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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628766

RESUMO

Patients with dystonia are particularly appropriate for diagnostic exome sequencing (DES), due to the complex, diverse features and genetic heterogeneity. Personal and family history data were collected from test requisition forms and medical records from 189 patients with reported dystonia and available family members received for clinical DES. Of them, 20.2% patients had a positive genetic finding associated with dystonia. Detection rates for cases with isolated and combined dystonia were 22.4% and 25.0%, respectively. 71.4% of the cohort had co-occurring non-movement-related findings and a detection rate of 24.4%. Patients with childhood-onset dystonia trended toward higher detection rates (31.8%) compared to infancy (23.6%), adolescence (12.5%), and early-adulthood onset (16%). Uncharacterized gene findings were found in 6.7% (8/119) of cases that underwent analysis for genes without an established disease relationship. Patients with intellectual disability/developmental delay, seizures/epilepsy and/or multifocal dystonia were more likely to have positive findings (P = .0093, .0397, .0006). Four (2.1%) patients had findings in two genes, and seven (3.7%) had reclassification after the original report due to new literature, new clinical information or reanalysis request. Pediatric patients were more likely to have positive findings (P = .0180). Our observations show utility of family-based DES in patients with dystonia and illustrate the complexity of testing.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 640-657, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402090

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include ß-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.

3.
Clin Genet ; 96(6): 493-505, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397880

RESUMO

Pathogenic MAGEL2 variants result in the phenotypes of Chitayat-Hall syndrome (CHS), Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We present five patients with mutations in MAGEL2, including the first patient reported with a missense variant, adding to the limited literature. Further, we performed a systematic review of the CHS and SYS literature, assess the overlap between CHS, SYS and PWS, and analyze genotype-phenotype correlations among them. We conclude that there is neither a clinical nor etiological difference between CHS and SYS, and propose that the two syndromes simply be referred to as MAGEL2-related disorders.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

5.
PLoS Biol ; 17(4): e3000194, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973865

RESUMO

Adult-onset hearing loss is very common, but we know little about the underlying molecular pathogenesis impeding the development of therapies. We took a genetic approach to identify new molecules involved in hearing loss by screening a large cohort of newly generated mouse mutants using a sensitive electrophysiological test, the auditory brainstem response (ABR). We review here the findings from this screen. Thirty-eight unexpected genes associated with raised thresholds were detected from our unbiased sample of 1,211 genes tested, suggesting extreme genetic heterogeneity. A wide range of auditory pathophysiologies was found, and some mutant lines showed normal development followed by deterioration of responses, revealing new molecular pathways involved in progressive hearing loss. Several of the genes were associated with the range of hearing thresholds in the human population and one, SPNS2, was involved in childhood deafness. The new pathways required for maintenance of hearing discovered by this screen present new therapeutic opportunities.

6.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 14(11): e1007671, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500825

RESUMO

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10-11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

9.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During mouse embryonic development the protein kinase domain containing, cytoplasmic (Pkdcc) gene, also known as Vlk, is expressed in several tissues including the ventral midbrain, with particularly strong expression in branchial arches and limb buds. Homozygous Pkdcc knockout mice have dysmorphic features and shortened long bones as the most obvious morphological abnormalities. The human PKDCC gene has currently not been associated with any disorders. OBJECTIVE: To use clinical diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) for providing genetic diagnoses to two apparently unrelated patients with similar skeletal abnormalities comprising rhizomelic shortening of limbs and dysmorphic features. METHODS: Patient-parents trio DES was carried out and the identified candidate variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Each patient had a homozygous gene disrupting variant in PKDCC considered to explain the skeletal phenotypes shared by both. The first patient was homozygous for the nonsense variant p.(Tyr217*) (NM_1 38 370 c.651C>A) expected to result in nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant transcripts, whereas the second patient was homozygous for the splice donor variant c.639+1G>T predicted to abolish the donor splice site by three in silico splice prediction algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic gene disrupting variants in PKDCC in humans, just like in mice, cause dysmorphic features and rhizomelic shortening of limbs.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 553-567, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290151

RESUMO

The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is involved in intracellular vesicular transport, and is composed of eight subunits distributed in two lobes, lobe A (COG1-4) and lobe B (COG5-8). We describe fourteen individuals with Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare form of primordial dwarfism with characteristic facial and radiographic features. All affected subjects harbored heterozygous de novo variants in COG4, giving rise to the same recurrent amino acid substitution (p.Gly516Arg). Affected individuals' fibroblasts, whose COG4 mRNA and protein were not decreased, exhibited delayed anterograde vesicular trafficking from the ER to the Golgi and accelerated retrograde vesicular recycling from the Golgi to the ER. This altered steady-state equilibrium led to a decrease in Golgi volume, as well as morphologic abnormalities with collapse of the Golgi stacks. Despite these abnormalities of the Golgi apparatus, protein glycosylation in sera and fibroblasts from affected subjects was not notably altered, but decorin, a proteoglycan secreted into the extracellular matrix, showed altered Golgi-dependent glycosylation. In summary, we define a specific heterozygous COG4 substitution as the molecular basis of Saul-Wilson syndrome, a rare skeletal dysplasia distinct from biallelic COG4-CDG.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnostic whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool for patients with undiagnosed genetic disorders. To demonstrate the clinical utility, we surveyed healthcare providers (HCP) about changes in medical management and treatment, diagnostic testing, reproductive planning, and use of educational services subsequent to WES testing. METHODS: For a period of 18 months, an 18-question survey was sent to HCPs attached to the WES reports. We analyzed the molecular diagnosis, patient clinical features, and the medical management changes reported in the returned surveys. RESULTS: A total of 62 (2.2% of 2,876) surveys were returned, consisting of 37.1% patients with a positive or likely positive pathogenic alteration, 51.6% negative results, 9.7% uncertain findings, and 1 patient (1.6%) with a novel candidate finding. Overall, 100% of the HCPs of patients with positive or likely positive WES results (n = 23) and HCPs of patients with uncertain WES results (n = 6) responded positively to one of the 18 queries. Of note, 37.5% of the HCPs of patients with negative WES results (n = 32) responded positively to at least one query. CONCLUSION: Overall, these data clearly demonstrate the clinical utility of WES by demonstrating the impact on medical management irrespective of the exome result.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 448-455, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122539

RESUMO

Neurodevelopment is a transcriptionally orchestrated process. Cyclin K, a regulator of transcription encoded by CCNK, is thought to play a critical role in the RNA polymerase II-mediated activities. However, dysfunction of CCNK has not been linked to genetic disorders. In this study, we identified three unrelated individuals harboring de novo heterozygous copy number loss of CCNK in an overlapping 14q32.3 region and one individual harboring a de novo nonsynonymous variant c.331A>G (p.Lys111Glu) in CCNK. These four individuals, though from different ethnic backgrounds, shared a common phenotype of developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD/ID), language defects, and distinctive facial dysmorphism including high hairline, hypertelorism, thin eyebrows, dysmorphic ears, broad nasal bridge and tip, and narrow jaw. Functional assay in zebrafish larvae showed that Ccnk knockdown resulted in defective brain development, small eyes, and curly spinal cord. These defects were partially rescued by wild-type mRNA coding CCNK but not the mRNA with the identified likely pathogenic variant c.331A>G, supporting a causal role of CCNK variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Taken together, we reported a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder with DD/ID and facial characteristics caused by CCNK variations, possibly through a mechanism of haploinsufficiency.

13.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(7): 1208-1213, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988648

RESUMO

Clinical diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) is currently infrequently used for detecting uniparental disomy (UPD). We present a patient with a dual diagnosis of GLI2 haploinsufficiency as well as UPD of chromosome 20, both identified through DES. We therefore recommend routine UPD analysis during DES to identify this genetic aberration.

14.
Cancer Genet ; 224-225: 12-20, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778231

RESUMO

Clinical diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) has been effective in diagnosing individuals with suspected genetic conditions; nevertheless little has been described regarding its clinical utility in individuals with a personal and family history of cancer. This study aimed to assess diagnostic yield and clinical characteristics of pediatric and adult patients undergoing germline DES for hereditary cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 2171 patients referred for DES; cases with a personal and/or family history of cancer were further studied. Of 39 cancer patients, relevant alterations were found in eight individuals (21%), including one (3%) positive pathogenic alteration within a characterized gene, two (5%) uncertain findings in characterized genes, and five (13%) alterations in novel candidate genes. Two of the 5 pediatric patients, undergoing testing, (40%) had findings in novel candidate genes, with the remainder being negative. We include brief case studies to illustrate the variety of challenging issues related to these patients. Our observations demonstrate utility of family-based exome sequencing in patients for suspected hereditary cancer, including familial co-segregation analysis, and comprehensive medical review. DES may be particularly useful when traditional approaches do not result in a diagnosis or in families with unique phenotypes. This work also highlights the importance and complexity of analysis of uncharacterized genes in exome sequencing for hereditary cancer.

15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(14): 2454-2465, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726930

RESUMO

The 17 genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants. The p.R20Q variant is shared by three affected family members in an autosomal dominant manner; the fourth unrelated individual has a de novo p.R305H mutation. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that these variants are rare and predict them to be damaging. In vitro transcriptional assays in cultured cells show that both variants result in reduced transcriptional repressor activity of TBX2. We also show that the variants result in reduced protein levels of TBX2. Heterologous over-expression studies in Drosophila demonstrate that both p.R20Q and p.R305H function as partial loss-of-function alleles. Hence, these and other data suggest that TBX2 is a novel candidate gene for a new multisystem malformation disorder.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(11): 1468-1471, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neonatal patients are particularly appropriate for utilization of diagnostic exome sequencing (DES), as many Mendelian diseases are known to present in this period of life but often with complex, heterogeneous features. We attempted to determine the diagnostic rates and features of neonatal patients undergoing DES. METHODS: The clinical histories and results of 66 neonatal patients undergoing DES were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Clinical DES identified potentially relevant findings in 25 patients (37.9%). The majority of patients had structural anomalies such as birth defects, dysmorphic features, cardiac, craniofacial, and skeletal defects. The average time for clinical rapid testing was 8 days. CONCLUSION: Our observations demonstrate the utility of family-based exome sequencing in neonatal patients, including familial cosegregation analysis and comprehensive medical review.

17.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 1099-1102, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388939

RESUMO

In the published version of this paper, some of the columns in the last three rows of Table 3 were mistakenly transposed. The corrected table appears below. In col. 6 of the row for DNMT3A, "S3" was published in the original article. However, in the revised table for the corrigendum, it has been corrected to "S1". In col. 6 of the row for SON, "S3" was published in the original article. However, in the revised table for the corrigendum, it has been corrected to "S2".

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 188-195, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304374

RESUMO

Fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) encodes a Golgi-localized α1,6 fucosyltransferase that is essential for transferring the monosaccharide fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, a process known as "core fucosylation." Here we describe three unrelated individuals, who presented with intrauterine growth retardation, severe developmental and growth delays with shortened limbs, neurological impairments, and respiratory complications. Each underwent whole-exome sequencing and was found to carry pathogenic variants in FUT8. The first individual (consanguineous family) was homozygous for c.715C>T (p.Arg239∗), while the second (non-consanguineous family) was compound heterozygous for c.1009C>G (p.Arg337Gly) and a splice site variant c.1259+5G>T. The third individual (consanguineous family) was homozygous for a c.943C>T (p.Arg315∗). Splicing analysis confirmed the c.1259+5G>T resulted in expression of an abnormal FUT8 transcript lacking exon 9. Functional studies using primary fibroblasts from two affected individuals revealed a complete lack of FUT8 protein expression that ultimately resulted in substantial deficiencies in total core fucosylated N-glycans. Furthermore, serum samples from all three individuals showed a complete loss of core fucosylation. Here, we show that loss of function mutations in FUT8 cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation (FUT8-CDG) characterized by defective core fucosylation that phenotypically parallels some aspects of the Fut8-/- knockout mouse. Importantly, identification of additional affected individuals can be easily achieved through analysis of core fucosylation of N-glycans.

19.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 21(3): 319-323, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187032

RESUMO

Objective Herein, we report a case of a deceased newborn with prenatally detected hydrocephalus. Postnatal findings included abnormal brain imaging and electroencephalogram, optic nerve abnormalities, and elevated creatine kinase (CK). No underlying genetic etiology had been previously identified for the proband, despite testing with a congenital muscular dystrophy gene panel. Methods Diagnostic exome sequencing (DES) was performed on the proband-parents trio, and candidate alterations were confirmed using automated fluorescence dideoxy sequencing. Results Exome sequencing of the proband, mother and father identified a previously unreported apparently de novo heterozygous tubulin, beta-3 ( TUBB3) c.523G>C (p.V175L) alteration in the proband. Conclusion Overall, DES established a likely molecular genetic diagnosis for a postmortem case after traditional testing methods were uninformative. The DES results allowed for reproductive options, such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis and/or prenatal diagnosis, to be available to the parents in future pregnancies.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 44-57, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276004

RESUMO

Although the role of typical Rho GTPases and other Rho-linked proteins in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function and dysfunction is widely acknowledged, the role of atypical Rho GTPases (such as RHOBTB2) in neurodevelopment has barely been characterized. We have now identified de novo missense variants clustering in the BTB-domain-encoding region of RHOBTB2 in ten individuals with a similar phenotype, including early-onset epilepsy, severe intellectual disability, postnatal microcephaly, and movement disorders. Three of the variants were recurrent. Upon transfection of HEK293 cells, we found that mutant RHOBTB2 was more abundant than the wild-type, most likely because of impaired degradation in the proteasome. Similarly, elevated amounts of the Drosophila ortholog RhoBTB in vivo were associated with seizure susceptibility and severe locomotor defects. Knockdown of RhoBTB in the Drosophila dendritic arborization neurons resulted in a decreased number of dendrites, thus suggesting a role of RhoBTB in dendritic development. We have established missense variants in the BTB-domain-encoding region of RHOBTB2 as causative for a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and have elucidated the role of atypical Rho GTPase RhoBTB in Drosophila neurological function and possibly dendrite development.

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