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1.
Diabetes Ther ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902063

RESUMO

Here, we review insulin management options and strategies in nonpregnant adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Most patients with T1DM should follow a regimen of multiple daily injections of basal/bolus insulin, but those not meeting individual glycemic targets or those with frequent or severe hypoglycemia or pronounced dawn phenomenon should consider continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The latter treatment modality could also be an alternative based on patient preferences and availability of reimbursement. Continuous glucose monitoring may improve glycemic control irrespective of treatment regimen. A glycemic target of glycated hemoglobin < 7% (53 mmol/mol) is appropriate for most nonpregnant adults. Basal insulin analogues with a reduced peak profile and an extended duration of action with lower intraindividual variability relative to neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin are preferred. The clinical advantages of basal analogues compared with older basal insulins include reduced injection burden, better efficacy, lower risk of hypoglycemic episodes (especially nocturnal), and reduced weight gain. For prandial glycemic control, any rapid-acting prandial analogue (aspart, glulisine, lispro) is preferred over regular human insulin. Faster-acting insulin aspart is a relatively new option with the advantage of better postprandial glucose coverage. Frequent blood glucose measurements along with patient education on insulin dosing based on carbohydrate counting, premeal blood glucose, and anticipated physical activity is paramount, as is education on the management of blood glucose under different circumstances.Plain Language Summary: Plain language summary is available for this article.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 37-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530663

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the clinical impact of four treatment strategies in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D): real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) with multiple daily insulin injections (rtCGM+MDI), rtCGM with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (rtCGM+CSII), self-monitoring of blood glucose with MDI (SMBG+MDI), and SMBG with CSII (SMBG+CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This 3-year, nonrandomized, prospective, real-world, clinical trial followed 94 participants with T1D (rtCGM+MDI, n = 22; rtCGM+CSII, n = 26; SMBG+MDI, n = 21; SMBG+CSII, n = 25). The main end points were changes in A1C, time in range (70-180 mg/dL [3.9-10 mmol/L]), time below range (<70 mg/dL [<3.9 mmol/L]), glycemic variability, and incidence of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: At 3 years, the rtCGM groups (rtCGM+MDI and rtCGM+CSII) had significantly lower A1C (7.0% [53 mmol/mol], P = 0.0002, and 6.9% [52 mmol/mol], P < 0.0001, respectively), compared with the SMBG+CSII and SMBG+MDI groups (7.7% [61 mmol/mol], P = 0.3574, and 8.0% [64 mmol/mol], P = 1.000, respectively), with no significant difference between the rtCGM groups. Significant improvements in percentage of time in range were observed in the rtCGM subgroups (rtCGM+MDI, 48.7-69.0%, P < 0.0001; and rtCGM+CSII, 50.9-72.3%, P < 0.0001) and in the SMBG+CSII group (50.6-57.8%, P = 0.0114). Significant reductions in time below range were found only in the rtCGM subgroups (rtCGM+MDI, 9.4-5.5%, P = 0.0387; and rtCGM+CSII, 9.0-5.3%, P = 0.0235). Seven severe hypoglycemia episodes occurred: SMBG groups, n = 5; sensor-augmented insulin regimen groups, n = 2. CONCLUSIONS: rtCGM was superior to SMBG in reducing A1C, hypoglycemia, and other end points in individuals with T1D regardless of their insulin delivery method. rtCGM+MDI can be considered an equivalent but lower-cost alternative to sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy and superior to treatment with SMBG+MDI or SMBG+CSII therapy.

3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 115, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472683

RESUMO

EMPA-REG OUTCOME is recognised by international guidelines as a landmark study that showed a significant cardioprotective benefit with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. To assess the impact of empagliflozin in routine clinical practice, the ongoing EMPRISE study is collecting real-world evidence to compare effectiveness, safety and health economic outcomes between empagliflozin and DPP-4 inhibitors. A planned interim analysis of EMPRISE was recently published, confirming a substantial reduction in hospitalisation for heart failure with empagliflozin across a diverse patient population. In this commentary article, we discuss the new data in the context of current evidence and clinical guidelines, as clinicians experienced in managing cardiovascular risk in patients with T2D. We also look forward to what future insights EMPRISE may offer, as evidence is accumulated over the next years to complement the important findings of EMPA-REG OUTCOME.

4.
Int J Evid Based Healthc ; 17 Suppl 1: S48-S52, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283582

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes is on the rise worldwide especially in developed countries. The aim of glucose management in all types of diabetes is to minimize chronic and acute complications associated with diabetes. All patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) require insulin. Main areas of technology advances in diabetes are continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and also continuous glucose monitoring systems for the management of patients with both types of diabetes. It is very important to analyse the epidemiological situation within each country before and during the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) development and implementation. The analyses will allow us to monitor the effect of the CPG after its implementation.The aim of this short communication is to analyse the epidemiology of prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and use of CSII to inform development of CPGs in the Czech Republic.The analysis is developed based on the data managed by Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. We used the National Register of Reimbursed Health Services 2015-2017 as primary source, and the annual report type A (Ministry of Health) 1-01: for Diabetology (A MH 004) 2007-2017 was used as validation source. The presented data are related to the year 2016 because we were able to validate them based on the data from 2015 to 2017 for this cohort of patients.The number of patients with T1DM is increasing in the Czech Republic with no significant sex difference. Life expectancy is about 11 years lower in the T1DM population. The majority of the patients are in older age; however, these are not treated with CSII compared with the younger population. From 61 533 patients with T1DM, 81% were reported with acute and chronic complications in 2016. Only 5011 of these patients were reported as using CSII.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência
5.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 64, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single most common cause of mortality. In 2008 and 2012, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) respectively mandated cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) on all new anti-diabetic agents, as prospective trials statistically powered to rule out excess cardiovascular risk in patients with T2D. Unexpectedly, some of these CVOTs have demonstrated not only cardiovascular safety, but also cardioprotective effects, as was first shown for the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME. EXPERT OPINION: To debate newly available CVOT data and to put them into context, we convened as a group of medical experts from the Central and Eastern European Region. Here we describe our discussions, focusing on the conclusions we can draw from EMPA-REG OUTCOME and other SGLT2 inhibitor CVOTs, including when considered alongside real-world evidence. CONCLUSION: CVOTs investigating SGLT2 inhibitors have suggested benefits beyond glucose lowering that have been confirmed in real-world evidence studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Incidência , Prognóstico
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 30-40, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121272

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of glucose-lowering agent for type 2 diabetes (T2D) that are commonly used in clinical practice. With the recent disclosure of data from the CARMELINA cardiovascular outcomes trial (CVOT), which investigated linagliptin, CV and renal outcomes data are now available for four agents in the DPP-4 inhibitor class that are approved in most markets. To consider how the CARMELINA study may be interpreted, and the relevance for our clinical practice, we convened as an expert group of diabetes specialists from the Central and Eastern Europe region to discuss the new disclosures. Our discussions revealed a general confidence in safety across the class that is further supported by CARMELINA. However, we also concluded that there are important differences in the available evidence level between agents in the setting of heart failure and data on renal outcomes. Here, we noted the clinical relevance to our practice of the study population in CARMELINA, which is unique among CVOTs in including a majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Given the risk for future development of renal impairment that is associated with T2D even in patients without current overt CKD, we believe that the CARMELINA study provides important new insights that are clinically relevant for a broad range of patients. Finally, we discuss how these insights can be integrated into the approach to the pharmacotherapeutic management of hyperglycaemia that is recommended in newly updated guidelines.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino
8.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 123(3): 356-359, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569337

RESUMO

The correlation between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication and the parameters of metabolic impairment was examined in the last eight male survivors of 80 workers exposed to TCDD during the production of herbicides in a chemical factory in 1965-1967. Their median TCDD blood level was 112 (46-390) pg/g lipids, and the median TCDD body deposit was 3.9 (0.8-11.7) µg. This puts these patients into the most severely intoxicated group of subjects, according to back-calculated levels of TCDD. The median TCDD blood level in eight controls was 12 pg/g (<0.10 to 22.2 pg/g). Markers of metabolic impairment - diabetes, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, carotid artery plaque, skin microvascular reactivity, eye fundus hypertensive angiopathy and history of coronary heart disease - were assessed and compared to a general male population of comparable age. Measured parameters compared with a population of comparable age were as follows: prevalence of diabetes (62.5% versus 17.6%), arterial hypertension (87.5% versus 71.8%), dyslipidaemia (87.5% versus 88.8%), history of coronary heart disease (62.5% versus 26.0%) and eye fundus hypertension angiopathy (50% versus 14%). All eight patients (100% versus 43%) developed plaques in carotid arteries, six had stenosis >50% and two had a carotid intervention (stenting or endarterectomy). Total cholesterol levels decreased compared to the earlier study this patient group in 2008, most likely due to a more intensive use of lipid-lowering drugs. Several metabolic parameters were higher (diabetes as much as 3.5-fold) in the group of severely TCDD-intoxicated subjects than in a general population of comparable age. This suggests that TCDD plays a role in the development of metabolic impairment and vascular changes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Seguimentos , Herbicidas/sangue , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/sangue , Prevalência
9.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 156(6): 308-313, 2017.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212335

RESUMO

Vascular complications of diabetes result from long lasting unsatisfactory glycemic control. We usually assess glycemic control based on the value of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c. The glycated hemoglobin test, however, says nothing about short-term glycemic fluctuations. Recently, continuous monitoring of glycemia has enabled us an in-depth assessment of changes in glucose concentrations, called glycemic variability. Together with the research of short-term glycemic variability, also the study of long-term fluctuations in glycemic control based on HbA1c variability has now intensified. Glycemic variability may be related to oxidation stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, the factors traditionally associated with vascular damage. This overview summarizes the recent findings in the field of glycemic variability and its possible association with microvascular complications in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Key words: glycemic variability, HbA1c variability, microvascular complications, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos
10.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 13: 1569-1576, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276388

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a substantial disease burden, predominantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which accounts for >50% of deaths in this population and leads to a 12-year reduction in the life expectancy of a 60-year-old male patient with T2D and CVD compared with the general population. The results from mandatory cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) are therefore of great interest in the field. The Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes meeting program aims to bring together experts from several associated disciplines to provide fair and balanced resources for those involved in the management of patients with T2D. This publication represents the opinions of the faculty on the key learnings from the meeting held in Vienna in the spring of 2017. In particular, we detail how data from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® [cardiovascular outcomes trial of empagliflozin] and Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER®) (liraglutide) CVOTs can be practically interpreted across clinical specialities. It is hoped that this translation of CVOT data will achieve a dual treatment paradigm for the management of both raised glucose levels and CV risk in patients with T2D.

11.
Diabetes Ther ; 8(6): 1331-1347, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063511

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of the insulin degludec/liraglutide combination (IDegLira) versus basal insulin intensification strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not optimally controlled on basal insulin in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Cost-effectiveness was evaluated using the QuintilesIMS Health CORE Diabetes model, an interactive internet-based model that simulates clinical outcomes and costs for cohorts of patients with diabetes. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Czech Republic public payer. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the sensitivity of the model to plausible variations in key parameters. RESULTS: The use of IDegLira was associated with an improvement in the quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.31 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), at an additional cost of Czech Koruna (CZK) 107,829 over a patient's lifetime compared with basal-bolus therapy, generating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CZK 345,052 per QALY gained. In a scenario analysis, IDegLira was associated with an ICER of CZK 693,763 per QALY gained compared to basal insulin + glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA). The ICERs are below the generally accepted willingness-to-pay threshold (CZK 1,100,000/QALY gained at the time of this analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this evaluation suggest that IDegLira is a cost-effective treatment option compared with basal-bolus therapy and basal insulin + GLP-1 RA for patients with T2DM in the Czech Republic whose diabetes is not optimally controlled with basal insulin. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 16(1): 137, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061170

RESUMO

AIMS: These recommendations aim to improve care for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk in Central and Eastern Europe. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major interdependent comorbidities in patients with T2D, accounting for 50% of mortality. Following recent CV outcomes trial (CVOT) results, including those from EMPA-REG OUTCOME®, LEADER®, SUSTAIN™-6 and, most recently, the CANVAS study, it is essential to develop regional expert consensus recommendations to aid physicians in interpreting these newest data to clinical practice. METHODS: The Central and Eastern European Diabetes Expert Group (CEEDEG) followed a Delphi method to develop treatment algorithms to aid physicians in the clinical management of patients with T2D at high CV risk. RESULTS: In light of the latest CVOT results, and in particular the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® and LEADER® trials, the diagnosis, assessment, treatment choice and monitoring of patients with T2D and established CVD and/or CKD have been considered together with existing guidelines and presented in two reference algorithms. In addition, adherence, special prescribing considerations and a proposed multidisciplinary management approach have been discussed and are presented with the proposed algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: The latest available high-level evidence on glucose-lowering drugs has enabled CEEDEG to develop practical consensus recommendations for patients with established CVD and/or CKD. These recommendations represent an update to international and country-level guidelines used for these patients, with the aim of providing a resource not only to endocrinologists, but to cardiologists, nephrologists and primary care physicians in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Prova Pericial/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Prova Pericial/métodos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 13: 69-79, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28144148

RESUMO

Diabetes is a global health emergency projected to affect 642 million people by 2040. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with a range of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that are more than double the incidence of CV disease and significantly increase mortality rates. Diabetes treatments have typically focused on improving glycemic control but their effect on CV outcomes has remained uncertain. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) looked to address this knowledge gap and mandated CV outcome trials (CVOTs) for all new antidiabetic therapies. In 2015, EMPA-REG OUTCOME® became the first CVOT to present results for a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2; also known as SLC5A2) inhibitor, empagliflozin. Subsequently, a regional meeting of the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes (ACROSS T2D) brought together a respected faculty of international experts and 150 physicians from 14 countries to discuss the current unmet medical needs of patients with T2D, the results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications of these results for clinical practice. This article summarizes the current scientific evidence and the discussions that took place at the ACROSS T2D regional meeting, which was held in Vienna, Austria, on May 30, 2016.

14.
Vnitr Lek ; 62(11 Suppl 4): S85-93, 2016.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921431

RESUMO

Vascular complications of diabetes result from long lasting unsatisfactory glycemic control. We usually assess glycemic control based on the value of glycated hemoglobin HbA1c. The glycated hemoglobin test, however, says nothing about short-term glycemic fluctuations. Recently, continuous monitoring of glycemia has enabled us an in-depth assessment of changes in glucose concentrations, called glycemic variability. In connection with the research into short-term glycemic variability, also the study of long-term fluctuations in glycemic control based on HbA1c variability has now intensified. Glycemic variability may be related to oxidation stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, the factors traditionally associated with vascular damage. Several studies have described the relation of glycemic variability to macrovascular complications of diabetes, still its relation to microvascular complications remains unclear. This overview summarizes the recent findings in the field of glycemic variability and its possible association with retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.Key words: type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus - glycemic variability - microvascular complications - HbA1c - variability.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos
15.
Vnitr Lek ; 62(6): 486-90, 2016.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485848

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin is associated with a large number of subcutaneous injections. Incorrect insulin application technique can lead to complications both local (lipohypertrophy, scars) and systemic (high variability of insulin absorption and action, unexpected hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, suboptimal overall glucose control). Regarding insulin application, we need to pay particular attention to the risk of intramuscular application and consequent less expectable insulin effect. The risk of accidental intramuscular administration of insulin is reduced when shorter 4 mm insulin pen needles are used. Repeated application of insulin in the same locations may cause changes in the subcutaneous tissue (lipohypertrophy, inflammation). Application sites should be examined during routine checks at diabetes clinics. Patients should also be repeatedly advised to rotate the injection sites as a prevention of lipohypertrophy formation and not to inject any more injections into pathologically changed subcutaneous tissue. At the same time, patients should be advised that their total insulin dose may be decreased, and that they are temporarily at higher risk of hypoglycemia, if they switch injecting from lipohypertrophy changed tissue into healthy tissue. KEY WORDS: glucose variability - insulin application - lipohypertrophy - needles.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipertrofia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/etiologia , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Tela Subcutânea/patologia
16.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 18(9): 532-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare different treatment modalities for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) based on real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) or self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) combined with multiple daily injections (MDIs) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-five T1D patients were followed up for a year. Of these, 27 started RT-CGM as part of a sensor-augmented insulin regimen (SAIR); within this SAIR group, 15 subjects started sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy and the remaining 12 continued with MDIs (MDIs + RT-CGM). A second group of 20 patients initiated CSII without RT-CGM, while a third group of 18 subjects continued on MDIs and SMBG. The main endpoints were reduction of HbA1c, glycemic variability (GV), and incidence of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: After a year, the baseline mean HbA1c in the SAIR group (8.3%) decreased to 7.1% (P < 0.0001); both SAIR subgroups, SAP and MDIs + RT-CGM, showed comparable improvement. The CSII group also had reduced HbA1c (8.4% ± 0.9% vs. 7.9% ± 0.7%; P < 0.05). Both SAIRs were superior to MDIs (P = 0.002) and CSII (P = 0.0032). GV was also lowered, both in the SAIR (P < 0.0001) and CSII (P < 0.05) groups. Reduced incidence of hypoglycemia was observed only with SAIR (8% ± 4% vs. 6% ± 3%; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Both SAIRs, SAP and MDIs + RT-CGM, provided significant and comparable decrease of HbA1c with concurrent reduction of hypoglycemia. This improvement was greater than that seen with CSII. The combination of RT-CGM and MDIs can be a suitable alternative to SAP for some patients.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 114: 1-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27103362

RESUMO

AIMS: Glycaemic variability (GV) has been hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes complications; however, results of clinical studies are contradictory. The effect of GV on cell phenotypes has been investigated in vitro showing that GV may have more deleterious effect on cells that high glucose itself. However, methodology used to study GV in vitro differs significantly between studies and does not reflect in vivo situation. Therefore we aimed to establish clinically relevant an in vitro experimental approach for the study of GV that reflects intra-day glucose fluctuations of subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and of healthy subjects and to test how low and high GV affect expression of genes that protects cells from hyperglycaemia-induced damage. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured 24h in medium with different glucose profiles: high GV, low GV and GV of healthy subjects-profiles created according to CGM of T1DM patients and healthy subjects. These profiles were compared to commonly used 5.5 and 25mmol/l glucose concentrations. Gene expression was determined using quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Our results showed general down-regulation of enzymes that are involved in the protection against hyperglycaemia-induced intracellular changes in both low and high GV compared to normal glycaemia similarly to the decrease induced by continuous hyperglycaemia. Gene expressions did not differ between high and low GV. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that GV may have similar or even greater effect than continuous hyperglycaemia on the expression of several genes relevant to pathogenesis of diabetes microvascular complications.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hipoglicemia/patologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
18.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 17(1): 103-10, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26975588

RESUMO

Microvascular complications in diabetes are associated with poor long-term diabetes control as measured by HbA1c levels. Glucose fluctuations are related to oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, factors traditionally associated with the pathogenesis of vascular damage. Glucose variability has been associated with macrovascular disease in some studies but any association with microvascular disease remains controversial. This overview summarizes recent findings in the field of glucose variability and its possible relationship with retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. It is concluded that randomized prospective follow-up trials could possibly help estimate whether short-term glucose variability should be considered as an independent risk factor for microvascular complications in diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Microvasos/patologia , Humanos
19.
Vnitr Lek ; 61(3): 269-75, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mild hypoglycaemia affects diabetes management, productivity and quality of life of patients. Data are scarce about the incidence of mild hypoglycaemia in daily life of type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues. The aim was to focus on the incidence of mild hypoglycaemia and its consequences in the international GAPP2 survey (Global Attitudes of Patient and Physicians) conducted also in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The GAPP2 project - Global Attitudes of Patients and Physicians is an international cross-sectional study conducted online via Internet in a questionnaire form dedicated to type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin analogues and physicians who treat these patients. The survey was realized in two steps including 17 countries. The first step was completed by six countries in 2012. The second step was terminated by additional eleven countries including the Czech Republic in 2014. The survey was designed to obtain data on some aspects of insulin therapy and persistent issues in daily practice from the views of patients and physicians. One part of survey was dedicated to mild hypoglycaemia occurring in treatment with insulin analogues. The incidence of mild hypoglycaemia and the reaction of patients and physicians on hypoglycaemia (including modification of therapy, self-monitoring) were investigated. Moreover, there was investigated the impact of mild hypoglycaemia on quality of life from the view of patients and physicians. RESULTS: The results of the survey have shown that mild hypoglycaemia is common in patients with insulin analogues in the Czech Republic. In addition, patients in the Czech Republic are more afraid from hypoglycaemia and feel more limited in daily life in comparison to other countries in GAPP2 survey. Patients try to avoid nocturnal hypoglycaemia through reduction or omission of prescribed dose of insulin. Furthermore, research has observed that physicians are poorly informed by patients about incidence and severity of hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSION: The incidence of mild hypoglycaemia is in the Czech Republic as common as in other countries involved in the GAPP2 survey. However, the Czech patients are more afraid and this fact is often hidden before physicians. Increased fear of hypoglycaemia suggests inadequate education in terms of how to avoid and manage hypoglycaemia. Particular emphasis should be placed on nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Physicians should discuss more with patients about issue of hypoglycaemia. It is important to motivate patients to share the information with physicians about incidence and severity of hypoglycaemia.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Vnitr Lek ; 61(4): 291-4, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25894256

RESUMO

SGLT2 and DPP4 inhibitors are new effective oral antidiabetic drugs with low risk of hypoglycemia and positive or neutral impact on body weight. These characteristics are substantially different from more widely used sulphonyl-ureas. Current treatment of type 2 diabetes is rather complicated. Moreover, the position of new antidabetics in the guidelines has not yet been clearly defined. Personalised treatment on the basis of molecular markers is still not possible. Therefore, the position of new antidiabetics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is often determined by clinical experience and subsequently modified by new clinical studies. Currently, doctors are asking which of these modern antidabetics to choose. The following text might help in this decision.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose
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