, could be improved through better use of theory. (ii) The referenced theory and framework must be clarified. (iii) An intervention theory should be developed by a partnership of researchers and practitioners. (iv) More use of social theory is recommended. (v) Frameworks and a common language are helpful in selecting and communicating a theory. (vi) Better reporting of interventions and theories is needed. CONCLUSION: Theory-driven interventions and evaluations are key in PHIR as they facilitate the understanding of mechanisms of change. There are many challenges in developing the most appropriate theories for interventions and evaluations. With the wealth of information now being generated, this subject is of increasing importance at many levels, including for public health policy. It is, therefore, timely to consider how to build on the experiences of many different disciplines to enable the development of better theories and facilitate evidence-based decisions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde da População , Teoria Social , Humanos
8.
Trials ; 20(1): 309, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An international workshop on population health intervention research (PHIR) was organized to foster exchanges between experts from different disciplines and different fields. AIMS: This paper aims to summarize the discussions around one of the issues addressed: the place or role of pilot studies in PHIR. Pilot studies are well-established in biomedical research, but the situation is more ambiguous for PHIR, in which a pilot study could refer to different purposes. METHODS: The workshop included formal presentations of participants and moderated discussions. An oral synthesis was carried out by a rapporteur to validate by expert consensus the key points of the discussion and the recommendations. All discussions have been recorded and fully transcribed. DISCUSSION: PHIR generally addresses complex interventions. Thus, numerous tasks may be required to inform the intervention and test different aspects of its design and implementation. While in clinical research the pilot study mainly concerns the preparation of the trial, in PHIR the pilot study focuses on the preparation of both the intervention and the trial. In particular, pilot studies in PHIR could be used for viability evaluation and theory development. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS: The following recommendations were generated by consensus from the workshop discussions: i) terms need to be clarified for PHIR; ii) reporting and publication should be standardized and transparency should be promoted; iii) the objectives and research questions should drive the methods used and be clearly stated; iv) a pilot study is generally needed for complex intervention evaluation and for research-designed programs; and v) for field-designed programs, it is important to integrate evaluability assessments as pilot studies . CONCLUSION: Pilot studies play an important role in intervention development and evaluation. In particular, they contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of intervention and the conditions of its applicability and transferability. Pilot studies could therefore facilitate evidence-based decisions about design and conduct of main studies aimed to generate evidence to inform public health policy.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Saúde da População , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2190-2199, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate national and geography-based variations in blood pressure and burden of hypertension in Cameroon, generally called 'miniature Africa'. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science, Popline, Scopus and BDSP were searched through November 2018, for hypertension studies among Cameroonians aged at least 18 years. Hypertension was measured as SBP at least 140 mmHg or DBP at least 90 mmHg. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. RESULTS: Twenty studies involving 46 491 participants met inclusion criteria. Overall hypertension prevalence was 30.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.0-34.8]: 29.6% (24.1-35.1) and 32.1% (27.2-37.1) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively. Of hypertensive participants, only 24.4% (18.9-30.0) - 31.6% (21.0-42.3) and 20.8% (14.0-27.7) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively - were aware of their status, 15.1% (10.6-19.6) were taking antihypertensive medications and 8.8% (5.7-11.9) - 10.4% (7.5-13.3) and 8.3% (4.4-12.3) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively - were controlled. Hypertension prevalence varied by sex: 34.3% (30.0-38.6) for men and 31.3% (26.5-36.1) for women; ethnicity: from 3.3% (0.4-6.2) among Pygmies to 56.6% (49.4-63.8) among Bamileke; urbanity: 25.4% (17.1-33.7) for rural and 31.4% (27.3-35.5) for urban dwellers; agroecological zone: from 35.1% (28.9-41.3) in Tropical highlands to 28% (20.1-35.9) in Guinea-Savannah; and subnational region: from 36.3% (27.8-44.9) in the West to 17.1% (9.9-44.2) in the South. CONCLUSION: Cameroon's hypertension prevalence is high and increasing whereas awareness, treatment and control are low and declining. Emerging patterns call urgently for effective campaigns to raise hypertension awareness alongside strategies for hypertension prevention and BP control.

11.
Health Promot Int ; 34(1): 47-59, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973298

RESUMO

Population health interventions tend to lack links to the emerging discourse on interactive knowledge production and exchange. This situation may limit both a better understanding of mechanisms that impact health lifestyles and the development of strategies for population level change. This paper introduces an integrated approach based on structure-agency theory in the context of 'social practice'. It investigates the mechanisms of co-production of active lifestyles by population groups, professionals, policymakers and researchers. It combines a whole system approach with an interactive knowledge-to-action strategy for developing and implementing active lifestyle interventions. A system model is outlined to describe and explain how social practices of selected groups co-produce active lifestyles. Four intervention models for promoting the co-production of active lifestyles through an interactive-knowledge-to-action approach are discussed. Examples from case studies of the German research network Capital4Health are used to illustrate, how intervention models might be operationalized in a real-world intervention. Five subprojects develop, implement and evaluate interventions across the life-course. Although subprojects differ with regard to settings and population groups involved, they all focus on the four key components of the system model. The paper contributes new strategies to address the intervention research challenge of sustainable change of inactive lifestyles. The interactive approach presented allows consideration of the specificities of settings and scientific contexts for manifold purposes. Further research remains needed on what a co-produced knowledge-to-action agenda would look like and what impact it might have for whole system change.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Saúde da População , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
12.
Sociol Health Illn ; 41(1): 165-179, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182483

RESUMO

After 25 years of intersectoral practice to increase health promotion resources, there is little scientific literature linking analysis of processes to observation of effects. Applying Actor-Network Theory, this article examines how the effects of intersectoral action are produced and can be attributed to its processes. A prospective multiple case study (2013-2016) was conducted on Neighbourhood Committees (NCs) in Montreal (Canada). Three NCs were studied using four kinds of data: direct observation notes of meetings and events, documents, logbooks and interviews. Systemic modelling of local intersectoral action was used for data collection and analysis. The results show that the transformations in living environments were produced by sequences of a limited number of 'transitory outcomes' that mark the progression of intersectoral action up to its effects. The list of transitory outcomes identified make up three functions in the production of change: (i) network setup and governance; (ii) self-representing and influencing others; (iii) aligning necessary actors and resources. The production of effects follows a systemic model wherein unique configurations of transitory outcomes, adapted to the different contexts where interactions are occurring, represent the change processes that lead to the effects.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Promoção da Saúde , Governo Local , Características de Residência , Canadá , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Teoria Social
13.
Sante Publique ; 30(1 Suppl): 13-24, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547478

RESUMO

Although their design may feature a considerable amount of universalism, prevention strategies often produce results that are socially and/or spatially differentiated. This differentiation process can induce social or territorial gradients of access to and/or effectiveness of prevention and, in turn, worsen health inequalities. This process also accentuates the gap between the principles of certain public policies and their practical implementation, raising the question of the real benefit of these policies for beneficiaries. Although Sir Marmot considers proportionate universalism to be a strategy to tackle health inequalities, the practical modalities of implementation of this principle have been rarely described in the literature until very recently. This pragmatic paper therefore presents a causal analysis of differentiation processes, underlines the need for self-reflexive prevention strategies, and investigates practical implications of proportionate universalism.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , França , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 16(1): 53, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Priority-driven funding streams for population and public health are an important part of the health research landscape and contribute to orienting future scholarship in the field. While research priorities are often made public through targeted calls for research, less is known about how research funding organisations arrive at said priorities. Our objective was to explore how public health research funding organisations develop priorities for strategic extramural research funding programmes. METHODS: Content analysis of published academic and grey literature and key informant interviews for five public and private funders of public health research in the United Kingdom, Australia, the United States and France were performed. RESULTS: We found important distinctions in how funding organisations processed potential research priorities through four non-sequential phases, namely idea generation, idea analysis, idea socialisation and idea selection. Funders generally involved the public health research community and public health decision-makers in idea generation and socialisation, but other groups of stakeholders (e.g. the public, advocacy organisations) were not as frequently included. CONCLUSIONS: Priority-setting for strategic funding programmes in public health research involves consultation mainly with researchers in the early phase of the process. There is an opportunity for greater breadth of participation and more transparency in priority-setting mechanisms for strategic funding programmes in population and public health research.


Assuntos
Prioridades em Saúde , Organizações , Saúde da População , Saúde Pública , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Pesquisa , Pessoal Administrativo , Austrália , Formação de Conceito , Comportamento Cooperativo , França , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores , Características de Residência , Participação dos Interessados , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
19.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(4): 319-323, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health interventions are increasingly being recognised as complex and context dependent. Related to this is the need for a systemic and dynamic conception of interventions that raises the question of delineating the scope and contours of interventions in complex systems. This means identifying which elements belong to the intervention (and therefore participate in its effects and can be transferred), which ones belong to the context and interact with the former to influence results (and therefore must be taken into account when transferring the intervention) and which contextual elements are irrelevant to the intervention. DISCUSSION: This paper, from which derives criteria based on a network framework, operationalises how the context and intervention systems interact and identify what needs to be replicated as interventions are implemented in different contexts. Representing interventions as networks (composed of human and non-human entities), we introduce the idea that the density of interconnections among the various entities provides a criterion for distinguishing core intervention from intervention context without disconnecting the two systems. This differentiates endogenous and exogenous intervention contexts and the mediators that connect them, which form the fuzzy and constantly changing intervention/context interface. CONCLUSION: We propose that a network framework representing intervention/context systems constitutes a promising approach for deriving empirical criteria to delineate the scope and contour of what is replicable in an intervention. This approach should allow better identification and description of the entities that have to be transferred to ensure the potential effectiveness of an intervention in a specific context.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde da População , Saúde Pública , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Pesquisa em Sistemas de Saúde Pública
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