Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 15 de 15
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33343791

RESUMO

Introduction: following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic on 11 March 2020, countries started implementing strict control measures, health workers were re-deployed and health facilities re-purposed to assist COVID-19 control efforts. These measures, along with the public concerns of getting COVID-19, led to a decline in the utilization of regular health services including immunization. Methods: we reviewed the administrative routine immunization data from 15 African countries for the period from January 2018 to June 2020 to analyze the trends in the monthly number of children vaccinated with specific antigens, and compare the changes in the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen of the 15 countries showed a decline in the monthly average number of vaccine doses provided, with 6 countries having more than 10% decline. Nine countries had a lower monthly mean of recipients of first dose measles vaccination in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the first quarter. Guinea, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, Gabon, and South Sudan experienced a drop in the monthly number of children vaccinated for DPT3 and/or MCV1 of greater than 2 standard deviations at some point in the second quarter of 2020 as compared to the mean for the months January-June of 2018 and 2019. Conclusion: countries with lower immunization coverage in the pre-COVID period experienced larger declines in the number of children vaccinated immediately after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. Prolonged and significant reduction in the number of children vaccinated poses a serious risk for outbreaks such as measles. Countries should monitor coverage trends at national and subnational levels, and undertake catch-up vaccination activities to ensure that children who have missed scheduled vaccines receive them at the earliest possible time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , África , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização
2.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S165-S174, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MenAfriNet Consortium supports strategic implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance in key high-risk countries of the African meningitis belt: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Togo. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology in these 5 countries in 2015-2017. METHODS: Case-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results. Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae cases were confirmed and N. meningitidis/H. influenzae were serogrouped/serotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction, culture, or latex agglutination. We calculated annual incidence in participating districts in each country in cases/100 000 population. RESULTS: From 2015-2017, 18 262 suspected meningitis cases were reported; 92% had a CSF specimen available, of which 26% were confirmed as N. meningitidis (n = 2433; 56%), S. pneumoniae (n = 1758; 40%), or H. influenzae (n = 180; 4%). Average annual incidences for N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae, respectively, were 7.5, 2.5, and 0.3. N. meningitidis incidence was 1.5 in Burkina Faso, 2.7 in Chad, 0.4 in Mali, 14.7 in Niger, and 12.5 in Togo. Several outbreaks occurred: NmC in Niger in 2015-2017, NmC in Mali in 2016, and NmW in Togo in 2016-2017. Of N. meningitidis cases, 53% were NmC, 30% NmW, and 13% NmX. Five NmA cases were reported (Burkina Faso, 2015). NmX increased from 0.6% of N. meningitidis cases in 2015 to 27% in 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Although bacterial meningitis epidemiology varied widely by country, NmC and NmW caused several outbreaks, NmX increased although was not associated with outbreaks, and overall NmA incidence remained low. An effective low-cost multivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine could help further control meningococcal meningitis in the region.


Assuntos
Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/história , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Infect Dis ; 220(220 Suppl 4): S155-S164, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MenAfriNet consortium was established in 2014 to support implementation of case-based meningitis surveillance in 5 countries in the meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger, and Togo. Assessing surveillance performance is critical for interpretation of the collected data and implementation of future surveillance-strengthening initiatives. METHODS: Detailed epidemiologic and laboratory data were collected on suspected meningitis cases through case-based meningitis surveillance in participating districts in 5 countries. Performance of case-based surveillance was evaluated through sensitivity of case ascertainment in case-based versus aggregate meningitis surveillance and an analysis of surveillance indicators. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2017, 18 262 suspected meningitis cases were identified through case-based surveillance and 16 262 were identified through aggregate surveillance, for a case ascertainment sensitivity of 112.3%. Among suspected cases, 16 885 (92.5%) had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen collected, 13 625 (80.7%) of which were received at a national reference laboratory. Among these, 13 439 (98.6%) underwent confirmatory testing, and, of those tested, 4371 (32.5%) were confirmed for a bacterial pathogen. CONCLUSIONS: Overall strong performance for case ascertainment, CSF collection, and laboratory confirmation provide evidence for the quality of MenAfriNet case-based surveillance in evaluating epidemiologic trends and informing future vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis , Vigilância da População , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Meningite Meningocócica/história , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl(8): 55-62, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882094

RESUMO

Background: Some progress has been made in expanding immunization in the African Region over the last four decades. However, an estimated 22% of the eligible children in the African Region, located in four countries of the African Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Africa), continue to miss vaccination services for various reasons. This paper documents the status of routine immunization in the African Region. Methods: Programme records, reports and statistics were reviewed for this paper. Results: Challenges remain in reaching an estimated 20-30% of children across the Region. In addition to the traditional vaccines (DTP, measles, polio and tuberculosis) newer ones, such as for Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus, are being rolled out in the Region but uptake and coverage are slow and patchy both within and between countries. Conclusion: The new regional strategic plan for immunization 2014-2020 is intended to provide policy and programmatic guidance to Member States, in line with the 2011-2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), in order to optimize immunization services and assist countries to further strengthen their immunization programmes.

5.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl(1): 1-9, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740602

RESUMO

Objective: This paper gives a brief update on the status of the immunization and vaccine development in the WHO African Region. It also highlights the progress on the control, elimination or eradication of vaccine preventable diseases in the African Region. Method: The paper reviews national immunization programme data as well as WHO-UNICEF Estimates for Immunization Coverage (WUENIC) in the African Region from 2012-2016. Results: It revealed that there has been considerable success with the development and introduction of new vaccines in the Region. However, uptake of these vaccines has not matched the level of success in new vaccine introduction. This has made the goal of reaching high and equitable immunization coverage a mirage in the Region. Multiple barriers have been blamed for this, chief among which are inadequate commitment of national governments and weak community engagement to immunization service delivery in the Region. Steps are taken to address these issues, including sensitization of government of the African Region to prioritize Universal Access to Immunization as a Cornerstone for Health and Development in Africa. This is because it is argued that development efforts are link to the human beings for whom progress is targeted and/or agents that bring about development. Conclusion: Saving human lives therefore is critical to the realization of development goals. It is important that immunization coverage is universal to achieve the control/elimination of vaccine preventable diseases.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 216(suppl_1): S226-S236, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838180

RESUMO

Background: To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. Methods: A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. Results: The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Discussion: Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. Conclusion: When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , África , Humanos
7.
Vaccine ; 35(9): 1202-1206, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26303876

RESUMO

The World Health Organization, African Region is heading toward eradication of the three types of wild polio virus, from the Region. Cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 2 and 3 (WPV2 and WPV3) were last reported in 1998 and 2012, respectively, and WPV1 reported in Nigeria since July 2014 has been the last in the entire Region. This scenario in Nigeria, the only endemic country, marks a remarkable progress. This significant progress is as a result of commitment of key partners in providing the much needed resources, better implementation of strategies, accountability, and innovative approaches. This is taking place in the face of public emergencies and challenges, which overburden health systems of countries and threaten sustainability of health programmes. Outbreak of Ebola and other diseases, insecurity, civil strife and political instability led to displacement of populations and severely affected health service delivery. The goal of eradication is now within reach more than ever before and countries of the region should not relent in their efforts on polio eradication. WHO and partners will redouble their efforts and introduce better approaches to sustain the current momentum and to complete the job. The carefully planned withdrawal of oral polio vaccine type II (OPV2) with an earlier introduction of one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), in routine immunization, will boost immunity of populations and stop cVDPVs. Environmental surveillance for polio viruses will supplement surveillance for AFP and improve sensitivity of detection of polio viruses.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Organização Mundial da Saúde , África/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Feminino , Saúde Global , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/transmissão , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem
8.
Vaccine ; 34(43): 5187-5192, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Important investments were made in countries for the polio eradication initiative. On 25 September 2015, a major milestone was achieved when Nigeria was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries. Routine Immunization, being a key pillar of polio eradication initiative needs to be strengthened to sustain the gains made in countries. For this, there is a huge potential on building on the use of polio infrastructure to contribute to RI strengthening. METHODS: We reviewed estimates of immunization coverage as reported by the countries to WHO and UNICEF for three vaccines: BCG, DTP3 (third dose of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid- pertussis), and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1).We conducted a systematic review of best practices documents from eight countries which had significant polio eradication activities. RESULTS: Immunization programmes have improved significantly in the African Region. Regional coverage for DTP3 vaccine increased from 51% in 1996 to 77% in 2014. DTP3 coverage increased >3 folds in DRC (18-80%) and Nigeria from 21% to 66%; and >2 folds in Angola (41-87%), Chad (24-46%), and Togo (42-87%). Coverage for BCG and MCV1 increased in all countries. Of the 47 countries in the region, 18 (38%) achieved a national coverage for DTP3 ⩾90% for 2years meeting the Global Vaccine Action (GVAP) target. A decrease was noted in the Ebola-affected countries i.e., Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. CONCLUSIONS: PEI has been associated with increased spending on immunization and the related improvements, especially in the areas of micro planning, service delivery, program management and capacity building. Continued efforts are needed to mobilize international and domestic support to strengthen and sustain high-quality immunization services in African countries. Strengthening RI will in turn sustain the gains made to eradicate poliovirus in the region.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , África/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Togo/epidemiologia , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Vaccine ; 34(43): 5193-5198, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27396517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made to increase access to vaccines in Africa since the 1974 launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Successes include the introduction of several new vaccines across the continent and likely eradication of polio. We examined the contribution of polio eradication activities (PEI) on new vaccine introduction in the countries of the African Region. METHODS: We reviewed country specific PEI reports to identify best practices relevant to new vaccine introduction (NVI), and analyzed trends in vaccine coverage during 2010-2015 from immunization estimates provided by WHO/UNICEF. RESULTS: Of the 47 countries in African Region 35 (74%) have introduced PCV, 27 (57%) have introduced rotavirus, and 14 (30%) have introduced IPV. National introductions for HPV vaccine have been done in 5 countries, while 15 countries have held demonstration and pilot projects. In 2014, the regional coverage for the third dose of PCV (PCV3) and rotavirus vaccines was 50% and 30% respectively. By end of 2015, all countries within the meningitis belt will have introduced MenAfriVac™ vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: PEI activities had a positive effect in strengthening the process of new vaccine introduction in the African Region. The major contribution was in availing immunization funding and providing trained and experienced technical staff to introduce vaccines. More investment is needed to advocate and sustain funding levels to maintain the momentum gained in introducing new vaccines in the region.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Programas de Imunização , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal , África/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Vaccine ; 34(43): 5170-5174, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389170

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. METHODS: We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. RESULTS: All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. CONCLUSION: As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Saúde Global , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Vaccine ; 34(43): 5181-5186, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The PEI Programme in the WHO African region invested in recruitment of qualified staff in data management, developing data management system and standards operating systems since the revamp of the Polio Eradication Initiative in 1997 to cater for data management support needs in the Region. This support went beyond polio and was expanded to routine immunization and integrated surveillance of priority diseases. But the impact of the polio data management support to other programmes such as routine immunization and disease surveillance has not yet been fully documented. This is what this article seeks to demonstrate. METHODS: We reviewed how Polio data management area of work evolved progressively along with the expansion of the data management team capacity and the evolution of the data management systems from initiation of the AFP case-based to routine immunization, other case based disease surveillance and Supplementary immunization activities. RESULTS: IDSR has improved the data availability with support from IST Polio funded data managers who were collecting them from countries. The data management system developed by the polio team was used by countries to record information related to not only polio SIAs but also for other interventions. From the time when routine immunization data started to be part of polio data management team responsibility, the number of reports received went from around 4000 the first year (2005) to >30,000 the second year and to >47,000 in 2014. CONCLUSION: Polio data management has helped to improve the overall VPD, IDSR and routine data management as well as emergency response in the Region. As we approach the polio end game, the African Region would benefit in using the already set infrastructure for other public health initiative in the Region.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Programas de Imunização , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 416, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggests that much of the continuing infection of health care workers (HCWs) with Ebola virus during the current outbreak in Sierra Leone has occurred in settings other than Ebola isolation units, and it is likely that some proportion of acquisition by HCWs occurs outside the workplace. There is a critical need to define more precisely the pathways of Ebola infection among HCWs, to optimise measures for reducing risk during current and future outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of Ebola acquisition among health workers in Sierra Leone during May-December 2014. The data used were obtained mainly from the national Ebola database, a cross-sectional survey conducted through administration of a structured questionnaire to infected HCWs, and key informant interviews of select health stakeholders. RESULTS: A total of 293 HCWs comprising 277 (95 %) confirmed, 6 (2 %) probable, and 10 (3 %) suspected cases of infection with Ebola virus were enrolled in the study from nine districts of the country. Over half of infected HCWs (153) were nurses; others included laboratory staff (19, 6.5 %), doctors (9, 3.1 %), cleaners and porters (9, 3.1 %), Community Health Officers (8, 2.7 %), and pharmacists (2, 0.7 %). HCW infections were mainly reported from the Western Area (24.9 %), Kailahun (18.4 %), Kenema (17.7 %), and Bombali (13.3 %) districts. Almost half of the infected HCWs (120, 47.4 %) believed that their exposure occurred in a hospital setting. Others believed that they were exposed in the home (48, 19 %), at health centres (45, 17.8 %), or at other types of health facilities (13, 5.1 %). Only 27 (10.7 %) of all HCW infections were associated with Ebola virus disease (EVD) isolation units. Over half (60 %, 150) of infected HCWs said they had been trained in infection prevention and control prior to their infection, whereas 34 % (85) reported that they had not been so trained. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the perception that most HCW infections are associated with general health care and home settings and not with dedicated EVD settings, which should provide substantial reassurance to HCWs that measures in place at dedicated EVD facilities generally provide substantial protection when fully adhered to.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Médicos , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Curr ; 72015 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26064783

RESUMO

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak was confirmed in Liberia on March 31st 2014. A response comprising of diverse expertise was mobilized and deployed to the country to contain transmission of Ebola and give relief to a people already impoverished from protracted civil war. This paper describes the epidemiological and surveillance response to the EVD outbreak in Lofa County in Liberia from March to September 2014. Five of the 6 districts of Lofa were affected. The most affected districts were Voinjama/Guardu Gbondi and Foya. By 26th September, 2014, a total of 619 cases, including 19.4% probable cases, 20.3% suspected cases and 44.2% confirmed cases were recorded by the Ebola Emergency Response Team (EERT) of Lofa County. Adults (20-50 years) were the most affected. Overall fatality rate was 53.3%.  Twenty two (22) cases were reported among the Health Care Workers with a fatality rate of 81.8%. Seventy eight percent (78%) of the contacts successfully completed 21 days follow-up while 134 (6.15%) that developed signs and symptoms of EVD were referred to the ETU in Foya. The contributions of the weak health systems as well as socio-cultural factors in fueling the epidemic are highlighted. Importantly, the lessons learnt including the positive impact of multi-sectorial and multidisciplinary and coordinated response led by the government and community.  Again, given that the spread of infectious disease can be considered a security threat every effort has to put in place to strengthen the health systems in developing countries including the International Health Regulation (IHR)'s core capacities. Key words:  Ebola virus disease, outbreak, epidemiology and surveillance, socio-cultural factors, health system, West Africa.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 210 Suppl 1: S23-39, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316840

RESUMO

A renewed commitment at the regional and the global levels led to substantial progress in the fight for polio eradication in the African Region (AFR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) during 2008-2012. In 2008, there were 912 reported cases of wild poliovirus (WPV) infection in 12 countries in the region. This number had been reduced to 128 cases in 3 countries in 2012, of which 122 were in Nigeria, the only remaining country with endemic circulation of WPV in AFR. During 2008-2012, circulation apparently ceased in the 3 AFR countries with reestablished WPV transmission-Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Chad. Outbreaks in West Africa continued to occur in 2008-2010 but were more rapidly contained, with fewer cases than during earlier years. This progress has been attributed to better implementation of core strategies, increased accountability, and implementation of innovative approaches. During this period, routine coverage with 3 doses of oral polio vaccine in AFR, as measured by WHO-United Nations Children's Fund estimates, increased slightly, from 72% to 74%. Despite this progress, challenges persist in AFR, and 2013 was marked by new setbacks and importations. High population immunity and strong surveillance are essential to sustain progress and assure that AFR reaches its goal of eradicating WPV.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/organização & administração , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Humanos , Incidência , Poliomielite/transmissão , Poliomielite/virologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Topografia Médica , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Vaccine ; 32(9): 1067-71, 2014 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24434046

RESUMO

This is a comparative analysis of independent monitoring data collected between 2010 and 2012, following the implementation of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in countries in the three sub regional blocs of World Health Organization in the African Region. The sub regional blocs are Central Africa, West Africa, East and Southern Africa. In addition to the support for SIAs, the Central and West African blocs, threatened with importation and re-establishment of polio transmission received intensive coordination through weekly teleconferences. The later, East and Southern African bloc with low polio threats was not engaged in the intensive coordination through teleconferences. The key indicator of the success of SIAs is the proportion of children missed during SIAs. The results showed that generally there was a decrease in the proportion of children missed during SIAs in the region, from 7.94% in 2010 to 5.95% in 2012. However, the decrease was mainly in the Central and West African blocs. The East and Southern African bloc had countries with as much as 25% missed children. In West Africa and Central Africa, where more coordinated SIAs were conducted, there were progressive and consistent drops, from close to 20-10% at the maximum. At the country and local levels, steps were undertaken to ameliorate situation of low immunization uptake. Wherever an area is observed to have low coverage, local investigations were conducted to understand reasons for low coverage, plans to improve coverage are made and implemented in a coordinated manner. Lessons learned from close monitoring of polio eradication SIAs are will be applied to other campaigns being conducted in the African Region to accelerate control of other vaccine preventable diseases including cerebrospinal meningitis A, measles and yellow fever.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , África , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...