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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582352

RESUMO

This interdisciplinary work focuses on the interest of a new auto-encoder for supervised classification of live cell populations growing in a thermostated imaging station and acquired by a Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) camera. This type of camera produces interferograms that have to be processed to extract features derived from quantitative linear retardance and birefringence measurements. QPI is performed on living populations without any manipulation or treatment of the cells. We use the efficient new autoencoder classification method instead of the classical Douglas-Rachford method. Using this new supervised autoencoder, we show that the accuracy of the classification of the cells present in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle is very high using QPI features. This is a very important finding since we demonstrate that it is now possible to very precisely follow cell growth in a non-invasive manner, without any bias. No dye or any kind of markers are necessary for this live monitoring. Any studies requiring analysis of cell growth or cellular response to any treatment could benefit from this new approach by simply monitoring the proportion of cells entering mitosis in the studied cell population.

2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105985, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455087

RESUMO

Non-ideal behaviour of mixed ions is disclosed in skin absorption experiments of mixed halide anions in excised pig skin. Comparison of skin absorption of pure and mixed ions shows enhanced penetration of chaotropic ions from mixed solutions. An experimental design and statistical analysis using a Scheffé {3,2} simplex-lattice allows investigating the full ternary diagram of anion mixtures of fluoride, bromide and iodide. Synergism in mixed absorption is observed for chaotropic bromide and iodide anions. A refined analysis highlighting specific interactions is made by considering the ratio of the absorbed amount to the ion activity instead of the directly measured absorbed amount. Statistical analysis discards non-significant effects and discloses specific interactions. Such interactions between bromide and iodide cause an absorption enhancement of their partner by a factor of 2-3 with respect to the case of ideal mixing. It is proposed that enhanced absorption from mixed solution involves the formation of neutral complex species of mixed bromide and iodide with endogenous magnesium or calcium inside stratum corneum.


Assuntos
Absorção Cutânea , Água , Animais , Ânions/metabolismo , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Soluções , Suínos , Água/metabolismo
3.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21681, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196428

RESUMO

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expresses at the basolateral plasma membrane of the thyroid follicular cell and mediates iodide accumulation required for normal thyroid hormonogenesis. Loss-of-function NIS variants cause congenital hypothyroidism due to impaired iodide accumulation in thyroid follicular cells underscoring the significance of NIS for thyroid physiology. Here we report novel findings derived from the thorough characterization of the nonsense NIS mutant p.R636* NIS-leading to a truncated protein missing the last eight amino acids-identified in twins with congenital hypothyroidism. R636* NIS is severely mislocalized into intracellular vesicular compartments due to the lack of a conserved carboxy-terminal type 1 PDZ-binding motif. As a result, R636* NIS is barely targeted to the plasma membrane and therefore iodide transport is reduced. Deletion of the PDZ-binding motif causes NIS accumulation into late endosomes and lysosomes. Using PDZ domain arrays, we revealed that the PDZ-domain containing protein SCRIB binds to the carboxy-terminus of NIS by a PDZ-PDZ interaction. Furthermore, in CRISPR/Cas9-based SCRIB deficient cells, NIS expression at the basolateral plasma membrane is compromised, leading to NIS localization into intracellular vesicular compartments. We conclude that the PDZ-binding motif is a plasma membrane retention signal that participates in the polarized expression of NIS by selectively interacting with the PDZ-domain containing protein SCRIB, thus retaining the transporter at the basolateral plasma membrane. Our data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate NIS expression at the plasma membrane, a topic of great interest in the thyroid cancer field considering the relevance of NIS-mediated radioactive iodide therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Códon sem Sentido , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Cães , Endossomos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Domínios PDZ/genética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Ratos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Simportadores/química , Simportadores/genética , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4409, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627679

RESUMO

We present here a label-free development based on preexisting Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) that allows non-invasive live monitoring of both individual cells and cell populations. Growth, death, effect of toxic compounds are quantified under visible light with a standard inverted microscope. We show that considering the global biomass of a cell population is a more robust and accurate method to assess its growth parameters in comparison to compiling individually segmented cells. This is especially true for confluent conditions. This method expands the use of light microscopy in answering biological questions concerning live cell populations even at high density. In contrast to labeling or lysis of cells this method does not alter the cells and could be useful in high-throughput screening and toxicity studies.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430235

RESUMO

The role of ketone bodies in the cerebral energy homeostasis of neurological diseases has begun to attract recent attention particularly in acute neurological diseases. In ketogenic therapies, ketosis is achieved by either a ketogenic diet or by the administration of exogenous ketone bodies. The oral ingestion of the ketone ester (KE), (R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, is a new method to generate rapid and significant ketosis (i.e., above 6 mmol/L) in humans. KE is hydrolyzed into ß-hydroxybutyrate (ßHB) and its precursor 1,3-butanediol. Here, we investigate the effect of oral KE administration (3 mg KE/g of body weight) on brain metabolism of non-fasted mice using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. Ketosis (Cmax = 6.83 ± 0.19 mmol/L) was obtained at Tmax = 30 min after oral KE-gavage. We found that ßHB uptake into the brain strongly correlated with the plasma ßHB concentration and was preferentially distributed in the neocortex. We showed for the first time that oral KE led to an increase of acetyl-CoA and citric cycle intermediates in the brain of non-fasted mice. Furthermore, we found that the increased level of acetyl-CoA inhibited glycolysis by a feedback mechanism and thus competed with glucose under physiological conditions. The brain pharmacodynamics of this oral KE strongly suggest that this agent should be considered for acute neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Cetonas/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ésteres/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Cetose/metabolismo , Cetose/patologia , Camundongos
7.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100937, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217645

RESUMO

For decades, sodium/iodide symporter NIS-mediated iodide uptake has played a crucial role in the radioactive ablation of thyroid cancer cells. NIS-based gene therapy has also become a promising tool for the treatment of tumors of extrathyroidal origin. But its applicability has been hampered by reduced expression of NIS, resulting in a moderated capacity to accumulate 131I and in inefficient ablation. Despite numerous preclinical enhancement strategies, the understanding of NIS expression within tumors remains limited. This study aims at a better understanding of the functional behavior of exogenous NIS expression in the context of malignant solid tumors that are characterized by rapid growth with an insufficient vasculature, leading to hypoxia and quiescence. Using subcutaneous HT29NIS and K7M2NIS tumors, we show that NIS-mediated uptake and NIS expression at the plasma membrane of cancer cells are impaired in the intratumoral regions. For a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms induced by hypoxia and quiescence (separately and in combination), we performed experiments on HT29NIS cancer cells. Hypoxia and quiescence were both found to impair NIS-mediated uptake through mechanisms including NIS mis-localization. Modifications in the expression of proteins and metabolites involved in plasma membrane localization and in energy metabolism were found using untargeted proteomics and metabolomics approaches. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that hypoxia and quiescence impair NIS expression at the plasma membrane, and iodide uptake. Our study also shows that the tumor microenvironment is an important parameter for successful NIS-based cancer treatment.

8.
Metabolites ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255770

RESUMO

Despite the fact that glucose is the main fuel of the brain, hyperglycemia at hospital admission is generally associated with a poor functional outcome in stroke patients. This paradox may be explained by the lack of information about the blood glucose level at stroke onset. Here, we analyzed the metabolome of blood cells entrapped in cerebral thrombi to gain insight into their metabolism at stroke onset. Fourty-one consecutive stroke patients completely recanalized by mechanical thrombectomy within 6 h were included. The metabolome of retrieved thrombi was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry. Discriminant Analysis (sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA)) was performed to identify classification models and significant associated features of favorable clinical outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) < 2). sPLS-DA of the metabolomes of cerebral thrombi discriminated between stroke patients with a favorable or poor clinical outcome (Area Under the Curve (AUC) = 0.992 (0.931-1)). In addition, our results revealed that high sorbitol and glucose levels in the thrombi positively correlated with favorable clinical outcomes. Sorbitol, a short-term glycemic index reflecting a high blood glucose level at stroke onset, was found to be an independent predictor of good outcome (AUC = 0.908 (0.807-0.995)). This study demonstrates that a high blood glucose level at stroke onset is beneficial to the clinical outcome of the patient.

9.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 18: 1509-1524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637048

RESUMO

Genomics and transcriptomics have led to the widely-used molecular classification of breast cancer (BC). However, heterogeneous biological behaviors persist within breast cancer subtypes. Metabolomics is a rapidly-expanding field of study dedicated to cellular metabolisms affected by the environment. The aim of this study was to compare metabolomic signatures of BC obtained by 5 different unsupervised machine learning (ML) methods. Fifty-two consecutive patients with BC with an indication for adjuvant chemotherapy between 2013 and 2016 were retrospectively included. We performed metabolomic profiling of tumor resection samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here, four hundred and forty-nine identified metabolites were selected for further analysis. Clusters obtained using 5 unsupervised ML methods (PCA k-means, sparse k-means, spectral clustering, SIMLR and k-sparse) were compared in terms of clinical and biological characteristics. With an optimal partitioning parameter k = 3, the five methods identified three prognosis groups of patients (favorable, intermediate, unfavorable) with different clinical and biological profiles. SIMLR and K-sparse methods were the most effective techniques in terms of clustering. In-silico survival analysis revealed a significant difference for 5-year predicted OS between the 3 clusters. Further pathway analysis using the 449 selected metabolites showed significant differences in amino acid and glucose metabolism between BC histologic subtypes. Our results provide proof-of-concept for the use of unsupervised ML metabolomics enabling stratification and personalized management of BC patients. The design of novel computational methods incorporating ML and bioinformatics techniques should make available tools particularly suited to improving the outcome of cancer treatment and reducing cancer-related mortalities.

10.
J Clin Med ; 9(2)2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979418

RESUMO

(1) Background: We recently showed that iodinated contrast media (ICM) reduced thyroid uptake of iodide independently of free iodide through a mechanism different from that of NaI and involving a dramatic and long-lasting decrease in Na/I symporter expression. The present study aimed at comparing the response of the thyroid to ICM and NaI using a quantitative proteomic approach. (2) Methods: Scintiscans were performed on ICM-treated patients. Micro Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (microSPECT/CT) imaging was used to assess thyroid uptakes in ICM- or NaI-treated mice and their response to recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone. Total thyroid iodide content and proteome was determined in control, NaI-, or ICM-treated animals. (3) Results: The inhibitory effect of ICM in patients was selectively observed on thyroids but not on salivary glands for up to two months after a systemic administration. An elevated level of iodide was observed in thyroids from NaI-treated mice but not in those from ICM animals. Exposure of the thyroid to NaI modulates 15 cellular pathways, most of which are also affected by ICM treatment (including the elF4 and P706SK cell signaling pathway and INSR identified as an upstream activator in both treatments). In addition, ICM modulates 16 distinct pathways and failed to affect thyroid iodide content. Finally, administration of ICM reduces thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor expression which results in a loss of TSH-induced iodide uptake by the thyroid. (4) Conclusions: Common intracellular mechanisms are involved in the ICM- and NaI-induced reduction of iodide uptake. However, ICM fails to affect thyroid iodide content which suggests that the modulation of these common pathways is triggered by separate effectors. ICM also modulates numerous distinct pathways which may account for its long-lasting effect on thyroid uptake. These observations may have implications in the management of patients affected by differentiated thyroid carcinomas who have been exposed to ICM. They also provide the basis for the utilization of ICM-based compounds in radioprotection of the thyroid.

11.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 40(8): 1709-1723, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506013

RESUMO

SLC5A8 is a sodium-coupled monocarboxylate and ketone transporter expressed in various epithelial cells. A putative role of SLC5A8 in neuroenergetics has been also hypothesized. To clarify this issue, we studied the cerebral phenotype of SLC5A8-deficient mice during aging. Elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice presented diffuse leukoencephalopathy characterized by intramyelinic oedema without demyelination suggesting chronic energetic crisis. Hypo-metabolism in the white matter of elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice was found using 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT). Since the SLC5A8 protein could not be detected in the mouse brain, it was hypothesized that the leukoencephalopathy of aging SLC5A8-deficient mice was caused by the absence of slc5a8 expression in a peripheral organ, i.e. the kidney, where SLC5A8 is strongly expressed. A hyper-excretion of the ketone ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the urine of SLC5A8-deficient mice was observed and showed that SLC5A8-deficient mice suffered a cerebral BHB insufficiency. Elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice also presented altered glucose metabolism. We propose that the continuous renal loss of BHB leads to a chronic energetic deficiency in the brain of elderly SLC5A8-deficient mice who are unable to counterbalance their glucose deficit. This study highlights the importance of alternative energetic substrates in neuroenergetics especially under conditions of restricted glucose availability.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Corpos Cetônicos/urina , Rim/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/deficiência , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/urina , Envelhecimento/urina , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Leucoencefalopatias/urina , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Nanomedicine ; 23: 102084, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454552

RESUMO

Although chemically synthesized ferro/ferrimagnetic nanoparticles have attracted great attention in cancer theranostics, they lack radio-enhancement efficacy due to low targeting and internalization ability. Herein, we investigated the potential of RGD-tagged magnetosomes, bacterial biogenic magnetic nanoparticles naturally coated with a biological membrane and genetically engineered to express an RGD peptide, as tumor radioenhancers for conventional radiotherapy and proton therapy. Although native and RGD-magnetosomes similarly enhanced radiation-induced damage to plasmid DNA, RGD-magnetoprobes were able to boost the efficacy of radiotherapy to a much larger extent than native magnetosomes both on cancer cells and in tumors. Combined to magnetosomes@RGD, proton therapy exceeded the efficacy of X-rays at equivalent doses. Also, increased secondary emissions were measured after irradiation of magnetosomes with protons versus photons. Our results indicate the therapeutic advantage of using functionalized magnetoparticles to sensitize tumors to both X-rays and protons and strengthen the case for developing biogenic magnetoparticles for multimodal nanomedicine in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Magnetossomos/química , Magnetospirillum/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/radioterapia , Oligopeptídeos , Radiossensibilizantes , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Terapia com Prótons , Radiossensibilizantes/química , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Terapia por Raios X
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7933-7946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686819

RESUMO

Background: Human trials combining external radiotherapy (RT) and metallic nanoparticles are currently underway in cancer patients. For internal RT, in which a radioisotope such as radioiodine is systemically administered into patients, there is also a need for enhancing treatment efficacy, decreasing radiation-induced side effects and overcoming radio-resistance. However, if strategies vectorising radioiodine through nanocarriers have been documented, sensitizing the neoplasm through the use of nanotherapeutics easily translatable to the clinic in combination with the standard systemic radioiodine treatment has not been assessed yet. Method and materials: The present study explored the potential of hybrid poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted gold nanoparticles to improve the performances of systemic 131I-mediated RT on cancer cells and in tumor-bearing mice. Such nanoparticles were chosen based on their ability previously described by our group to safely withstand irradiation doses while exhibiting good biocompatibility and enhanced cellular uptake. Results: In vitro clonogenic assays performed on melanoma and colorectal cancer cells showed that poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted gold nanoparticles (PMAA-AuNPs) could efficiently lead to a marked tumor cell mortality when combined to a low activity of radioiodine, which alone appeared to be essentially ineffective on tumor cells. In vivo, tumor enrichment with PMAA-AuNPs significantly enhanced the killing potential of a systemic radioiodine treatment. Conclusion: This is the first report of a simple and reliable nanomedicine-based approach to reduce the dose of radioiodine required to reach curability. In addition, these results open up novel perspectives for using high-Z metallic NPs in additional molecular radiation therapy demonstrating heterogeneous dose distributions.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polímeros/química , Animais , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/radioterapia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Simportadores/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15635, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666664

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are classified according to their histological features. Accurate classification of RCC and comprehensive understanding of their metabolic dysregulation are of critical importance. Here we investigate the use of metabolomic analyses to classify the main RCC subtypes and to describe the metabolic variation for each subtype. To this end, we performed metabolomic profiling of 65 RCC frozen samples (40 clear cell, 14 papillary and 11 chromophobe) using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. OPLS-DA multivariate analysis based on metabolomic data showed clear discrimination of all three main subtypes of RCC (R2 = 75.0%, Q2 = 59.7%). The prognostic performance was evaluated using an independent cohort and showed an AUROC of 0.924, 0.991 and 1 for clear cell, papillary and chromophobe RCC, respectively. Further pathway analysis using the 21 top metabolites showed significant differences in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism between three RCC subtypes. In conclusion, this study shows that metabolomic profiling could serve as a tool that is complementary to histology for RCC subtype classification. An overview of metabolic dysregulation in RCC subtypes was established giving new insights into the understanding of their clinical behaviour and for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico
15.
Endocrinology ; 160(1): 156-168, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496374

RESUMO

The Na+/iodide (I-) symporter (NIS), a glycoprotein expressed at the basolateral plasma membrane of thyroid follicular cells, mediates I- accumulation for thyroid hormonogenesis and radioiodide therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, differentiated thyroid tumors often exhibit lower I- transport than normal thyroid tissue (or even undetectable I- transport). Paradoxically, the majority of differentiated thyroid cancers show intracellular NIS expression, suggesting abnormal targeting to the plasma membrane. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that regulate NIS plasma membrane transport would have multiple implications for radioiodide therapy. In this study, we show that the intracellularly facing carboxy-terminus of NIS is required for the transport of the protein to the plasma membrane. Moreover, the carboxy-terminus contains dominant basolateral information. Using internal deletions and site-directed mutagenesis at the carboxy-terminus, we identified a highly conserved monoleucine-based sorting motif that determines NIS basolateral expression. Furthermore, in clathrin adaptor protein (AP)-1B-deficient cells, NIS sorting to the basolateral plasma membrane is compromised, causing the protein to also be expressed at the apical plasma membrane. Computer simulations suggest that the AP-1B subunit σ1 recognizes the monoleucine-based sorting motif in NIS carboxy-terminus. Although the mechanisms by which NIS is intracellularly retained in thyroid cancer remain elusive, our findings may open up avenues for identifying molecular targets that can be used to treat radioiodide-refractory thyroid tumors that express NIS intracellularly.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Simportadores/química , Simportadores/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Membrana Celular/genética , Humanos , Iodetos/metabolismo , Leucina/genética , Leucina/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Simportadores/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
16.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 182(1): 67-79, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169846

RESUMO

Single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to prevent the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in the case of repeated/protracted radioiodine release, a unique dose of KI may not protect efficiently the thyroid against the risk of further developing a radiation-induced cancer. The new WHO guidelines for the use in planning for and responding to radiological and nuclear emergencies identify the need of more data on this subject as one of the four research priorities. The aims of the PRIODAC project are (1) to assess the associated side effects of repeated intakes of KI, (2) to better understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the metabolism of iodine, (3) to revise the regulatory French marketing authorization of 65-mg KI tablets and (4) to develop new recommendations related to the administration of KI toward a better international harmonization. A review of the literature and the preliminary data are presented here.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Iodeto de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
17.
J Nucl Med ; 59(1): 121-126, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051343

RESUMO

Perturbation of thyroid iodide uptake is a well-documented side effect of the use of iodinated contrast media (ICM) administered intravenously. This side effect is thought to be mediated by free iodide in ICM formulations, but this hypothesis has never been formally proven. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of this hypothesis. Methods: We used mass spectrometry analysis to quantify free-iodide contamination in ICM. Established cell lines expressing the Na/I symporter (NIS) were used to quantify the effect of ICM on iodide uptake. SPECT/CT was used to measure the in vivo uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate and 123I in 2 NIS-expressing mouse tissues, thyroid and salivary glands. Scintiscans of ICM-naïve and ICM-administered patients were compared. Immunohistologic and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate NIS protein expression in these organs. Results: Although free iodide was present in ICM formulations, in vitro uptake of iodide by NIS-expressing cells was not significantly affected by ICM. In mice, intravenous or sublingual administration of ICM led to a reduction in radiotracer uptake by the thyroid, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in NIS protein expression in this tissue. In the salivary glands, neither radiotracer uptake nor NIS protein expression was affected by ICM. The thyroid-selective effect of ICM was also observed in humans. Administration of potassium iodide as a source of free iodide led to a diminution of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake in both mouse thyroid and mouse salivary glands. Altogether, these data rule out a direct intervention of free iodide in the perturbation of thyroid uptake and suggest a direct and selective effect of ICM on the thyroid. Conclusion: We demonstrated that ICM reduce thyroid uptake of iodide independently of free iodide. This effect is due to a specific and dramatic decrease in NIS expression in thyrocytes. These data cast serious doubt on the relevance of measuring urinary iodide concentration to evaluate the delay between ICM administration and radioiodine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Finally, the ability of ICM to perturb iodide uptake in the thyroid may be used in radioprotection.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Halogenação , Iodetos/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Thyroid ; 26(11): 1614-1622, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27349131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroSPECT/CT imaging was used to quantitatively evaluate how iodide uptake in the mouse thyroid is influenced by (i) route of iodine administration; (ii) injection of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH); and (iii) low iodide diet (LID) in euthyroid and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated mice. METHODS: Pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) and 123I thyroid uptake in euthyroid and T3-treated animals fed either a normal-iodine diet (NID) or an LID, treated or not with rhTSH, and radiotracer administered intravenously, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally or by gavage, were assessed using microSPECT/CT imaging. Western blotting was performed to measure sodium/iodide symporter expression levels in the thyroid. RESULTS: Systemic administration of radioiodide resulted in a higher (2.35-fold in NID mice) accumulation of iodide in the thyroid than oral administration. Mice fed LID with systemic radioiodide administration showed a further two-fold increase in thyroid iodide uptake to yield a ∼5-fold increase in uptake compared to the standard NID/oral route. Although rhTSH injections stimulated thyroid activity in both euthyroid and T3-treated mice fed the NID, uptake levels for T3-treated mice remained low compared with those for the euthyroid mice. Combining LID and rhTSH in T3-treated mice resulted in a 2.8-fold higher uptake compared with NID/T3/rhTSH mice and helped restore thyroid activity to levels equivalent to those of euthyroid animals. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic radioiodide administration results in higher thyroidal iodide levels than oral administration, particularly in LID-fed mice. These data highlight the importance of LID, both in euthyroid and T3-treated, rhTSH-injected mice. Extrapolated to human patients, and in the context of clinical guidelines for the preparation of differentiated thyroid cancer patients, our data indicate that LID can potentiate the efficacy of rhTSH treatment in T3-treated patients.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/farmacocinética , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tri-Iodotironina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/efeitos adversos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos do Iodo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio/metabolismo , Pertecnetato Tc 99m de Sódio/farmacocinética , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireotropina/administração & dosagem , Tireotropina/efeitos adversos , Tireotropina/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tri-Iodotironina/administração & dosagem , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164586

RESUMO

Three scattering models were examined for characterizing ex vivo canine livers and HT29 mouse tumors in the 10-38- and the 15-42-MHz frequency bandwidth, respectively. The spherical Gaussian model (SGM) and the fluid sphere model (FSM) that were examined are suitable for dealing with sparse media, whereas the structure factor model (SFM) is adapted for characterizing concentrated media. For the canine livers, the scatterer radius and the acoustic concentration estimated with the three models were similar and matched well the nuclear structures obtained from histological analysis (with relative errors less than 7%). These results show that the livers could be considered as a diluted medium and that the nuclei in liver could be a dominant source of scattering. For the homogeneous mouse tumors, containing mostly viable HT29 cells, scatterer radius and volume fraction estimated with the SFM showed good agreement with the whole cell structures obtained from histological analysis (with relative errors less than 15%), whereas the sparse models (the SGM and the FSM) gave no consistent quantitative ultrasound parameters. This suggests that the viable HT29 cell areas have densely packed cellular content and that the whole HT29 cell could be responsible for scattering. For the heterogeneous tumors, the hyperechogenic zones observed in the B-mode images were linked to the presence of small necrotic areas surrounded by viable HT29 cells. Comparison between sparse and concentrated models shows that these hyperechogenic zones could be considered as a concentrated medium.


Assuntos
Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Experimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Acústica , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cães , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise Espectral
20.
Biochem J ; 473(7): 919-28, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26831514

RESUMO

The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is an integral membrane protein that plays a crucial role in iodide accumulation, especially in the thyroid. As for many other membrane proteins, its intracellular sorting and distribution have a tremendous effect on its function, and constitute an important aspect of its regulation. Many short sequences have been shown to contribute to protein trafficking along the sorting or endocytic pathways. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified such potential sites on human NIS [tyrosine-based motifs, SH2-(Src homology 2), SH3- and PDZ (post-synaptic density-95/discs large tumour suppressor/zonula occludens-1)-binding motifs, and diacidic, dibasic and dileucine motifs] and analysed their roles using mutagenesis. We found that several of these sites play a role in protein stability and/or targeting to the membrane. Aside from the mutation at position 178 (SH2 plus tyrosine-based motif) that affects iodide uptake, the most drastic effect is associated with the mutation of an internal PDZ-binding motif at position 121 that completely abolishes NIS expression at the plasma membrane. Mutating the sites located on the C-terminal domain of the protein has no effect except for the creation of a diacidic motif that decreases the total NIS protein level without affecting its expression at the plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Membrana Celular/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Domínios PDZ , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Simportadores/genética , Domínios de Homologia de src
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