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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28970, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in survival by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geography in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors have not been well studied. PROCEDURE: A retrospective cohort study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was conducted for AYA patients diagnosed with primary CNS tumors. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity, SES, rurality, and hazard of death. RESULTS: All minority groups showed an increased hazard of death with greatest disparities in the high-grade glioma cohort. Lower SES was associated with an increased hazard of death in non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients (aHR 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.24), non-Hispanic Black (NHB) patients (aHR 1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.80), and patients aged 25-29 years (aHR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07-1.55). Mediation analysis showed an indirect effect of SES on the effect of race/ethnicity on the hazard of death only among NHB patients, with SES accounting for 33.7% of the association between NHB and hazard of death. Rurality was associated with an increased hazard of death for patients in the lowest SES tertile (aHR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08-1.59) and NHW patients (aHR 1.20; 95% CI 1.08-1.34). CONCLUSIONS: Patients identified as a racial/ethnic minority, patients with a lower SES, and patients residing in rural areas had an increased hazard of death. Further studies are needed to understand and address the biological, psychosocial, societal, and economic factors that impact AYA neuro-oncology patients at highest risk of experiencing poorer outcomes.

2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416407

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of blood disorders. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with a chemopreventive effect in some cancers. We evaluated associations between NSAID use and MDS in a population-based case-control study. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Secondary analyses stratified by sex and MDS subtype were also conducted.The analysis included 399 MDS cases and 698 controls. No significant associations between MDS and use of aspirin (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.14), ibuprofen (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.64-1.30), acetaminophen (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.90-1.84) or NSAIDs overall (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.68-1.23) were observed. No significant associations were observed in models stratified by sex or MDS subtype; however, the direction of the effect between NSAID use and MDS varied by MDS subtype. Our results do not support an association between NSAID use and MDS overall.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(3): 241-250, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are classified as de novo and therapy-related (tMDS). We evaluated associations between MDS risk factors separately for de novo and tMDS. METHODS: The study population included 346 de novo MDS cases, 37 tMDS cases and 682 population controls frequency matched by age and sex. Polytomous logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After adjustment, former smoking status (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10-1.93), personal history of autoimmune disease (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.99-1.82) and exposure to benzene (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.00-2.19) were associated with de novo MDS. Risk estimates for the associations between smoking, autoimmune disease, and benzene exposure were similar in magnitude but non-significant in tMDS cases. Among individuals with a previous diagnosis of cancer, de novo MDS cases and controls were more likely to have had a previous solid tumor, while tMDS cases more commonly had a previous hematologic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: We observed similar associations between smoking, history of autoimmune disease and benzene exposure in de novo and tMDS although estimates for tMDS were imprecise due to small sample sizes. Future analyses with larger sample sizes will be required to confirm whether environmental factors influence risk of tMDS.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2195: 189-223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852766

RESUMO

Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have been widely used in recent years to identify common variants that are associated with multiple types of cancer, including testicular germ cell tumors. These studies require no a priori hypotheses and have advantages, including the ability to highlight new pathways relevant to the biology of common diseases. GWAS require collection of germline DNA from individuals with and without the disease of interest. Following DNA extraction and quantification, a variety of array based platforms are available to evaluate common and moderately rare germline variation throughout the genome in an agnostic fashion. Here, we describe DNA extraction methods from samples typically used in the evaluation of germline genetic variation (blood and saliva). We also describe assays used to assess DNA quality and quantity. Finally, we include methods describing array based genotyping using the Illumina platform and validation of relevant variants using the iPLEX Agena Multiplexed Genotyping (formerly Sequenom).


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) tumours comprise 20% of childhood cancers worldwide. Whether childhood CNS tumour incidence has increased over time across geographic regions remains to be explored. METHODS: We identified CNS cancers in the Cancer in Five Continents (CI5) data and estimated age standardized incidence rates (ASRs; cases/million children) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRR; 95% CI) and average annual percent change in incidence (AAPC; 95% CI) by geographic region for children aged 0-19 years where data were available using Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE). Cancers included: astrocytic tumours, medulloblastoma, ependymal, oligodendroglial and mixed glioma, glioma of uncertain origin, and other embryonal tumours. Geographic regions were defined using the United Nations geoscheme. RESULTS: There were 56 468 CNS cancers included in the study. ASRs were highest for astrocytic tumours globally in 2012 (ASR: 5.83; 95% CI: 5.68-5.99). Globally, all cancers exhibited a male excess in incidence. Regionally, only medulloblastoma had a consistently elevated male-to-female IRR at 1.4-2.2. Globally, incidence decreased for astrocytic tumours in GEE models (AAPC: -1.66; 95% CI: -3.04 to -0.26) and increased for medulloblastoma (AAPC 0.66; 95% CI: 0.19-1.14), ependymal tumours (AAPC: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.49; 95%: 0.69-2.30), glioma of uncertain origin (AAPC: 4.76; 95% CI: 1.17-1.14) and other embryonal tumours (AAPC: 3.58; 95% CI: 2.03-5.15). Regional variation in incidence trends was observed. Countries moving from lower to higher Human Development Index (HDI) over time did not appear to drive observed incidence trends. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic and molecular studies on underlying mechanisms for changes in the global incidence of CNS tumours are necessary.

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(9): e444-e451, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888473

RESUMO

Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) generate measures of cancer incidence and survival that are essential for cancer surveillance, research, and cancer control strategies. In 2014, the Toronto Paediatric Cancer Stage Guidelines were developed to standardise how PBCRs collect data on the stage at diagnosis for childhood cancer cases. These guidelines have been implemented in multiple jurisdictions worldwide to facilitate international comparative studies of incidence and outcome. Robust stratification by risk also requires data on key non-stage prognosticators (NSPs). Key experts and stakeholders used a modified Delphi approach to establish principles guiding paediatric cancer NSP data collection. With the use of these principles, recommendations were made on which NSPs should be collected for the major malignancies in children. The 2014 Toronto Stage Guidelines were also reviewed and updated where necessary. Wide adoption of the resultant Paediatric NSP Guidelines and updated Toronto Stage Guidelines will enhance the harmonisation and use of childhood cancer data provided by PBCRs.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Pediatria/tendências , Prognóstico , Criança , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2141-2148, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic analyses of sarcoma are limited by the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease. Utilizing population-based surveillance data enabled us to evaluate the contribution of census tract-level socioeconomic status (CT-SES) and race/ethnicity on sarcoma incidence rates. METHODS: We utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program to evaluate associations between CT-SES and race/ethnicity on the incidence rates of sarcoma. Incidence rate ratios and 99% confidence intervals were estimated from quasi-Poisson models. All models were stratified by broad age groups (pediatric: <20 years, adult: 20-65 years, older adult: 65+ years) and adjusted for sex, age, and year of diagnosis. Within each age group, we conducted analyses stratified by somatic genome (fusion-positive and fusion-negative sarcomas) and for subtypes with >200 total cases. A P value less than 0.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: We included 55,415 sarcoma cases in 35 sarcoma subtype-age group combinations. Increasing CT-SES was statistically significantly associated with 11 subtype-age group combinations, primarily in the older age group strata (8 subtypes), whereas malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in adults were associated with decreasing CT-SES. Nearly every sarcoma subtype-age group combination displayed racial/ethnic disparities in incidence that were independent of CT-SES. CONCLUSIONS: We found race/ethnicity to be more frequently associated with sarcoma incidence than CT-SES. Our findings suggest that genetic variation associated with ancestry may play a stronger role than area-level SES-related factors in the etiology of sarcoma. IMPACT: These findings provide direction for future etiologic studies of sarcomas.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2011087, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766799

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 10% to 30% of patients with sarcoma present with detectable metastases at diagnosis. However, the extent to which presentation with metastases is due to delayed diagnosis vs other factors remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate whether socioeconomic status, insurance status, or race/ethnicity were associated with the presence of metastases at diagnosis of sarcoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Adult and pediatric patients with an initial diagnosis of soft-tissue and bone sarcoma between 2001 and 2015 were stratified by age group (pediatric, <20 years; adult, 20-65 years; older adult, >65 years) and sarcoma subtype. Statistical analyses were performed between August 2019 and January 2020. Exposures: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Census tract-level socioeconomic status index, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds of presenting with metastases at diagnosis were calculated. Results: A total of 47 337 patients with first primary malignant sarcoma were included (24 343 male patients [51.4%]), with 29 975 non-Hispanic White patients (63.3%), 5673 non-Hispanic Black patients (12.0%), 7504 Hispanic patients (15.8%), and 4185 American Indian-Alaskan Native and Asian Pacific Islander patients (8.8%). Liposarcoma in adults was the only subtype and age group combination that demonstrated a significant trend in incidence across socioeconomic status levels (odds ratio, 0.85; 99% CI, 0.76-0.96; P = .001). However, compared with having non-Medicaid insurance, having Medicaid or no insurance in adults was associated with an increased odds of metastases at diagnosis for 6 of the 8 sarcoma subtypes evaluated; osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were the only 2 subtypes in adults for which metastases were not associated with insurance status. In addition, there was an increased risk of presenting with metastases among non-Hispanic Black adults diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma (odds ratio, 1.87; 99% CI, 1.41-2.48) and unclassified sarcomas (odds ratio, 1.65; 99% CI, 1.01-2.67) compared with non-Hispanic White adults that was independent of socioeconomic and insurance status. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that delayed access to care is associated with advanced stage at diagnosis for several soft-tissue sarcoma subtypes in adults, whereas other factors may be associated with the metastatic progression of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, as well as the racial disparities observed with metastatic leiomyosarcoma and unclassified sarcomas.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(6): 549-557, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a class of clonal neoplastic disorders of largely unknown etiology, and published data remain inconclusive regarding the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and MDS risk. In these analyses, data from a population-based case-control study were used to investigate this association. METHODS: Eligible cases of MDS were identified through the Minnesota Cancer Reporting System; controls were matched by sex and age-decile. A central review process was used to confirm MDS diagnosis and classify subtypes. Unconditional and polytomous logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival by category of lifetime alcohol consumption. RESULTS: In total, 398 cases of MDS and 698 controls were included. Alcohol consumption at 23-30, 31-49, and 50-65 years of age, recent consumption 1 year before diagnosis/interview, and lifetime consumption were not found to be significantly associated with MDS in males (OR range 0.63-0.99) or females (OR range 0.58-1.70). Analysis by MDS subtype further suggested there was not a significant association between recent alcohol consumption and odds of disease by subtype (OR range 0.39-1.13). Lifetime alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with survival after diagnosis of MDS CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported associations between alcohol consumption and MDS risk were inconsistent. Results from our analyses by sex and disease subtype do not support alcohol as a significant contributor to risk of MDS.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 744-751, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We field tested new-to-market portable, digital applications to assess hearing, pulmonary, and cognitive function to determine the feasibility of implementing these applications across a range of age groups in the pilot phase of the 10,000 Families Study (10KFS), a new Minnesota family-based prospective cohort study. METHODS: We followed manufacturer recommended protocols for audiometry (SHOEBOX Inc), spirometry (NuvoAir), and the digital clock drawing test (dCDT; Digital Cognition Technologies Inc). RESULTS: These digital devices were low cost and readily implemented in a 2.5-hour health fair visit with minimal training (2-3 hours) of study staff. To date, we have performed these measurements on 197 eligible 10KFS participants during an in-person clinic visit. A total of 37 children (age 4-17 years), 107 adults (18-64 years), and 53 seniors (≥65 years) were eligible to undergo hearing and pulmonary assessments. Children were less likely to successfully complete the hearing test (76%) compared with adults (86%) and seniors (89%). However, successful completion of the pulmonary assessment was high across all groups: 100% of children and seniors and 98% of adults. The dCDT was performed among those over the age of 40, and completion rates were 92% for those aged 41-64 and 94% for those ≥65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our field testing indicates these digital applications are easy and cost-effective to implement in epidemiologic studies. IMPACT: Digital applications provide exciting opportunities to collect data in population studies. Issues related to data privacy, data access, and reproducibility of measurements need to be addressed before deploying digital applications in epidemiologic studies.See all articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Modernizing Population Science."

13.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 69(4): 1-12, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214087

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PERIOD COVERED: 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance program that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). Surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by medical and educational service providers in the community. In the second phase, experienced clinicians who systematically review all abstracted information determine ASD case status. The case definition is based on ASD criteria described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. RESULTS: For 2016, across all 11 sites, ASD prevalence was 18.5 per 1,000 (one in 54) children aged 8 years, and ASD was 4.3 times as prevalent among boys as among girls. ASD prevalence varied by site, ranging from 13.1 (Colorado) to 31.4 (New Jersey). Prevalence estimates were approximately identical for non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black), and Asian/Pacific Islander children (18.5, 18.3, and 17.9, respectively) but lower for Hispanic children (15.4). Among children with ASD for whom data on intellectual or cognitive functioning were available, 33% were classified as having intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] ≤70); this percentage was higher among girls than boys (39% versus 32%) and among black and Hispanic than white children (47%, 36%, and 27%, respectively) [corrected]. Black children with ASD were less likely to have a first evaluation by age 36 months than were white children with ASD (40% versus 45%). The overall median age at earliest known ASD diagnosis (51 months) was similar by sex and racial and ethnic groups; however, black children with IQ ≤70 had a later median age at ASD diagnosis than white children with IQ ≤70 (48 months versus 42 months). INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of ASD varied considerably across sites and was higher than previous estimates since 2014. Although no overall difference in ASD prevalence between black and white children aged 8 years was observed, the disparities for black children persisted in early evaluation and diagnosis of ASD. Hispanic children also continue to be identified as having ASD less frequently than white or black children. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: These findings highlight the variability in the evaluation and detection of ASD across communities and between sociodemographic groups. Continued efforts are needed for early and equitable identification of ASD and timely enrollment in services.

14.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 675-685, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677159

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m2 ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2433-2441, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304572

RESUMO

Survival differences by racial and ethnic group have been reported in children and adolescents with germ cell tumors (GCTs), but whether these differences depend on stage of disease is unclear. Using the SEER 18 registries (2000-2015), we examined GCT survival differences by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white [NHW], Black, Asian/Pacific Islander [API], Hispanic) separately for males and females aged 0-19 years at diagnosis. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves (Log-Rank p values) to characterize survival differences. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between race/ethnicity and death. Using an inverse odds weighting mediation analysis, we estimated the association between race/ethnicity and death treating stage of disease as the mediator. There were no significant racial/ethnic survival differences among females. Male survival differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.0001) with NHW males having the best survival. Compared to NHW, API and Hispanic males had significantly higher risks of death (API HR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.32-3.56; Hispanic HR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.42-2.78) (model adjusted for age and year at diagnosis, tumor histology and location, stage). This association was mediated by stage of disease only among Hispanic males with gonadal tumors (indirect HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35). The increased risk of death after a testicular GCT diagnosis observed among Hispanic males was mediated by stage of disease. For API males and Hispanic males with extragonadal tumors, other unidentified factors including differences in exposures, tumor biology or treatment received may impact the observed racial/ethnic survival disparities.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/etnologia , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gynecol Oncol ; 154(3): 608-615, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCT) are the primary ovarian malignancy affecting girls and young women. Globally, incidence rates and trends for OGCTs have not been compared in the literature and their etiology is not well described. Comparisons of incidence globally could inform etiologic hypotheses. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate geographic variation in OGCT incidence and to identify trends in incidence rates. METHODS: Data were extracted from Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents (CI5) from 1988 to 2012. Rates of OGCT in women and girls were calculated for ages 0-9, 10-19, and 20-39 years and standardized to the 2000-2025 average world population. Data were aggregated within subregions corresponding to the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) geoscheme. Incidence rates were compared in subregions and average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, the highest incidence rates were observed in 10-19-year-olds. Incidence was generally the highest in Eastern Asia, Central America and North America. While incidence was variable by geographic region, less variation was observed in 0-9-year-olds as compared to adolescents and young adults. Significant increases in incidence were seen in some regions (Eastern Asia, Oceania, Western Europe, Southern Europe, and North America) and in countries with a high or very high human development index for one or more age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating 25 years of OGCT incidence data, the highest incidence rates and largest increases in incidence were seen in Eastern Asia. Future studies should focus on etiologic features that may account for geographic variation and increases in incidence of OGCT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , América Central/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1502-1517, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate medical conditions and modifiable risk factors for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) using the 2001 or 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published between January 2001 and August 2017. Study characteristics and findings were abstracted for each article. RESULTS: Thirteen articles (4 cohort, 9 case-control) met the inclusion criteria. Smoking and alcohol use were each evaluated as potential MDS risk factors in four studies. Body mass index and anemia were each evaluated in two studies. Other potential risk factors evaluated in single studies included physical activity, dietary intake (tea, isoflavones, meat, fruit, or vegetables), history of allergies, autoimmune disorders and community-acquired infections, and use of antituberculosis drugs, traditional Chinese medicines, or hair dyes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, smoking, a history of autoimmune disorders, community-acquired infections, history of anemia, and use of antituberculosis drugs were associated with higher risk of MDS. Vigorous physical activity and tea and dietary isoflavone intake were associated with lower MDS risk. These findings suggest no association between the other factors and risk of MDS. IMPACT: Research on risk factors for MDS is limited, and further research in larger studies is needed.


Assuntos
Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/etiologia , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(12): 1263-1278, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
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