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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751432

RESUMO

The real-world data on short course of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) use are sparse and merit exploration. A multicentric observational study on the safety and efficacy of ICI in oncology patients between August 2014 and October 2020 involves 1011 patients across 13 centers in India. The median age was 59 (min 16-max 98) years with male preponderance (77.9%). The predominant cohort received short-course ICI therapy; the median number of cycles was 5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-27), and the median duration of therapy was 3 (95% CI 0.5-13) months. ICIs were used commonly in the second and third line setting in our study (66.4%, n = 671). Objective response rate (complete or partial response) was documented in 254 (25.1%) of the patients, 202 (20.0%) had stable disease, and 374 (37.0%) had progressive disease. The clinical benefit rate was present in 456 (45.1%). Among the patients whom ICI was stopped (n = 906), the most common reason for cessation of ICI was disease progression (616, 68.0%) followed by logistic reasons like financial constraints (234, 25.82%). With a median follow-up of 14.1 (95% CI 12.9-15.3) months, there were 616 events of progression and 443 events of death, and the median progression free survival and overall survival were 6.4 (95% CI 5.5-7.3) and 13.6 (95% CI 11.6-15.7) months, respectively, in the overall cohort. Among the immune-related adverse events, autoimmune pneumonitis (29, 3.8%) and thyroiditis (24, 2.4%) were common. Real-world multicentric Indian data predominantly with short-course ICI therapy have comparable efficacy/safety to international literature with standard ICI therapy.

4.
Radiother Oncol ; 164: 216-222, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of dose-escalated image guided-intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) in osteosarcoma (OGS), chondrosarcoma (CS) and chordoma (CH) of head and neck (H&N) and pelvis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this prospective non-randomized study, 65 patients of H&N or pelvic OGS (24), CS (7) and CH (34) mandating definitive or post-operative radiotherapy from May 2013 to December 2018 were included. Radiotherapy doses in definitive setting were 72.0 Gy for CH and 70.2 Gy for OGS and CS; while in post-operative setting it was 66.6 Gy and 64.8 Gy respectively (at 1.8 Gy per fraction). RESULTS: Planned doses of radiotherapy could be completed in 61 (93.8%) patients; with grade III or higher acute and late toxicities of 3% and 0% respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 (range 6-92) months, the five-year actuarial local control (LC) rates were 66% in OGS, 38.1% in CS and 75.9% in CH; while cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were 54.7%, 64.3% and 92.2% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in outcomes for patients receiving definitive and post-operative radiotherapy. Locally controlled disease at first follow-up after radiotherapy was associated with improved CSS and OS in CS (p = 0.014) and CH (p < 0.001). Radiotherapy resulted in significant and sustained improvement in Musculoskeletal tumour society (MSTS) score and reduction in pain score. Salvage re-irradiation was feasible in local progression after radiotherapy, with good outcomes and tolerability. CONCLUSION: Dose-escalated IG-IMRT results in good LC & functional improvement with minimal toxicity in OGS, CS and CH.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prospective, longitudinal assessment of oral and dental health status was done from baseline until treatment completion in patients scheduled to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty consecutive, treatment-naïve adult patients with biopsy-proven LAHNC scheduled to receive NACT were recruited. One hundred thirty-five patients completed all assessments at 3 designated time points: baseline (T0), midtreatment (T1), and posttreatment (T2). Variables assessed were: Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S) score; decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) score; mucositis grade; pain score; and grade of trismus. RESULTS: Median OHI-S scores showed a statistically significant increase (higher the score, poorer the oral hygiene) when the patients were evaluated from baseline to completion of NACT (T1 vs. T2; T0 vs. T2; P < .001), which indicated a decrease in oral health. There was no change in median DMFT score (P = .32), but a significant change was seen in all-grade mucositis over time (P < .001). Median pain scores and trismus grades decreased significantly (P < .001) over time. CONCLUSIONS: There was a decrease in oral health status without any change in dental health seen in patients undergoing NACT. Mucositis was initially noted as an aftermath of chemotherapy, which resolved with time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Adulto , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 15: 1274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567259

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients present with poor performance status (PS) at baseline are almost always excluded from the clinical trials leading to availability of only limited data in this subgroup. Patients and methods: This was an observational single institutional study. The eligibility criteria for inclusion were a histologic or cytologic diagnosis of advanced NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 3 or 4. All patients coming between June 2015 and December 2018 were evaluated for inclusion in this study. Results: A total of 245 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range 25-89), 142 (58%) were male, 196 (80%) had adenocarcinoma histology and 192 (78.4%) has PS 3 while rest (21.6%) had PS 4. Out of 245 patients, 192 (78.4%) received oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and supportive care, 45 (18.4%) received supportive care alone, while 8 (3.2%) patients received chemotherapy along with supportive care. Median overall survival (OS) was 3 months (95% CI: 1.8-4.2) in patients who received oral TKI versus 1 month (1.0-2.9) in patients who received supportive care alone (log-rank p = 0.013). The median OS for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant patients who received oral TKI was 12 months (95% CI: 7.7-16.3), while it was 3 months (95% CI: 1.5-4.5) for patients who were EGFR wild-type and received TKI on compassionate basis (HR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The use of oral TKI on a compassionate basis led to improvement in survival in the overall cohort of the patients; this was principally driven by EGFR-mutated patients.

7.
Front Oncol ; 11: 710585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568037

RESUMO

Background: Treatment of malignant melanoma has undergone a paradigm shift with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and targeted therapies. However, access to ICI is limited in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Patients and Methods: Histologically confirmed malignant melanoma cases registered from 2013 to 2019 were analysed for pattern of care, safety, and efficacy of systemic therapies (ST). Results: There were 659 patients with a median age of 53 (range 44-63) years; 58.9% were males; 55.2% were mucosal melanomas. Most common primary sites were extremities (36.6%) and anorectum (31.4%). Nearly 10.8% of the metastatic cohort were BRAF mutated. Among 368 non-metastatic patients (172 prior treated, 185 de novo, and 11 unresectable), with a median follow-up of 26 months (0-83 months), median EFS and OS were 29.5 (95% CI: 22-40) and 33.3 (95% CI: 29.5-41.2) months, respectively. In the metastatic cohort, with a median follow up of 24 (0-85) months, the median EFS for BSC was 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-4.8) months versus 3.98 (95% CI 3.2-4.7) months with any ST (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.011). The median OS was 3.9 (95% CI 3.3-6.4) months for BSC alone versus 12.0 (95% CI 10.5-15.1) months in any ST (HR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.28-0.50; P < 0.001). The disease control rate was 51.55%. Commonest grade 3-4 toxicity was anemia with chemotherapy (9.5%) and ICI (8.8%). In multivariate analysis, any ST received had a better prognostic impact in the metastatic cohort. Conclusions: Large real-world data reflects the treatment patterns adopted in LMIC for melanomas and poor access to expensive, standard of care therapies. Other systemic therapies provide meaningful clinical benefit and are worth exploring especially when the standard therapies are challenging to administer.

8.
South Asian J Cancer ; 10(2): 92-96, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568222

RESUMO

Introduction TFE Translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) represents 1 to 5% of all cases of renal cell carcinoma, with the highest frequency among children and young adults. Management of these tumors is not very well defined in literature. Although in pediatric age group it has favorable prognosis, in adults it has an aggressive nature, with poor outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome in adult patient 18 years or above treated at our hospital between January 2013 and November 2018. Material and Methods Clinical and pathological data of 26 patients from a single institution diagnosed with TRCC between January 2013 and November 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. All cases of TRCC were confirmed with immunohistochemistry or fluorescence in situ hybridization. We analyzed our data of patients treated with surgery only or who progressed after surgery and treated with systemic therapy or who presented with upfront unresectable or metastatic disease treated with systemic therapy with respect to event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Between January 2013 and November 2018, 26 adult patients who were treated at our center were eligible for this analysis as per our criteria. Out of 26 patients, 25 patients had radical surgery after evaluation and 1 had metastatic disease who was started on systemic therapy. Out 25 patients who were treated with radical surgery, 16 patients progressed and they were started on systemic therapy except for 1 patient who defaulted. Median time to start systemic therapy among patient treated with curative nephrectomy was 13 months. Median EFS and median OS among overall population were 22 and 30 months, respectively. Among 16 patients who were treated with systemic therapy, median EFS to first-line therapy was 8 months and to second-line therapy was 2.5 months. Median OS was 17 months in patients treated with systemic therapy. Conclusion TRCC is rare in adult population but carries significant risk of disease progression even after initial curative treatment with potential response to targeted therapy for short duration.

9.
Prostate ; 81(15): 1225-1234, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to determine and compare the overall response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and clinical toxicity of the combination of 177Lu-PSMA-617 radioligand therapy (PRLT) and abiraterone acetate (AA) versus 177Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT as monotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mCRPC patients who received at least one cycle of 177 Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT with or without AA therapy, were included and analyzed in the present study. The patients were divided into two major groups. Group 1 received only 177 Lu-PSMA PRLT and Group 2 received combined 177 Lu-PSMA PRLT + AA therapy. Therapeutic dose of 177 Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT was 4.4-5.55 GBq per patient per cycle administered at intervals of 10-12 weeks in both groups. The Group 2 patients additionally received a dose of 1000 mg of AA once daily and 5 mg of prednisone twice daily. Treatment response in two groups was evaluated under four broad categories (a) symptomatic, (b) biochemical (serum prostate-specific antigen level), (c) objective molecular imaging (68 Ga-PSMA-11 and 18 F-FDG PET/CT), and (d) objective anatomical imaging (computed tomography). For assessing treatment response, patients in two groups were categorized into responders (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], and stable disease [SD]) and nonresponders (progressive disease [PD]). The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to calculate PFS and OS following first 177 Lu-PSMA PRLT in the two groups. Univariate analysis was used to compare the patients' characteristics in two groups using a χ2 or Fisher exact test. The Kaplan-Meier curves of PFS and OS between two groups were compared by using the log-rank test (p < 0.05 significant). RESULTS: A total of 58 mCRPC patients (Group 1, 38 patients and Group 2, 20 patients) were included in this study analysis. The clinical and demographic characteristics of these patients (age, Gleason score, FDG avid disease, metastatic disease burden, and average number of 177 Lu-PSMA PRLT cycles) in two groups were compared and found to be similar (p > 0.05). Post-treatment, symptomatic, biochemical, molecular, and anatomic imaging responders were found in 22 patients (58%) and 17 patients (85%), 22 patients (58%) and 16 patients (80%), 19 patients (54%) and 14 patients (78%), and 19 patients (54%) and 14 patients (78%) in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The median PFS of 7 months and median OS of 8 months were documented in Group 1, whereas median PFS was not reached and median OS of 16 months registered in Group 2. Transient hematological toxicity of Grades 1 and 2 was found in total seven patients (five patients in Group 1 and two patients in Group 2). On comparison of the treatment outcome between two groups, significant p value was found for symptomatic responders (58% in Group 1 vs. 85% in Group 2), median PFS (7 months in Group 1 vs. not reached in Group 2), and median OS (8 months in Group 1 vs. 16 months in Group 2), with better outcome in Group 2 patients for these variables. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the combination of 177 Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT and AA therapy showed significant improvement in mCRPC patients' symptomatic response, PFS, and OS as compared to 177 Lu-PSMA-617 PRLT monotherapy.

10.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105517, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The addition of Nimotuzumab to radical chemoradiation (CRT) improved outcomes in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC) undergoing radical CRT in a phase 3 randomized trial. The current study focuses on the quality of life (QoL) of patients in this trial. METHODS: In this phase III randomized trial, patients with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic, stage III/IV LAHNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx were randomized to receive cisplatin 30 mg/m2 or cisplatin 30 mg/m2 with nimotuzumab once a week with curative radiotherapy. The primary end point of the trial was PFS. The aim of the current study was to compare the QoL between the two arms. QoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 (v3.0) and HN-35 (v1.0). The linear mixed-effects model was used for longitudinal analysis of QoL. RESULTS: 536 patients were randomized in this trial (268 in each arm) and 423 patients were included for QoL analysis. There was a significant change in the global health status QoL scores over time (p = 0.0016) with no difference between the two arms (p = 0.396). On longitudinal analysis there was a significant difference in the QoL scores in most of the function & symptom scales over time, but there was no significant difference in these scores between the two arms. QoL scores for most symptom scales worsened during treatment and improved thereafter in both arms. CONCLUSION: The addition of nimotuzumab to cisplatin based chemoradiation in LAHNSCC improved PFS, LRC and DFS without negatively impacting QoL.

11.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105522, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight loss during chemotherapy and its impact on the cancer outcomes have been invariably reported in the literature. We also did a post-hoc analysis of a randomized phase III trial to see the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The database of a recently published randomized study comparing cisplatin-radiation with nimotuzumab cisplatin-radiation was used for this analysis. Week-wise weight loss during the course of treatment was noted. The impact of severe weight loss (grade 2-3) on progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) was studied using the Kaplan Meier method. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to see the effect of various factors. RESULTS: Out of a total of 536 patients, weight loss was captured in 524. Out of these 524 patients, any degree of weight loss was seen in 293 (55.91%) patients. Grade 1 weight loss was noted in 192 (36.6%) patients, grade 2 in 96 (18.3%) and grade 3 in 5 (1%) patients. The 2-year PFS was 53% and 57.1% in severe and non-severe weight loss groups respectively (p-value = 0.36). The 2-year LRC was 60% in patients with severe weight loss, while it was 63.5% in those with non-severe weight loss (p-value = 0.47). The 2-year OS was 59.3% versus 62.2% in severe and non-severe weight loss cohorts respectively (p-value = 0.21). None of the factors was found to be associated with severe weight loss. CONCLUSION: Severe weight loss was uncommon in our patients. Weight loss during treatment was not associated with poor survival outcomes.

12.
Cancer Med ; 10(19): 6725-6735, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data from low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) on the incidence, risk factors, treatment outcomes, and antibiotic susceptibility spectrum of aspiration pneumonia (AsP). METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a randomized control trial in which adult patients with locally advanced head and neck cancers had received 66-70 Gy of radiation combined with cisplatin 30 mg/m2 weekly for 6-7 weeks or cisplatin at the same dose with nimotuzumab 200 mg once weekly till the completion of radiation. The following data were extracted and analyzed-the incidence of AsP, time to the onset of AsP, risk factors, treatment outcomes of AsP, and its impact on progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) rates, and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Out of 536 patients enrolled in the study, 151 (28.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 24.5-2.1) patients developed AsP. The median time to develop AsP was 39 days (95% CI 34-44). Only baseline dysphagia (odds ratio = 3.76, 95% CI 1.05-13.51, p = 0.042) was associated with a significant risk of development of AsP. Among the patients in which pathogenic organism was isolated (69 patients), gram-negative species was isolated in 63 patients (89%). Cisplatin at 200 mg/m2 or more was delivered in 312 (81%) patients in the non-AsP cohort versus 107 (70.9%) patients in AsP cohort (p = 0.014). There was no statistical difference in LRC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.057; 95% CI 0.771-1.448), PFS (HR = 1.176; 95% CI 0.89-1.553), and OS (HR = 1.233; 95% CI 0.939-1.618) between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Aspiration pneumonia is a common complication in head and neck malignancies and patients with baseline dysphagia are at high risk. Gram-negative bacteria are the predominant causative agents. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics results in resolution of symptoms.

13.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401980

RESUMO

Laryngeal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare and heterogeneous, encompassing well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs; grade 1, 2, and 3), neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs, small cell and large cell types), and mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN). We aimed to study the clinicopathologic spectrum of these neoplasms. A retrospective review of all primary laryngeal NENs diagnosed from 2005 to 2017 was undertaken. Mitotic index was divided into < 2, ≥ 2-10, and > 10 mitoses/2 mm2, with a Ki-67 labelling index of < 2%, ≥ 2-20%, and > 20% for the NET grade 1, 2 and 3 categories, respectively. A total of 27 patients were included. The median age at presentation was 60 years; the male-to-female ratio was 8:1. Supraglottis (n = 22) was the most frequently affected subsite. There were 9 NETs grade 2 (G2), and 18 NECs cases. There were no NET grade 1 or 3 cases in our cohort. Among the NETs G2, the morphology was epithelioid (2), plasmacytoid (3), clear (2), oncocytic (1), and rhabdoid (1). Unique 'glomeruloid structures' (n = 5), calcification (n = 3), lymphoid aggregates (n = 5), intranuclear inclusions (n = 2), hyaline globules (n = 3), and Leisegang rings (n = 2) were identified. NECs comprised 16 small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and 2 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells expressed AE1/AE3 (86%), synaptophysin (100%), chromogranin (100%), INSM1 (100%), calcitonin (33.3%). In the NEC group, p53 aberrant expression (87.5%), Retinoblastoma (Rb) loss (88.2%), and diffuse p16 immunoreactivity (66.7%) were additionally observed. Lymph-node metastasis was detected in 62.5% and 85.7%, while distant metastasis in 55.6% and 76.9%, respectively in NET G2 and NEC. Laryngeal NENs are aggressive neoplasms with a high rate of nodal and distant metastasis. Awareness of the wide pathologic spectrum of laryngeal NENs and appropriate use of IHC is needed to render an accurate diagnosis. Ki67 assessment is strongly recommended for laryngeal NEN prognostication.

14.
Cancer Biomark ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the preferred treatment option for patients with several hematologic disorders and immunodeficiency syndromes. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is an immune mediated post-transplant complication which has a major impact on long term transplant outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Current efforts are focused on identification of new markers that serve as potential predictors of GVHD and other post-transplant clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study includes donor harvests collected from twenty-three allogeneic donors during period 2008-2009 and respective transplant recipients followed for clinical outcomes till March 2019. Percent CD26+ and CD34+ cells in donor harvest were analyzed using flow cytometry. Percent expression and infused dose of CD26+ and CD34+ cells were evaluated for association with various clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Total 23 healthy donors 28 years (13 males), and transplant recipients with median age 24 years (17 males) formed the study cohort. The diagnosis included malignant (n= 13) and non-malignant (n= 10) disorders. Median CD34brCD45lo HSC expression was 057% (IQR 024-103) while median CD26 expression was 1964% (IQR 896-3356) of all nucleated cells. CD26 expression was associated with donor age (P= 0.37). CD26 percent expression correlated with WBC engraftment (P= 0.015) and with acute GVHD (P= 0.023) whereas infused CD26 cell dose correlated with WBC engraftment (P= 0.004) and risk of CMV reactivation (P= 0.020). There was no statistically significant correlation of either CD26 expression or cell dose with chronic GVHD, EFS or OS.

15.
Cancer Med ; 10(14): 4948-4956, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetics (PK) of docetaxel is characterized by high inter-individual variability (IIV). While covariate models that explain the PK variability of docetaxel exist, not much is known about the effects of genetic variations on docetaxel disposition. METHODS: Fifty patients with head and neck or prostate cancer were enrolled of whom two patients withdrew consent before the start of the study. Docetaxel was administered at either 50 or 75 mg/m2 as intravenous infusion over 1 h. One pharmacogenetic sample and a series of PK samples, either intensive (N = 5; 13 samples each) or sparse (N = 43; 6 samples each), were collected from each patient. Docetaxel levels were estimated using a validated HPLC method. Polymorphic loci on the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination (ADME) genes were identified using the PharmacoScan array platform. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out using NONMEM v7.2. RESULTS: Docetaxel PK was well characterized by a three-compartment model. Clearance (Cl) was found to be 18 L/h with an IIV of 45.3%. None of the genetic variants showed significant covariate effect on the Cl of docetaxel. Patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were found to have 25% lower Cl as compared to patients with normal ALT values. However, the covariate effect could not be established in the final model possibly due to lack of adequate number of patients with abnormal ALT. CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms in the ADME gene do not explain the IIV in PK of docetaxel. However, patients with abnormal liver function might require dose reduction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable since participants in this study received treatment that was standard of care.

16.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 53: 151763, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal germ tumours (PMGCT) constitute, a mere 3-4% of all germ cell tumours (GCT). Although they account for approximately 16% of mediastinal tumours in adults and 19-25% in children as per western literature, there is hardly any large series on PMGCT reported from the Indian subcontinent. DESIGN: We have retrospectively analysed clinicopathological features of 98 cases of PMGCT diagnosed over 10 years (2010-2019) from a tertiary-care oncology centre. RESULTS: The study group (n = 98) comprised predominantly of males (n = 92) (M:F ratio-15:1), with an age range between 3 months to 57 years (median: 25 years). The tumours were predominantly located in the anterior mediastinum (n = 96). Broadly, Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) were more common (n = 73, 74%) compared to pure seminoma (n = 25, 26%). Mixed NSGCT was the most common histological subtype (n = 30) followed by pure mature teratoma (n = 18), pure Yolk sac tumour (n = 13), mixed seminoma and NSGCT (n = 5), pure immature teratoma (n = 3) and GCT; NOS (n = 4). Interestingly, all female patients had exclusive teratomas. Nine cases revealed secondary somatic malignancy (5 carcinomas and 4 sarcomas). The majority of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 71). Surgical excision was performed in 60 patients. Follow up was available in 68 patients. NSGCT showed a poor prognosis as compared to seminoma (p value = 0.03) and tumours with somatic malignancies had a more aggressive clinical course. CONCLUSION: PMGCT was seen predominantly in young adult males and somatic malignancies were noted in as high as 9% of cases. Patient with somatic malignancy have aggressive clinical course, hence, extensive sampling and careful histopathological evaluation are recommended for the identification and definitive characterization.

17.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 22(15): 2007-2018, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187268

RESUMO

Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is a leading cause for cancer-related mortality. This review attempts to give a comprehensive summary of the recent developments in pharmacotherapeutic options for locally advanced/metastatic HNSCC.Areas covered: In this review, the authors conducted a systematic literature search for published articles on HNSCC in the PubMed database using the keywords 'head and neck squamous cell carcinoma or HNSCC,' 'targeted therapy,' 'immunotherapy.' The search was restricted to meta-analyses, clinical trials, practice guidelines, and abstract presentations at international meetings. The final search encompassed articles published from 2010 to 2021. Articles published in languages other than English were excluded.Expert opinion: Immune checkpoint inhibition has been the most significant advance in the treatment of R/M HNSCC. Oral metronomic therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic option for low to middle-income countries. H-RAS inhibition is one of the most promising areas of research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunoterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 12, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute oral mucositis has been infrequently studied in the patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving once-weekly cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Hence, this analysis was conducted to explore the various aspects of the same. RESULTS: The overall incidence of mucositis was 96.9% (n = 508) and of grade 3-5 mucositis was 61.3% (n = 321). The overall incidence of oral mucositis was similar in both the arms (CCRT and NCRT) (p value = 0.58) while grade 3-5 mucositis was more common in the NCRT arm (p value = 0.01). Out of all factors listed, the presence of nimotuzumab was the only significant risk factor for the development of grade 3 or more oral mucositis (p value = 0.01); (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.15-2.32). Delays in the treatment delivery were similar in both the arms. CONCLUSION: Acute oral mucositis is a common occurrence in locally advanced-HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Nimotuzumab is a significant factor for development of grade 3 and above oral mucositis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Estomatite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/epidemiologia
19.
Transl Oncol ; 14(8): 101111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993094

RESUMO

The recently conducted ADAURA trial concludes daily dosing of adjuvant osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), improves disease-free survival with stage IB/II/IIIA EGFR -mutated non-small cell lung cancer patients in comparison to placebo. We have developed a preclinical orthotopic mouse model, using luciferase tagged lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring EGFR TKI sensitive exon 19 deletion to model and extend trial implications comparing a weekly vs daily dosing outcome of osimertinib to a first-generation TKI- erlotinib. We find that 100% of mice in both the groups receiving osimertinib daily or weekly before injection of cells show a complete absence of homing of cells in mice's lungs from day three until day 18 post-injection of cells. On the other hand, 25% and 75% of mice receiving erlotinib daily and weekly before injecting cells show homing of cells to the lungs. The tumors observed in the lungs, when dissected at day 30, confirmed the colonization of the injected cells homing to the organ. Thus, our study establishes the efficacy of pretreatment with osimertinib in reducing tumor cells' homing to mouse lungs in an in vivo mouse model.

20.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29081, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome and toxicity data in adolescent-adult Ewing sarcoma (AA-ES) patients are sparse and merits exploration. METHODS: Histopathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic AA-ES patients, who received standard institutional combination chemotherapy regimen (Ewing's family of tumors-2001 [EFT-2001]) comprising of ifosfamide plus etoposide and vincristine, doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide, lasting a total of 12 months between 2013 and 2018, were analyzed for treatment-related toxicities, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: There were 235 patients (primary safety cohort [PSC]) with median age of 23 (15-61) years; 159 (67.7%) were males, 155 (65.9%) had skeletal primary and 114 (48.5%) had extremity tumors. One hundred ninety-six (83.4%) were treatment naïve (primary efficacy cohort [PEC]) and of these 119 (60.7%) had surgery. In PEC, at a median follow-up of 36.4 (interquartile range [IQR] 20-55) months, estimated 3-year EFS and OS were 67.3% (95% CI 60.3-75.1%) and 91.1% (95% CI 86.7-95.7%), respectively. Of these, 158 (80.6%) complying with intended treatment, at a median follow-up of 39 (IQR 26-57) months had an estimated 3-year EFS of 68.2% (95% CI 60.3-76.1%). In multivariable analysis, good prognostic factors included longer symptom(s) duration (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86-0.994), ≥99% necrosis (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.77), and treatment completion (HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Among PSC, grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (119, 50.6%), anemia (130, 55.3%), peripheral neuropathy (37, 15.7%), with three (1.3%) chemo-toxic deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes of AA nonmetastatic ES patients treated with EFT-2001 regimen were comparable to those reported by others, with acceptable toxicity. This regimen can be considered a standard of care in AA-ES.

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