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1.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 764-767, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405425

RESUMO

Patient physiology and crash characteristics are essential components of field triage for motor vehicle crashes. We aimed to identify prehospital information that predicted high injury severity or critical patient condition on hospital arrival. The association of demographics, shock index (SI), Glasgow Coma Scale, and 10 crash characteristics of trauma activations for motor vehicle crashes with injury severity score (ISS) ≥ 16 and a composite of hypotension, need for blood transfusions, or immediate operation was determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 133 of 498 patients (27%) had ISS ≥ 16; SI ≥ 0.9, Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8, speed ≥ 55 mph, seatbelt use, airbag deployment, ambulatory patient, severe vehicle damage, ejection, and extrication were associated with ISS ≥ 16. Only abnormal SI and high speed remained independent predictors for ISS ≥ 16 with Odds Ratio (OR) = 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-101, P = 0.04) and OR = 10.37 (95% CI, 1.48-72.93, P = 0.02), respectively. SI ≥ 0.9 predicted the composite outcome with OR = 5.92 (95% CI, 2.32-15.08, P < 0.01). Many commonly reported crash characteristics did not predict clinically important outcomes. Improvements in road and vehicle safety may be resulting in lower injury severity despite major crash mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Cintos de Segurança , Choque/diagnóstico , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 450: 202-212, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25819004

RESUMO

A systematic study of the structure-function relationships critical to understanding the sensing mechanism of 1st generation amperometric glucose biosensors with an embedded nanoparticle (NP) network is presented. Xerogel-based films featuring embedded glucose oxidase enzyme and doped with alkanethiolate-protected gold NPs, known as monolayer protected clusters (MPCs), exhibit significantly enhanced performance compared to analogous systems without NPs including higher sensitivity, faster response time, and extended linear/dynamic ranges. The proposed mechanism involves diffusion of the glucose to glucose oxidase within the xerogel, enzymatic reaction production of H2O2 with subsequent diffusion to the embedded network of MPCs where it is oxidized, an event immediately reported via fast electron transfer (ET) through the MPC system to the working electrode. Various aspects of the film construct and strategy are systematically probed using amperometry, voltammetry, and solid-state electronic conductivity measurements, including the effects of MPC peripheral chain length, MPC functionalization via place-exchange reaction, MPC core size, and the MPC density or concentration within the xerogel composite films. The collective results of these experiments support the proposed mechanism and identify interparticle spacing and the electronic communication through the MPC network is the most significant factor in the sensing scheme with the diffusional aspects of the mechanism that may be affected by film/MPC hydrophobicity and functionality (i.e., glucose and H2O2 diffusion) shown to be less substantial contributors to the overall enhanced performance. Understanding the structure-function relationships of effective sensing schemes allows for the employment of the strategy for future biosensor design toward clinically relevant targets.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Glucose Oxidase/química , Glucose/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Membranas Artificiais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Langmuir ; 31(4): 1547-55, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25562760

RESUMO

Xerogel-based first-generation amperometric glucose biosensors, constructed through specific layer-by-layer assembly of films featuring glucose oxidase doped xerogel, a diffusion-limiting xerogel layer, and capped with both electropolymerized polyphenol and blended polyurethane semipermeable membranes, are presented. The specific combination of xerogels formed from specific silane precursors, including propyl-trimethoxysilane, isobutyl-trimethoxysilane, octyl-trimethoxysilane, and hydroxymethyl-triethoxysilane, exhibit impressive dynamic and linear ranges of detection (e.g., ≥24-28 mM glucose) and low response times, as well as significant discrimination against common interferent species such as acetaminophen, ascorbic acid, sodium nitrite, oxalic acid, and uric acid as determined by selectivity coefficients. Additionally, systematic electrochemical and contact angle studies of different xerogel silane precursors, varying in structure, chain length, and/or functional group, reveal that sensor performance is more dependent on the tunable porosity/permeability of the layered interfaces rather than the hydrophobic character or functional groups within the films. While the sensing performance largely exceeds that of existing electrochemical glucose sensing schemes in the literature, the presented layered approach establishes the specific functionality of each layer working in concert with each other and suggests that the strategy may be readily adaptable to other clinically relevant targets and is amenable to miniaturization for eventual in situ or in vivo sensing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Géis , Glucose/análise
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