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1.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 5, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) triggered by pregnancy is a rare disease caused by dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway that occurs in approximately 1 in 25,000 pregnancies. The 311 phase 3 trial (NCT02949128) showed that ravulizumab, a long-acting C5 inhibitor obtained through selective modifications to eculizumab, is efficacious in inhibiting complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in patients with aHUS. In this analysis, we report outcomes in a subgroup of patients from the 311 study who developed TMA postpartum. METHODS: This was a phase 3, multicenter trial evaluating efficacy and safety of ravulizumab in adults (≥18 years of age) with aHUS naïve to complement inhibitor treatment. The primary endpoint was complete TMA response (simultaneous platelet count normalization [≥150 × 109/L], lactate dehydrogenase normalization [≤246 U/L] and 25% improvement in serum creatinine) through the 183-day initial evaluation period. Additional efficacy endpoints included time to complete TMA response, hematologic normalization, and dialysis requirement status. RESULTS: Eight patients presenting with TMA postpartum (median age of 37.7 [range; 22.1-45.2] years) were diagnosed with aHUS and received ≥1 dose of ravulizumab. Five patients (63%) were on dialysis at baseline. Complete TMA response was achieved in 7/8 patients (87.5%) in a median time of 31.5 days. Hematologic normalization was observed in all patients. All patients on dialysis at baseline discontinued dialysis within 21 days after treatment with ravulizumab. All patients showed continued improvements in the estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to Day 183. Three possible treatment-related adverse events were observed in 2 patients (arthralgia and nasopharyngitis [both non-severe]; urinary tract infection). No deaths or meningococcal infections occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ravulizumab provided immediate and complete C5 inhibition, resulting in rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and complete TMA response through 183 days in patients with aHUS triggered by pregnancy. The safety profile observed in this subset of patients analysed is consistent with the 311 study investigating ravulizumab in patients with aHUS naïve to complement treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial identifier: NCT02949128 .

3.
Nefrologia ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358219

RESUMO

The increase in demand for medical care for renal complications associated with neoplastic diseases is a reality in most nephrology departments. In response to this overall situation, the creation of healthcare models such as monographic consultations and develop training programs in onconephrology could improve the care of these patients. Through an exploratory and descriptive study, we identified current situation of kidney involvement in cancer patients. The objective of the present study is to establish the criteria for specific assistance in the field of onconephrology. For this, we have reviewed key aspects and analyzed the current situation in our country, through a survey addressed to all nephrologists through the Spanish Society of Nephrology, together with the experience of 2 Spanish centers. From this information, we have established some requirements and recommendations for the start-up of these consultations.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359150

RESUMO

RATIONALE OBJECTIVE: A previous study that evaluated associations of kidney biopsy findings with disease progression in patients with C3 glomerulopathy proposed a prognostic Histologic Index (C3G-HI) that has not yet been validated. Our objective was to validate performance of the C3G-HI in a new patient population. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING PARTICIPANTS: 111 patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria of C3G between January 1995 and December 2019, from 33 nephrology departments belonging to the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases (GLOSEN). PREDICTORS: Demographic, clinical parameters, the C3G-HI Total Activity Score and the C3G-HI Total Chronicity Score. OUTCOME: Time to kidney failure. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Intraclass correlation coefficients and the kappa statistic were used to summarize inter-rater reproducibility for assessment of histopathology on kidney biopsies. The nonlinear relationships of risk of kidney failure with the Total Activity Score and the Total Chronicity Score were modeled using Cox proportional hazards analysis that incorporated cubic splines. RESULTS: The study group included 93 patients with C3 glomerulonephritis and 18 with dense-deposit disease. Participants had an overall mean age of 35±22 years. Forty-eight patients (43%) developed kidney failure after a mean follow-up of 65±27 months. The overall inter-rater reproducibility was very good for the Total Activity Score (ICC=0.63), and excellent for Total Chronicity Score (ICC=0.89). Baseline eGFR, 24-hour proteinuria and treatment with immunosuppression were the main determinants of kidney failure in a model with only clinical variables., Only tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were identified as predictors in a model with histological variables. When the Total Activity Score and Total Chronicity Score were added to the model, only the latter was identified as an independent predictor of kidney failure. LIMITATIONS: Only a subset of the kidney biopsies was centrally reviewed. Residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the performance of C3G-HI as a predictor of kidney failure in patients with C3G. The total chronicity score was the principal histologic correlate of kidney failure.

5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13501, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185971

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might increase the risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Although several case reports and small series have been reported in the general population, scarce information is available regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated IPA in the setting of solid organ transplantation. We describe a case of a kidney transplant recipient with severe COVID-19 that was subsequently diagnosed with probable IPA on the basis of the repeated isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum cultures, repeatedly increased serum (1 â†’ 3)-ß-d-glucan levels, and enlarging cavitary nodules in the CT scan. The evolution was favorable after initiation of isavuconazole and nebulized liposomal amphotericin B combination therapy and the withdrawal of immunosuppression.

6.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166580

RESUMO

A cyclical corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide regimen is recommended for patients with primary membranous nephropathy at high risk of progression. We hypothesized that sequential therapy with tacrolimus and rituximab is superior to cyclical alternating treatment with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in inducing persistent remission in these patients. This was tested in a randomized, open-label controlled trial of 86 patients with primary membranous nephropathy and persistent nephrotic syndrome after six-months observation and assigned 43 each to receive six-month cyclical treatment with corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide or sequential treatment with tacrolimus (full-dose for six months and tapering for another three months) and rituximab (one gram at month six). The primary outcome was complete or partial remission of nephrotic syndrome at 24 months. This composite outcome occurred in 36 patients (83.7%) in the corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide group and in 25 patients (58.1%) in the tacrolimus-rituximab group (relative risk 1.44; 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.92). Complete remission at 24 months occurred in 26 patients (60%) in the corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide group and in 11 patients (26%) in the tacrolimus-rituximab group (2.36; 1.34 to 4.16). Anti-PLA2R titers showed a significant decrease in both groups but the proportion of anti-PLA2R-positive patients who achieved immunological response (depletion of anti-PLA2R antibodies) was significantly higher at three and six months in the corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide group (77% and 92%, respectively), as compared to the tacrolimus-rituximab group (45% and 70%, respectively). Relapses occurred in one patient in the corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide group, and three patients in the tacrolimus-rituximab group. Serious adverse events were similar in both groups. Thus, treatment with corticosteroid-cyclophosphamide induced remission in a significantly greater number of patients with primary membranous nephropathy than tacrolimus-rituximab.

7.
Nephron ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147587

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affecting approximately 40% of patients with lupus. It represents a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, and 10% of patients with LN will develop end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Therefore, there are a number of areas for improvement in the field of LN such as the search for new clinical biomarkers with a more accurate correlation with lupus activity and the redefinition of the histological classification into different subgroups in order to guide a personalized treatment. Although the role of protocol repeat kidney biopsies in LN is controversial, recent publications suggest that repeat histological assessment can be useful in guiding therapeutic decisions that may yield toward precision medicine. In the last decade, LN therapy has remained largely unchanged, with a probability of achieving complete or partial remission not exceeding 60-70%. Thus, optimization of old treatment strategies and search for new agents are urgently needed in order to improve outcomes such as mortality or development of ESKD. Future trials should focus in addressing unanswered issues such as the appropriate dose and duration of immunosuppressive treatment, timing of steroid withdrawal, and drug toxicity. In addition, data are still lacking regarding pregnancy and kidney transplantation in LN and knowledge about these important areas is essential for the management of a subset of patients with SLE. In summary, several major gaps are still present in the therapeutic approach and follow-up of patients with LN. The development of new clinical trial designs will be crucial in the search to improve long-term outcomes.

8.
Lupus ; : 961203320965703, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies with protocol biopsies have shown a mismatch between clinical and histological remission in lupus nephritis (LN). We aimed to evaluate histological changes in repeat kidney biopsies by clinical indication in patients with LN. METHODS: We analyzed 107 patients with LN in which a kidney biopsy was performed between 2008 and 2018. Of those, we included 26 (24.2%) who had ≥2 kidney biopsies. Classification was done according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society. RESULTS: Mean time between biopsies was 71.5 ± 10.7 months. 73.1% of patients presented a change of class at repeat biopsy; 38.4% to a higher class and 34.6% to a lower class. A significant increase in glomerulosclerosis (% GS) (3.8% vs 18.7%, p = 0.006), interstitial fibrosis (3.8% vs 26.9%, p = 0.021), tubular atrophy (15.4% vs 57.7%, p = 0.001) and chronicity index (CI) (1 vs 3, p < 0.001) was observed at repeat biopsy. Subjects who developed chronic kidney disease progression had a lower rate of complete remission at 12 months (0% vs 37.5%, p = 0.02), higher % GS at first biopsy (7.9% vs 1.2%, p = 0.02) and higher CI (4 vs 2, p = 0.006), tubular atrophy (90% vs 37.6%, p = 0.008), interstitial fibrosis (50% vs 12.5%, p = 0.036) and vascular lesions (60% vs 18.8%, p = 0.031) at second biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Our major finding was that patients with LN showed a significant increase in % GS, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and vascular lesions in repeat biopsies performed by clinical indication. This suggest that a second kidney biopsy may provide valuable and useful information regarding kidney disease progression.

9.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14072, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862472

RESUMO

A potential benefit of immunomodulatory agents such as tocilizumab (TCZ) has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe pulmonary involvement. However, this therapy has been scarcely studied in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Herein, we describe the clinical course and outcome of 10 KT patients with severe COVID-19 that were treated with TCZ. Mean age of the study group was 54 ± 10 years (70% females), and 30% of the cases were within 6 months from transplant. Mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued in all cases upon admission, whereas baseline steroids were maintained and tacrolimus dose was reduced. Initial treatment included hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, and prophylactic anticoagulation. Before treatment with TCZ, 3 patients were receiving high-flow oxygen, 4 patients low-flow oxygen and 1 case non-invasive ventilation. All patients received a single dose of intravenous TCZ within a mean time of 7 ± 4 days since admission. During a median follow-up of 16 days (IQR: 10-29), 7 patients (70%) gradually improved and were finally discharged while three cases (30%) did not exhibited clinical improvement and ultimately died. In conclusion, although treatment with TCZ could be associated with improved clinical outcomes in a subset of KT recipients with COVID-19, further studies are warranted before drawing firm conclusions.

10.
Nephron ; 144(11): 555-571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818944

RESUMO

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis in the world among patients undergoing renal biopsy. Approximately 30% of patients with IgAN develop end-stage kidney disease 20 years after renal biopsy. It is a glomerulopathy with a very broad clinical presentation, making it difficult to stratify and treat. IgAN is characterized by dysregulation of the immune system, which causes an abnormal synthesis of IgA1 that is deglycosylated causing its mesangial deposition. IgAN pathogenesis is incompletely understood; the current multi-hit hypothesis of IgAN pathogenesis does not explain the range of glomerular inflammation and renal injury associated with mesangial IgA deposition. Although associations between IgAN and glomerular and circulating markers of complement activation are established, the mechanism of complement activation and contribution to glomerular inflammation and injury are not defined. On the other hand, the renal-gut connection can also play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN with possible therapeutic implications. In order to standardize the histological findings, the Oxford Classification has allowed clarifying renal lesions that confer potential risk of progression. Currently, except for the blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, no other therapies are available in clinical setting for the treatment of IgAN, although the range of new drugs under investigation is extensive. The incorporation in the next trials of clinical parameters such as the amount of hematuria and histological lesions may allow more personalized therapeutic approaches. To summarize, in recent years, several important efforts have taken place in the understanding of IgAN, but still, further studies are warranted to elucidate the best therapeutic strategies according to the risk to improve the prognosis of this entity.

11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(9): 1287-1298, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: C3 glomerulopathy is a complement-mediated disease arising from abnormalities in complement genes and/or antibodies against complement components. Previous studies showed that treatment with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was associated with improved outcomes, although the genetic profile of these patients was not systematically analyzed. This study aims to analyze the main determinants of disease progression and response to this therapeutic regimen. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in 35 nephrology departments belonging to the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases. Patients diagnosed with C3 glomerulopathy (n=81) or dense deposit disease (n=16) between January 1995 and March 2018 were enrolled. Multivariable and propensity score matching analyses were used to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic factors with response to treatment with corticosteroids and MMF as measured by proportion of patients with disease remission and kidney survival (status free of kidney failure). RESULTS: The study group comprised 97 patients (84% C3 glomerulopathy, 16% dense deposit disease). Forty-two patients were treated with corticosteroids plus MMF, and this treatment was associated with a higher rate of remission and lower probability of kidney failure (79% and 14%, respectively) compared with patients treated with other immunosuppressives (24% and 59%, respectively), or ecluzimab (33% and 67%, respectively), or conservative management (18% and 65%, respectively). The therapeutic superiority of corticosteroids plus MMF was observed both in patients with complement abnormalities and with autoantibodies. However, patients with pathogenic variants in complement genes only achieved partial remission, whereas complete remissions were common among patients with autoantibody-mediated forms. The main determinant of no remission was baseline proteinuria. Relapses occurred after treatment discontinuation in 33% of the patients who had achieved remission with corticosteroids plus MMF, and a longer treatment length of MMF was associated with a lower risk of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial response to corticosteroids plus MMF treatment in C3 glomerulopathy appears independent of the pathogenic drivers analyzed in this study.

12.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 380-388, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699618

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic patients with kidney disease have a high prevalence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD). Renal and patient survival regarding the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) or NDRD have not been widely studied. The aim of our study is to evaluate the prevalence of NDRD in patients with diabetes and to determine the capacity of clinical and analytical data in the prediction of NDRD. In addition, we will study renal and patient prognosis according to the renal biopsy findings in patients with diabetes. Methods: Retrospective multicentre observational study of renal biopsies performed in patients with diabetes from 2002 to 2014. Results: In total, 832 patients were included: 621 men (74.6%), mean age of 61.7 ± 12.8 years, creatinine was 2.8 ± 2.2 mg/dL and proteinuria 2.7 (interquartile range: 1.2-5.4) g/24 h. About 39.5% (n = 329) of patients had DN, 49.6% (n = 413) NDRD and 10.8% (n = 90) mixed forms. The most frequent NDRD was nephroangiosclerosis (NAS) (n = 87, 9.3%). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.05, P < 0.001], microhaematuria (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.03-2.21, P = 0.033) and absence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.19-0.42, P < 0.001) were independently associated with NDRD. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with DN or mixed forms presented worse renal prognosis than NDRD (P < 0.001) and higher mortality (P = 0.029). In multivariate Cox analyses, older age (P < 0.001), higher serum creatinine (P < 0.001), higher proteinuria (P < 0.001), DR (P = 0.007) and DN (P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for renal replacement therapy. In addition, older age (P < 0.001), peripheral vascular disease (P = 0.002), higher creatinine (P = 0.01) and DN (P = 0.015) were independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusions: The most frequent cause of NDRD is NAS. Elderly patients with microhaematuria and the absence of DR are the ones at risk for NDRD. Patients with DN presented worse renal prognosis and higher mortality than those with NDRD. These results suggest that in some patients with diabetes, kidney biopsy may be useful for an accurate renal diagnosis and subsequently treatment and prognosis.

14.
Nephron ; 144(6): 272-280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369815

RESUMO

C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a clinicopathologic entity secondary to dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in plasma and the glomerular microenvironment. The current consensus definition of C3G relies on immunofluorescence staining criteria. However, due to its high clinical variability, these criteria may not be accurate enough in some clinical scenarios. Thus, a new pathogenic classification based on a cluster analysis of clinical, histologic, and genetic data has recently been proposed, which could also help identify patients at higher risk of progression. Several pathogenic abnormalities in complement genes have been described, and the role of autoantibodies in the disease is increasingly recognized, but still the genotype-phenotype correlations in C3G are poorly understood. C3G may be diagnosed in both children and adults. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is wide, although one of the most common clinical presentations is proteinuria with relatively preserved kidney function. In order to standardize the evaluation of kidney biopsies from these patients, a histopathologic index was recently proposed, including both parameters of activity and chronicity. However, this index has not yet been validated in independent cohorts. Currently, no targeted therapies are available in clinical settings for the treatment of C3G, although several new molecules are under investigation. Treatment with corticosteroids plus mycophenolate mofetil has been shown to be associated with improved renal outcomes, as compared to other immunosuppressive regimens. Yet, the main determinants of treatment response with this regimen and the influence of the underlying pathogenic drivers have not been extensively studied. The therapeutic response to eculizumab, an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be highly heterogeneous. Thus, its current clinical indication in C3G is restricted to rapidly progressive forms of the disease. To summarize, in recent years, several important advances have taken place in the understanding of C3G, but still further studies are warranted to elucidate the best therapeutic strategies that could improve prognosis of this entity.

15.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225016

RESUMO

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is complicated by a chronic state of inflammation and a high mortality risk. However, different RRT modalities can have a selective impact on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. We evaluated the levels of active matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in patients undergoing two types of dialysis (high-flux dialysis (HFD) and on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF)) and in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients. Active MMP-9 was measured by zymography and ELISA before (pre-) and after (post-) one dialysis session, and at baseline and follow-up (7 and 14 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months) after KT. Active MMP-9 decreased post-dialysis only in HFD patients, while the levels in OL-HDF patients were already lower before dialysis. Active MMP-9 increased at 7 and 14 days post-KT and was restored to baseline levels three months post-KT, coinciding with an improvement in renal function and plasma creatinine. Active MMP-9 correlated with pulse pressure as an indicator of arterial stiffness both in dialysis patients and KT recipients. In conclusion, active MMP-9 is better controlled in OL-HDF than in HFD and is restored to baseline levels along with stabilization of renal parameters after KT. Active MMP-9 might act as a biomarker of arterial stiffness in RRT.

16.
Nephron ; 144(6): 261-271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, great advances have been made in the field of membranous nephropathy (MN). The autoimmune nature of the disease has been confirmed with the description of diverse antigens, and few but very important prospective trials regarding treatment alternatives have been published, changing profoundly the way we understand this entity. Nowadays, an individualized therapeutic scheme based on clinical and serologic data appears to be the most appropriate method to manage patients with MN. Although there is still a long way to go, it is expected that future scientific progress will enable a patient-centered medicine based on concept-driven therapies. SUMMARY: MN is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in white adults. Approximately one-third of patients achieve spontaneous remission, one-third remain stable, and one-third have an aggressive course with persistent NS and deterioration of renal function. About 80% of patients have circulating autoantibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor 1. Numerous therapies have been described including alkylating agents, rituximab, and calcineurin inhibitors, but new drugs are currently being explored. Here, we review the most important aspects regarding MN with an emphasis on results of the most recent clinical trials and pathophysiologic advances. Key Messages: 1. Evolving pathophysiologic concepts and recently published clinical trials have deeply changed our view of MN. 2. Most patients with MN present autoantibodies against diverse glomerular antigens. 3. Currently, an individual patient-centered management based on clinical and serologic markers is the most adequate approach to treat patients with MN.

17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266265

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), especially those involving a systemic inflammatory process such as atherosclerosis, remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is a systemic condition affecting approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of CKD has increased over the past decades because of the aging of the population worldwide. Indeed, CVDs in patients with CKD constitute a premature form of CVD observed in the general population. Multiple studies indicate that patients with renal disease undergo accelerated aging, which precipitates the appearance of pathologies, including CVDs, usually associated with advanced age. In this review, we discuss several aspects that characterize CKD-associated CVDs, such as etiopathogenic elements that CKD patients share with the general population, changes in the cellular balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the associated process of cellular senescence. Uremia-associated aging is linked with numerous changes at the cellular and molecular level. These changes are similar to those observed in the normal process of physiologic aging. We also discuss new perspectives in the study of CKD-associated CVDs and epigenetic alterations in intercellular signaling, mediated by microRNAs and/or extracellular vesicles (EVs), which promote vascular damage and subsequent development of CVD. Understanding the processes and factors involved in accelerated senescence and other abnormal intercellular signaling will identify new therapeutic targets and lead to improved methods of diagnosis and monitoring for patients with CKD-associated CVDs.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 713-723, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2012 EULAR/ERA-EDTA recommendations for the management of lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was performed. Members of a multidisciplinary Task Force voted independently on their level of agreeement with the formed statements. RESULTS: The changes include recommendations for treatment targets, use of glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and management of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The target of therapy is complete response (proteinuria <0.5-0.7 g/24 hours with (near-)normal glomerular filtration rate) by 12 months, but this can be extended in patients with baseline nephrotic-range proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine is recommended with regular ophthalmological monitoring. In active proliferative LN, initial (induction) treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 2-3 g/day or mycophenolic acid (MPA) at equivalent dose) or low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY; 500 mg × 6 biweekly doses), both combined with glucocorticoids (pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone, then oral prednisone 0.3-0.5 mg/kg/day) is recommended. MMF/CNI (especially tacrolimus) combination and high-dose CY are alternatives, for patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria and adverse prognostic factors. Subsequent long-term maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine should follow, with no or low-dose (<7.5 mg/day) glucocorticoids. The choice of agent depends on the initial regimen and plans for pregnancy. In non-responding disease, switch of induction regimens or rituximab are recommended. In pure membranous LN with nephrotic-range proteinuria or proteinuria >1 g/24 hours despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade, MMF in combination with glucocorticoids is preferred. Assessment for kidney and extra-renal disease activity, and management of comorbidities is lifelong with repeat kidney biopsy in cases of incomplete response or nephritic flares. In ESKD, transplantation is the preferred kidney replacement option with immunosuppression guided by transplant protocols and/or extra-renal manifestations. Treatment of LN in children follows the same principles as adult disease. CONCLUSIONS: We have updated the EULAR recommendations for the management of LN to facilitate homogenization of patient care.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrite Lúpica/complicações , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/etiologia , Proteinúria/terapia
20.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(4): 687-696, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in life expectancy have led to an increase in the number of elderly people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Scarce information is available on the outcomes of kidney transplantation (KT) in extremely elderly patients based on an allocation policy prioritizing donor-recipient age matching. METHODS: We included recipients ≥75 years that underwent KT from similarly aged deceased donors at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Determinants of death-censored graft and patient survival were assessed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We included 138 recipients with a median follow-up of 38.8 months. Median (interquartile range) age of recipients and donors was 77.5 (76.3-79.7) and 77.0 years (74.7-79.0), with 22.5% of donors ≥80 years. Primary graft non-function occurred in 8.0% (11/138) of patients. Cumulative incidence rates for post-transplant infection and biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) were 70.3% (97/138) and 15.2% (21/138), respectively. One- and 5-year patient survival were 82.1 and 60.1%, respectively, whereas the corresponding rates for death-censored graft survival were 95.6 and 93.1%. Infection was the leading cause of death (46.0% of fatal cases). The occurrence of BPAR was associated with lower 1-year patient survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-10.82; P = 0.003]. Diabetic nephropathy was the only factor predicting 5-year death-censored graft survival (HR = 4.82, 95% CI 1.08-21.56; P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: ESRD patients ≥75 years can access KT and remain dialysis free for their remaining lifespan by using grafts from extremely aged deceased donors, yielding encouraging results in terms of recipient and graft survival.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribução , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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