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2.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(5): 2849-2856, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997949

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary nodules are common; some are inconsequential while others are malignant. Management of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) in Brazil appears to be highly variable, potentially leading to suboptimal outcomes. Assessment of the variability and the association with the degree of availability of resources can provide a foundation for development of clinical guidelines for management of SPN specific for the Brazilian setting. Methods: A web-based survey was developed by thoracic surgeons, pulmonologists and radiologists to evaluate SPN perception and management. This survey was sent to their respective national societies members and answers collected between August and December 2016. That included multiple choice questions regarding age, specialty, SPN management, accessibility to exams and interventional procedures characterizing public (SUS) and supplementary private working settings. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were answered. More than half of participants live in cities with over one million people. Specialties were reasonable equilibrated with 43.5% radiologists, 33.5% thoracic surgeons, 20.3% pulmonologists and 2.6% others. Most of the respondents work in both public and private sector (72.7%). Private has a similar reality compared to well-developed nations regarding exams accessibility and interventions. SUS setting has a significant variability access according to the participants. CT is only easily available in 31.9% of cases, PET-CT is easily available in 24.4%, bronchoscopy is easily available for 42.8%, transthoracic needle biopsy is only easily available in 13.9% and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) biopsy is not available in 19.5%. When there is a probability of malignancy of 50% or higher, 46.5% of participants would be comfortable recommending surgical biopsy. When the probability is higher than 10%, only 36.9% would be comfortable following up radiologically. Conclusions: Brazil has a very different setting for public and private patients regarding exams accessibility and management options. That might explain why participants have a higher tendency to choose interventional diagnosis and explains why current guidelines may not be applicable to developing countries reality.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(3 Supl 1): 1-104, 2017 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044300
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(3,supl.1): 1-104, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887936
5.
J Bras Pneumol ; 43(3): 202-207, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746531

RESUMO

Objective:: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods:: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results:: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions:: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking. Objetivo:: Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco recomendadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e avaliar as atitudes, o conhecimento e as crenças a respeito do tabagismo em alunos do terceiro ano de medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Métodos:: Entre 2008 e 2012, todos os alunos do terceiro ano de medicina foram convidados a preencher um questionário autoaplicável baseado na Global Health Professions Student Survey e em seus módulos adicionais. Resultados:: A amostra consistiu em 556 estudantes. O grau de concordância com as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde foi alto, à exceção de "receberam treinamento a respeito de cessação do tabagismo" e "aumentar os impostos é uma medida eficaz para reduzir a prevalência do tabagismo". A maioria dos estudantes relatou que concorda com a proibição da venda de produtos do tabaco a menores de idade (95%), acredita que os médicos são modelos de comportamento para seus pacientes (84%) e acredita que deveriam aconselhar seus pacientes a parar de fumar cigarros (96%) e de usar outros produtos do tabaco (94%). No tocante aos métodos de cessação do tabagismo, observamos que a maioria dos estudantes sabe mais sobre terapia de reposição da nicotina do que sobre terapias não nicotínicas (93% vs. 53%). Apenas 37% dos participantes estavam cientes da importância de material educacional antitabagismo, e apenas 31% relataram que acreditam na eficácia de incentivar seus pacientes, durante as consultas médicas, a parar de fumar. Em nossa amostra, a prevalência de tabagismo atual foi de 5,23%; entretanto, 43,82% dos participantes relataram ter experimentado fumar tabaco com um narguilé. Conclusões:: Nossos resultados revelaram a necessidade de deixar claro para os alunos do terceiro ano de medicina o quão importante é aumentar os preços e impostos dos produtos do tabaco. É também preciso conscientizar os alunos dos perigos de experimentar outros produtos do tabaco que não os cigarros, particularmente o narguilé.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(3): 202-207, May-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893831

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco recomendadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde e avaliar as atitudes, o conhecimento e as crenças a respeito do tabagismo em alunos do terceiro ano de medicina da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, em São Paulo (SP). Métodos: Entre 2008 e 2012, todos os alunos do terceiro ano de medicina foram convidados a preencher um questionário autoaplicável baseado na Global Health Professions Student Survey e em seus módulos adicionais. Resultados: A amostra consistiu em 556 estudantes. O grau de concordância com as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde foi alto, à exceção de "receberam treinamento a respeito de cessação do tabagismo" e "aumentar os impostos é uma medida eficaz para reduzir a prevalência do tabagismo". A maioria dos estudantes relatou que concorda com a proibição da venda de produtos do tabaco a menores de idade (95%), acredita que os médicos são modelos de comportamento para seus pacientes (84%) e acredita que deveriam aconselhar seus pacientes a parar de fumar cigarros (96%) e de usar outros produtos do tabaco (94%). No tocante aos métodos de cessação do tabagismo, observamos que a maioria dos estudantes sabe mais sobre terapia de reposição da nicotina do que sobre terapias não nicotínicas (93% vs. 53%). Apenas 37% dos participantes estavam cientes da importância de material educacional antitabagismo, e apenas 31% relataram que acreditam na eficácia de incentivar seus pacientes, durante as consultas médicas, a parar de fumar. Em nossa amostra, a prevalência de tabagismo atual foi de 5,23%; entretanto, 43,82% dos participantes relataram ter experimentado fumar tabaco com um narguilé. Conclusões: Nossos resultados revelaram a necessidade de deixar claro para os alunos do terceiro ano de medicina o quão importante é aumentar os preços e impostos dos produtos do tabaco. É também preciso conscientizar os alunos dos perigos de experimentar outros produtos do tabaco que não os cigarros, particularmente o narguilé.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
7.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167407, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936043

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a useful method to assess abnormal functioning in the autonomic nervous system and to predict cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF). HRV measurements with heart rate monitors have been validated with an electrocardiograph in healthy subjects but not in patients with HF. We explored the reproducibility of HRV in two consecutive six-minute walk tests (6MW), 60-minute apart, using a heart rate monitor (PolarS810i) and a portable electrocardiograph (called Holter) in 50 HF patients (mean age 59 years, NYHA II, left ventricular ejection fraction ~35%). The reproducibility for each device was analysed using a paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Additionally, we assessed the agreement between the two devices based on the HRV indices at rest, during the 6MW and during recovery using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. The test-retest for the HRV analyses was reproducible using Holter and PolarS810i at rest but not during recovery. In the second 6MW, patients showed significant increases in rMSSD and walking distance. The PolarS810i measurements had remarkably high concordance correlation [0.86

Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Teste de Caminhada , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
9.
Am J Dent ; 29(1): 10-4, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27093770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of combined administration of mepivacaine with epinephrine and the diffusion agent hyaluronidase on hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters in healthy individuals undergoing dental surgery. METHODS: In a double-blind, split-mouth, randomized clinical trial, the cardiovascular effects induced by 2.7 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine injected concomitantly with 1 mL of 75 TRU/mL hyaluronidase or placebo for inferior alveolar nerve block was evaluated in systemically healthy subjects that underwent bilateral third molar extraction in two separate sessions. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were monitored using oscillometric and photoplethysmographic methods in 10 clinical stages, while electrocardiographic records of 12 leads were obtained in four stages. RESULTS: Hyaluronidase injected concomitantly with local anesthetic did not induce changes in blood pressure and heart rate compared to placebo. There were no instances of ST segment depression or elevation, or wide or narrow QRS complex extrasystoles in ECG. The use of mepivacaine injected concomitantly with 75 TRU/mL hyaluronidase was safe, from a cardiovascular standpoint.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/administração & dosagem , Mepivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mandibular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Placebos , Extração Dentária/métodos , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167407-e0167407, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34622

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a useful method to assess abnormal functioning in the autonomic nervous system and to predict cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF). HRV measurements with heart rate monitors have been validated with an electrocardiograph in healthy subjects but not in patients with HF. We explored the reproducibility of HRV in two consecutive six-minute walk tests (6MW), 60-minute apart, using a heart rate monitor (PolarS810i) and a portable electrocardiograph (called Holter) in 50 HF patients (mean age 59 years, NYHA II, left ventricular ejection fraction ~35%). The reproducibility for each device was analysed using a paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Additionally, we assessed the agreement between the two devices based on the HRV indices at rest, during the 6MW and during recovery using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. The test-retest for the HRV analyses was reproducible using Holter and PolarS810i at rest but not during recovery. In the second 6MW, patients showed significant increases in rMSSD and walking distance. The PolarS810i measurements had remarkably high concordance correlation [0.86

Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca
11.
J Bras Pneumol ; 41(2): 124-32, 2015 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. RESULTS: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management and counseling.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Asma/urina , Biomarcadores/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cotinina/urina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/urina
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(2): 124-132, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-745919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking prevalence is frequently estimated on the basis of self-reported smoking status. That can lead to an underestimation of smoking rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between self-reported smoking status and that determined through the use of objective measures of smoking at a pulmonary outpatient clinic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 144 individuals: 51 asthma patients, 53 COPD patients, 20 current smokers, and 20 never-smokers. Smoking status was determined on the basis of self-reports obtained in interviews, as well as through tests of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) and urinary cotinine. RESULTS: All of the asthma patients and COPD patients declared they were not current smokers. In the COPD and asthma patients, the median urinary cotinine concentration was 167 ng/mL (range, 2-5,348 ng/mL) and 47 ng/mL (range, 5-2,735 ng/mL), respectively (p < 0.0001), whereas the median eCO level was 8 ppm (range, 0-31 ppm) and 5 ppm (range, 2-45 ppm), respectively (p < 0.05). In 40 (38%) of the patients with asthma or COPD (n = 104), there was disagreement between the self-reported smoking status and that determined on the basis of the urinary cotinine concentration, a concentration > 200 ng/mL being considered indicative of current smoking. In 48 (46%) of those 104 patients, the self-reported non-smoking status was refuted by an eCO level > 6 ppm, which is also considered indicative of current smoking. In 30 (29%) of the patients with asthma or COPD, the urinary cotinine concentration and the eCO level both belied the patient claims of not being current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high proportions of smoking pulmonary patients with lung disease falsely declare themselves to be nonsmokers. The accurate classification of smoking status is pivotal to the treatment of lung diseases. Objective measures of smoking could be helpful in improving clinical management ...


OBJETIVO: O tabagismo autodeclarado é usado frequentemente para estimar a prevalência dessa condição. As taxas de tabagismo podem ser subestimadas por esse método. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a diferença entre o tabagismo autodeclarado e o tabagismo determinado pelo uso de medidas objetivas em um ambulatório de doenças respiratórias. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em 144 indivíduos: 51 pacientes com asma, 53 pacientes com DPOC, 20 fumantes e 20 não fumantes. O tabagismo foi determinado por meio de autorrelato em entrevistas e medição de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado (COex) e de cotinina urinária. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes com asma e DPOC declararam não ser fumantes. Nos pacientes com DPOC e asma, a mediana de concentração de cotinina urinária foi de 167 ng/ml (variação, 2-5.348) e de 47 ng/ml (variação, 5-2.735 ppm), respectivamente (p < 0,0001), enquanto . a mediana de COex foi de 8 ppm (variação, 0-31) e 5,0 ppm (variação, 2-45 ppm), respectivamente (p < 0,05). Em 40 (38%) dos pacientes com asma ou DPOC (n = 104), houve discordâncias entre o tabagismo autodeclarado e a concentração de cotinina urinária (> 200 ng/mL). Em 48 (46%) desses 104 pacientes, o não tabagismo autodeclarado foi refutado por um nível de COex > 6 ppm, considerado indicativo de fumo atual. Em 30 (29%) dos pacientes com asma ou DPOC, a concentração de cotinina urinária e o nível de COex contradisseram o autorrelato desses como não fumantes. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem que altas proporções de pacientes fumantes com doenças respiratórias declaram ser não fumantes. A classificação correta do tabagismo é fundamental no tratamento dessas doenças. Medidas objetivas do tabagismo podem ser úteis na melhora do manejo clínico e no aconselhamento. .


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Asma/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Asma/urina , Biomarcadores/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cotinina/urina , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Fumar/urina
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 520: 160-7, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25813969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of air pollution on health are associated with the amount of pollutants inhaled which depends on the environmental concentration and the inhaled air volume. It has not been clear whether statistical models of the relationship between heart rate and ventilation obtained using laboratory cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) can be applied to an external group to estimate ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a model to estimate respiratory ventilation based on heart rate for inhaled load of pollutant assessment in field studies. METHODS: Sixty non-smoking men; 43 public street workers (public street group) and 17 employees of the Forest Institute (park group) performed a maximum cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Regression equation models were constructed with the heart rate and natural logarithmic of minute ventilation data obtained on CPET. Ten individuals were chosen randomly (public street group) and were used for external validation of the models (test group). All subjects also underwent heart rate register, and particulate matter (PM2.5) monitoring for a 24-hour period. RESULTS: For the public street group, the median difference between estimated and observed data was 0.5 (CI 95% -0.2 to 1.4) l/min and for the park group was 0.2 (CI 95% -0.2 to 1.2) l/min. In the test group, estimated values were smaller than the ones observed in the CPET, with a median difference of -2.4 (CI 95% -4.2 to -1.8) l/min. The mixed model estimated values suggest that this model is suitable for situations in which heart rate is around 120-140bpm. CONCLUSION: The mixed effect model is suitable for ventilation estimate, with good accuracy when applied to homogeneous groups, suggesting that, in this case, the model could be used in field studies to estimate ventilation. A small but significant difference in the median of external validation estimates was observed, suggesting that the applicability of the model to external groups needs further evaluation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Respiração
14.
J Bras Pneumol ; 40(2): 102-10, 2014 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco/classificação , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(2): 102-110, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-709767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. .


OBJETIVO: O fumo de narguilé com tabaco está aumentando entre os jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a prevalência do uso de narguilé e outras formas de consumo de tabaco, incluindo o fumo de cigarros, entre estudantes de medicina, assim como as atitudes, crenças e conhecimento desses alunos sobre esse assunto. MÉTODOS: Um questionário foi aplicado aos estudantes da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Os entrevistados eram alunos de terceiro e sexto anos entre 2008 e 2013. As respostas foram comparadas entre os dois anos de graduação. RESULTADOS: 586 estudantes responderam ao questionário. A prevalência de fumantes foi baixa, com um declínio entre os homens (9,78% contra 5,26%) e um aumento no sexo feminino (1,43% contra 2,65%) no 3º e 6º ano, respectivamente. Todos os entrevistados acreditavam que profissionais de saúde devem aconselhar os pacientes a parar de fumar. No entanto, a maioria dos estudantes de medicina fumantes não recebeu aconselhamento médico para deixar de fumar. A experimentação de outros produtos derivados do tabaco foi maior entre os homens (p < 0.0001). Apesar do conhecimento de seus efeitos nocivos à saúde, a experimentação de narguilé foi alta (47,32% e 46,75% entre alunos do terceiro e sexto anos, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da experimentação de narguilé com tabaco e de outras formas de uso de tabaco é alta entre os futuros médicos. Nossos achados enfatizam a necessidade de melhores programas de educação preventiva em universidades médicas para proteger a saúde dos futuros médicos e para ajudá-los a enfrentar esse novo desafio epidêmico. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Produtos do Tabaco/classificação , Universidades
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 437: 200-8, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22940481

RESUMO

Non-mechanised sugarcane harvesting preceded by burning exposes workers and the people of neighbouring towns to high concentrations of pollutants. This study was aimed to evaluate the respiratory symptoms, lung function and oxidative stress markers in sugarcane workers and the residents of Mendonça, an agricultural town in Brazil, during the non-harvesting and harvesting periods and to assess the population and individual exposures to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Sugarcane workers and healthy volunteers were evaluated with two respiratory symptom questionnaires, spirometry, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels, and the measurement of antioxidant enzymes and plasma malonaldehyde during the non-harvesting and harvesting periods. The environmental assessment was determined from PM(2.5) concentration. PM(2.5) level increased from 8 µg/m³ during the non-harvesting period to 23.5 µg/m³ in the town and 61 µg/m³ on the plantations during the harvesting period. Wheezing, coughing, sneezing, and breathlessness increased significantly in both groups during the harvesting period, but more markedly in workers. A decrease in lung function and antioxidant enzyme activity was observed in both populations during harvesting; this decrease was greater among the sugarcane workers. The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels only increased in the sugarcane workers during the harvesting period. The malonaldehyde levels were elevated in both groups, with a higher increase observed in the workers. This research demonstrates the exposure of sugarcane workers and the inhabitants of a neighbouring town to high PM(2.5) concentrations during the sugarcane harvest period. This exposure was higher among the sugarcane workers, as illustrated by both higher PM(2.5) concentrations in the sugarcane fields and higher urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in the volunteers in this group. The higher incidence of respiratory symptoms, greater decrease in lung function and more marked elevation of oxidative stress markers among the sugarcane workers during the harvest confirms the greater effect magnitude in this population and a dose-dependent relationship between pollution and the observed effects.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pirenos/urina , Saccharum , Adulto , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Enzimas/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 99(6): e184-90, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23337994

RESUMO

The topic of tobacco smoking, in its several aspects, has been receiving increasing attention among researchers over the past few years, which has been reflected in more data and more solid scientific literature on the subject in national journals. This article aims to review the studies that focused on smoking published between January 2010 and June 2012, in Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia (Brazilian Archives of Cardiology), Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Clinics (Sao Paulo), Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia (Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology), Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (Journal of the Brazilian Medical Association) and Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery). During the aforementioned period 58 articles were published, 52 of which were original ones, addressing several aspects of smoking, such as effects on health, epidemiology, cessation and experimental studies.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 96(3 Suppl 1): 1-68, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21655875
20.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 66(1): 65-71, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21437438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, nortriptyline and combination therapy and describe factors associated with treatment success. INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation. However, it is only after its use in real-life settings that clinical effectiveness and limitations of a treatment are fully known. METHODS: Patients attended a four-session cognitive-behavioral program and received medicines free of charge. Abstinence from smoking was assessed at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 868 smokers (68.8% women) were included. Their mean age was 49.6 years; the amount smoked was 25 cigarettes/day and the Fagerströ m Score was 6.6. Abstinence rates after 6 months and 1 year were 36.5% and 33.6%. In univariate analysis, male gender, age (>50), higher number of cigarettes smoked, cardiovascular comorbidities, longer interval from the last cigarette and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT were predictive of abstinence, while neuropsychiatric comorbidities and the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' were correlated with failure. In a multivariate model, predictors of abstinence were neuropsychiatric comorbidities, the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT. Male gender and a longer period from the last cigarette were correlated with lower abstinence rate. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory success rates were obtained in a teaching hospital. Factors such as age, daily cigarette consumption, number of pack-years and dependency score were not reliable markers of abstinence. The combination nortriptyline+NRT was independently associated with higher abstinence rates.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Nortriptilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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