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1.
Thromb Res ; 187: 9-17, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemostatic activation and hypercoagulability are frequently observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), increase risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and have been implicated in tumour proliferation and progression. To date, the association of haemostatic biomarkers with oncologic outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and disease control rate (DCR) is incompletely understood. METHODS: Within the framework of the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to investigate the association of six known biomarkers of haemostasis with oncologic outcomes in 99 patients with mCRC prior to chemotherapy initiation. RESULTS: Patients with high levels of factor VIII activity (FVIII), D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) and fibrinogen (defined as levels >75th percentile) had significantly shorter median OS than patients with lower levels. Elevation of four biomarkers was associated with mortality in multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, sex, number of metastatic sites and VTE (hazard ratio [95% CI] for death per doubling of levels: FVIII: 2.06 [1.28-3.30]; sP-selectin: 1.55 [1.07-2.24]; D-dimer: 1.40 [1.18-1.65]; F1 + 2: 1.64 [1.10-2.46]). Patients with elevated levels had numerically shorter median PFS across all markers and disease control rate (DCR) was significantly smaller in those with high levels of FVIII and F1 + 2 (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] for DCR per doubling of levels: 0.23 [0.09-0.62] and 0.36 [0.16-0.82]) compared to patients with lower levels. CONCLUSION: Specific elevated haemostatic biomarkers are associated with higher mortality and partially with worse response to chemotherapy in patients with mCRC.

2.
ESMO Open ; 5(1)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPAC) relies on chemotherapeutic regimens. We investigated patterns of first-line and second-line treatment choices, their geographical variation between European countries, and alignment with current European recommendations. METHODS: This retrospective, observational chart review study was conducted between July 2014 and January 2016. Physicians were recruited from nine European countries. Patient data were collected in electronic patient record forms (PRFs) by physicians managing patients with mPAC. Patients with a current mPAC diagnosis aged ≥18 years old who had completed first-line therapy during the study period were included. RESULTS: Participating physicians (n=225) completed 2565 PRFs. The vast majority of PRFs were from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Most patients (86.6%) had stage IV disease at diagnosis. The most common first-line treatments were FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin/folinic acid, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) (35.6%), gemcitabine+nab-paclitaxel (25.7%) and gemcitabine monotherapy (20.5%). Physicians in France and the UK prescribed FOLFIRINOX more frequently than gemcitabine+nab-paclitaxel. Gemcitabine-based therapies were more widely used at second-line, although 5-fluorouracil-based therapies were preferred in Italy and Spain, where gemcitabine-based treatments were more frequently selected for first-line. For patients receiving first-line modified FOLFIRINOX, second-line gemcitabine monotherapy was preferred in the overall population (45.9%). CONCLUSION: Although treatment choices for patients with mPAC varied between countries, they align with current European guidelines. Factors including drug availability, reimbursement, patient characteristics, physician preference and prior first-line therapy affect treatment choices. Approved, recommended therapies for patients who progress following first-line treatment are lacking. These findings may influence the development of effective treatment plans, potentially improving future patient outcomes.

3.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(1): 51-60, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PET/MRI has recently been introduced into clinical practice. We prospectively investigated the clinical impact of PET/MRI compared with PET/CT, in a mixed population of cancer patients, and performed an economic evaluation of PET/MRI. METHODS: Cancer patients referred for routine staging or follow-up by PET/CT underwent consecutive PET/CT and PET/MRI, using single applications of [18F]FDG, [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC, or [18F]FDOPA, depending on tumor histology. PET/MRI and PET/CT were rated separately, and lesions were assessed per anatomic region; based on regions, per-examination and per-patient accuracies were determined. A simulated, multidisciplinary team meeting served as reference standard and determined whether differences between PET/CT and PET/MRI affected patient management. The McNemar tests were used to compare accuracies, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for PET/MRI were calculated. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-three patients (330 same-day PET/CT and PET/MRI examinations) were included. PET/MRI was accurate in 319/330 examinations and PET/CT in 277/330 examinations; the respective accuracies of 97.3% and 83.9% differed significantly (P < 0.001). The additional findings on PET/MRI-mainly liver and brain metastases-had implications for patient management in 21/263 patients (8.0%). The per-examination cost was 596.97 EUR for PET/MRI and 405.95 EUR for PET/CT. ICERs for PET/MRI were 14.26 EUR per percent of diagnostic accuracy and 23.88 EUR per percent of correctly managed patients. CONCLUSIONS: PET/MRI enables more appropriate management than PET/CT in a nonnegligible fraction of cancer patients. Since the per-examination cost is about 50% higher for PET/MRI than for PET/CT, a histology-based triage of patients to either PET/MRI or PET/CT may be meaningful.

4.
Psychooncology ; 28(12): 2382-2388, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disorder, which might develop after a traumatic event, like cancer diagnosis, and threatens the patient's psychological and/or physiological integrity. Anxiety, depression, and mental distress are known to be common in cancer patients; however, the frequency of PTSD was not investigated thoroughly in this patient group so far. Here, we aim to screen cancer patients for PTSD symptoms and determine a possible correlation with anxiety, depression, and distress. METHODS: The study was performed at the Divisions of Hematology and Oncology of the Medical University of Vienna from 2010 to 2018. Following written consent, patients were asked to fill out the validated self-assessment questionnaire for PTSS-10 and HADS. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee of the Medical University of Vienna (EC Nr: 2255/2016). RESULTS: A total of 1017 adult cancer patients (513 male, 504 female) were included in a cross-sectional single-center study. Mean age was 57.6 years (SD 14.4 years); 31.7%, 14.6%, 13.2%, and 27.4% of patients outscored the predefined thresholds for self-assessed cases of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and distress, respectively. Compared with men, women showed a higher prevalence of symptoms for PTSD (38.9% vs 24.5%; P < .001) and anxiety (20.4% vs 8.6%; P < .001). The scores of HADS-A, HADS-D, and the combined HADS score (distress) were significantly correlated with PTSS-10 scores (P < .01). No differences in age were observed among the different score groups. CONCLUSION: The study shows a significant prevalence as well as a correlation of PTSD symptoms with anxiety, depression, and distress among cancer patients. Findings underscore the necessity of a serious screening for psychiatric disorders, especially in female patients. In order to enable multidisciplinary care for cancer patients and to reduce the burden for psychiatric disorders, interdisciplinary screening and treatment concepts, which take into account gender aspects, are urged.

5.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819877635, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579123

RESUMO

Background: The management of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) is challenging, and the optimal treatment strategy is debated among experts. In an attempt to identify treatment decision criteria and to investigate variations in the first-line management of this disease, we performed an analysis of treatment algorithms among experts in the field of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to identify relevant criteria in the complex process of patient selection and decision making for the management of mPC patients. Methods: Experts from the ABCSG (Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group) Pancreatic Cancer Club were contacted and agreed to participate in this analysis. Eight experts from seven centers in Austria provided their decision algorithms for the first-line treatment of patients with mPC. Their responses were converted into decision trees based on the objective consensus methodology. The decision trees were used to identify consensus and discrepancies. Results: The final treatment algorithms included four decision criteria (performance status, age, comorbidities, and symptomatic disease) and six treatment options: mFOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel, gemcitabine mono, 5-FU mono, gemcitabine/erlotinib, and best supportive care (BSC). Conclusions: We identified consensus for the treatment of young and fit patients with mFOLFIRINOX. With higher age and reduced performance status, gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel was increasingly used. For patients with Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 4, BSC was the treatment of choice. Among experts, different decision criteria and treatment options are implemented in clinical routine. Despite multiple options in current recommendations, a consensus for specific recommendations was identified.

6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4589-4596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519555

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in the treatment of gastric cancer, mortality related to this disease is still substantial. Surgery and chemotherapy represent the cornerstones of patient management. Targeted treatments that include anti-angiogenic agents and the advent of immunotherapies can contribute to improved patient prognosis. Herein, we present an Austrian consensus on the systemic treatment of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and lower gastroesophageal junction, including those with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive disease. The consensus considers the curative setting, as well as first-line to late-line systemic treatment options in the palliative setting. For HER2-positive disease, first-line and second-line therapies are discussed, as well as HER2 testing. Potential future therapies are also listed, with a focus on anti-angiogenic treatments and checkpoint inhibition, that might provide a further step forward in the management of patients with gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Algoritmos , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Áustria , Terapia Combinada , Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
7.
ESMO Open ; 4(4): e000538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423337

RESUMO

Background: High-throughput genomic profiling of tumour specimens facilitates the identification of individual actionable mutations which could be used for individualised targeted therapy. This approach is becoming increasingly more common in the clinic; however, the interpretation of results from molecular profiling tests and efficient guiding of molecular therapies to patients with advanced cancer offer a significant challenge to the oncology community. Experimental design: MONDTI is a precision medicine platform for molecular characterisation of metastatic solid tumours to identify actionable genomic alterations. From 2013 to 2016, comprehensive molecular profiles derived from real-time biopsy specimens and archived tumour tissue samples of 295 patients were performed. Results and treatment suggestions were discussed within multidisciplinary tumour board meetings. Results: The mutational profile was obtained from 293 (99%) patients and a complete immunohistochemical (IHC) and cytogenetic profile was obtained in 181 (61%) and 188 (64%) patients. The most frequent cancer types were colorectal cancer (12%), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (9.8%) and head and neck cancers (7.8%). The most commonly detected mutations were TP53 (39%), KRAS (19%) and PIK3CA (9.5%), whereas ≥1 mutation were identified in 217 (74%) samples. Regarding the results for IHC testing, samples were positive for phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) (71%), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (68%), mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) (56%) and/or platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRα)-expression (48%). Of the 288 tumour samples with one or more genetic alteration detected, 160 (55.6%) targeted therapy recommendations through 67 multidisciplinary tumour board meetings were made; in 69 (24%) cases, an individual treatment concept was initiated. Conclusions: The results reveal that the open concept for all solid tumours characterised for molecular profile and immunotherapy could not only match individualised treatment concepts at a high rate but also underscores the challenges encountered when offering molecularly matched therapies to a patient population with an advanced stage cancer.

8.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 42(9): 1213-1220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270570

RESUMO

Substantial improvements have been made in the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer over the last two decades. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been constantly increased and the most recent first-line studies exceeded the 30-month median overall survival. The standard first-line regimen for mCRC is a combination of chemotherapy plus a biological agent either targeting the main angiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via Bevacizumab or by antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGRF) via Panitumumab or Cetuximab. Recent improvements have been shown in the efficacy of the biological agent by stratifying these agents according to the primary tumor location. In this context EGFR-inhibitors showed improved OS when used first-line in tumors derived from the left-sided colon or rectum, while tumor sidedness was not predictive for anti-VEGF-antibodies. Furthermore, the biological activity of anti-EGFR antibodies is restricted to tumors with a rat sarcoma virus (RAS)-wild-type genotype but not RAS-mutated tumors. The RAS-mutation status is not predictive for VEGF-inhibitors. Recent developments in the molecular characterisation of tumor cells led to the development of specific so called targeted therapies in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Adulto , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 11: 1758835919853196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360237

RESUMO

Background: Nanoliposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is a novel treatment option for gemcitabine-pretreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) patients, but real-world evidence is rare. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness and tolerability of this regimen in advanced PAC patients and to compare it with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines in the second-line setting after failure of gemcitabine. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of all patients who have been treated with nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV. To compare its effectiveness with other second-line treatment options, all patients who had received oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were also eligible for analysis. Results: Fifty-two patients were treated with nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV between April 2016 and August 2018. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.84 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 6.79 months. Median OS from the beginning of the treatment for advanced disease was 19.9 months. Median PFS in patients that received nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV as second-line treatment after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was 4.49 months whereas median PFS in a matched cohort of patients treated with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines was 3.44 months (p = 0.007). Between these two groups the median OS of patients with CA 19-9 levels above the statistical median (⩾772.8 kU/l) differed significantly (9.33 versus 6.18 months, p = 0.038). Conclusion: Our data confirms the effectiveness of nal-IRI plus 5-FU/LV treatment as a well-tolerated regimen in the treatment of advanced PAC and extends available data on its use as a second-line treatment option when compared with oxaliplatin plus fluoropyrimidines.

10.
ESMO Open ; 4(2): e000495, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231561

RESUMO

New therapeutic options for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) include trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) and regorafenib. However, the optimal chemotherapeutic regimen for use of each agent beyond the second line for patients with mCRC remains unclear and various factors may influence treatment decision. Available efficacy data suggest treatment with either trifluridine/tipiracil or regorafenib may be appropriate as both can extend patient survival. Thus, the safety profiles of each agent, along with patient performance status, are likely to determine treatment choice. The safety profiles of trifluridine/tipiracil and regorafenib are markedly different: higher levels of non-haematological adverse events such as fatigue, diarrhoea, hypertension and hand-foot skin reaction are reported with regorafenib, while haematological events such as neutropaenia are more common with trifluridine/tipiracil. In general, neutropaenia is a manageable treatment-related toxicity, while hand-foot skin reaction can be troublesome for patients, affecting their ability to carry out everyday activities and get on with their lives, while also affecting treatment adherence. Thus, the occurrence of any potential adverse effects and patient adherence should be closely monitored at each clinic visit. As quality of life is an important issue for patients with mCRC, it is important to balance extended survival and the likely quality of this extended life. Likewise, discussing possible side effects along with treatment expectations with patients can greatly facilitate adherence to therapy, and ultimately improve patients' quality of life and eventual clinical outcomes.

11.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 77: 1-10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163334

RESUMO

Surgical resection of pancreatic cancer offers a chance of cure, but currently only 15-20% of patients are diagnosed with resectable disease, while 30-40% are diagnosed with non-metastatic, unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Treatment for LAPC usually involves systemic chemotherapy, with the aim of controlling disease progression, reducing symptoms and maintaining quality of life. In a small proportion of patients with LAPC, primary chemotherapy may successfully convert unresectable tumours to resectable tumours. In this setting, primary chemotherapy is termed 'induction therapy' rather than 'neoadjuvant'. There is currently a lack of data from randomized studies to thoroughly evaluate the benefits of induction chemotherapy in LAPC, but Phase II and retrospective data have shown improved survival and high R0 resection rates. New chemotherapy regimens such as nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine and FOLFIRINOX have demonstrated improvement in overall survival for metastatic disease and shown promise as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with resectable and borderline resectable disease. Prospective trials are underway to evaluate these regimens further as induction therapy in LAPC and preliminary data indicate a beneficial effect of FOLFIRINOX in this setting. Further research into optimal induction schedules is needed, as well as guidance on the patients who are most suitable for induction therapy. In this expert opinion article, a panel of surgeons, medical oncologists and gastrointestinal oncologists review the available evidence on management strategies for LAPC and provide their recommendations for patient care, with a particular focus on the use of induction chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Oncotarget ; 10(9): 942-952, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847023

RESUMO

Background: The concept of personalized medicine defines a promising approach in cancer care. High-throughput genomic profiling of tumor specimens allows the identification of actionable mutations that potentially lead to tailored treatment for individuals' benefit. The aim of this study was to prove efficacy of a personalized treatment option in solid tumor patients after failure of standard treatment concepts. Results: Final analysis demonstrates that 34 patients (62%) had a longer PFS upon experimental treatment (PFS1) when compared to previous therapy (PFS0); PFS ratio > 1.0 (p = 0.002). The median PFS under targeted therapy based on molecular profiling (PFS1) was 112 days (quartiles 66/201) and PFS0 = 61 days (quartiles 51/92; p = 0.002). Of the 55 patients, 31 (56%) showed disease control (DCR), consisting of 2 (4%) patients which achieved a complete remission, 14 (25%) patients with a partial remission and 15 (27%) patients who had a stabilization of disease. Median OS from start of experimental therapy was 348 days (quartiles 177/664). Conclusion: The prospective trial EXACT suggests that treatment based on real-time molecular tumor profiling leads to superior clinical benefit. Materials and Methods: In this prospective clinical phase II trial, 55 cancer patients, after failure of standard treatment options, aimed to achieve a longer progression-free survival on the experimental treatment based on the individual's molecular profile (PFS1) when compared to the last treatment given before (PFS0). The personalized medicine approach was conceived to be clinical beneficial for patients who show a PFS ratio (PFS 1/PFS0) of > 1.0.

13.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(1): e117-e129, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598357

RESUMO

An increasing number of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are able to receive 3 or more lines of therapy. Treatments in this setting can include regorafenib (an oral multikinase inhibitor), trifluridine/tipiracil hydrochloride (TAS-102), antibodies that target epidermal growth factor receptor for patients with RAS wild-type tumors (if no prior exposure), and, where approved, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors for patients with microsatellite instability-high mCRC. Although guidelines describe the available treatment options, few insights are provided to guide selection and sequencing. In this article, we share expert opinion from diverse geographic regions, to offer guidance for best practice when selecting and managing third-line treatment for mCRC. Various factors, including performance status, age, and tumor sidedness, can be used to guide treatment selection. Biomarkers, such as RAS, BRAF, and microsatellite instability, can be useful for treatment stratification. Management of adverse events, to maintain quality of life, is a key consideration and is crucial to best practice in this setting. Common toxicities associated with third-line treatments are hand-foot skin reaction, fatigue, diarrhea, and cytopenias. Patients who receive third-line and later-line treatments should be monitored for these events, especially during the first 2 cycles. Dose modifications can also be used to manage toxicities and to minimize the effect on quality of life, while maximizing treatment benefit. Clinical trials of emerging agents, new treatment combinations, and novel therapies continue the efforts to improve outcomes for patients with mCRC. Sharing expert opinions on best practice for treatment selection and management can ultimately improve outcomes for patients with mCRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Metástase Neoplásica , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Transl Oncol ; 12(1): 15-23, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245304

RESUMO

Stratification of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a key challenge in the field of clinical oncology. No predictive biomarkers have yet been found for any available treatment options. Previously, we identified SERPINB7 as a putative biomarker for PDAC and thus, herein, we aimed to validate our previous findings and assessed the predictive value of SERPINB7. Patients who underwent surgery and received gemcitabine (gem) or gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (gem/nab) as adjuvant therapy, between 2011 and 2017, were included in this study (n = 57). Expression level of SERPINB7 was assessed in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH). Its association with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was investigated. While IHC did not show any correlation between survival and the protein level of SERPINB7, RNA ISH revealed that expression of SERPINB7 was associated with a poor DFS (P = .01) and OS (P = .002) in the gem group but not in the gem/nab. Adjusted Cox-regression analysis confirmed the independent predictive value of SERPINB7 on OS (P = .006, HR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.49-8.09) in the gem group. In conclusion, SERPINB7 was identified as the first predictive RNA biomarker for PDAC. This study suggests that patients who expressed SERPINB7 might receive another treatment than gem alone.

15.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 30(5): 508-515, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510362

RESUMO

Objective: Advances in high-throughput genomic profiling and the development of new targeted therapies improve patient's survival. In gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies, the concept of personalized medicine (PM) was not investigated so far. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of a personalized treatment in GI patients who failed standard treatment. Methods: Out of the original prospective clinical phase II EXACT trial, 21 (38%) GI cancer patients who had no further treatment options were identified. A molecular profile (MP) via a 50 gene next generation sequencing (NGS) panel in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted using real-time biopsy tumor material. Results were discussed by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) to translate the individual MP in an experimental treatment. Results: Of the 55 patients originally included in the EXACT trial, 21 (38%) suffered from GI malignancies. The final analysis showed that 15 (71%) patients had experienced a longer progression-free survival (PFS) upon experimental targeted treatment (124 d, quartiles 70/193 d), when compared with the PFS achieved by the previous conventional therapy (62 d, quartiles 55/83 d) (P=0.014). Thirteen (62%) patients receiving targeted treatment experienced a disease control according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Median overall survival (OS) from the start of experimental therapy to time of censoring or death was 193 d (quartiles 115/374 d). Conclusions: PM was not investigated in GI malignancies so far in a prospective trial. This study shows that treatment based on real-time molecular tumor profiling led to a superior clinical benefit, and survival as well as response was significantly improved when compared with previous standard medications.

16.
Med Oncol ; 36(1): 1, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426271

RESUMO

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its "decoy" receptor soluble ST2 (sST2) are involved in the development of chronic inflammation and cancer. We explored IL-33 and sST2 as a potential prognostic marker in patients with metastatic and locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). IL-33 and sST2 plasma levels were assessed in 20 patients with advanced PDAC before start of systemic chemotherapy and were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed a significant association between sST2 plasma levels and survival (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.33-3.41, p = 0.002) and link high sST2 plasma levels to inferior survival in patients with advanced PDAC undergoing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Interleucina-33/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 17(4): 274-279, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment sequencing for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been highly debated. The thymidine-based nucleoside trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) and the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib have demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized phase III trials compared with placebo. However, limited data are available on the most optimal therapy sequence involving TAS-102 and regorafenib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective, observational, real-life study, clinical data on mCRC patients treated with TAS-102 or an alternative salvage treatment at the Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Zurich were collected from January 2013 to December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients whose disease had progressed during fluoropyrimidine-based therapy (FBT) with or without an antibody were included. The disease control rate in patients treated with TAS-102 after FBT-based treatment was 24% compared with 35% in patients treated with regorafenib after FBT-based treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-7.47; P = .449). The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients treated with TAS-102 was 2.8 months (quartile, 2.0-4.8 months) and 15.9 months, respectively. When the data were analyzed according to the subgroups of patients with or without an FBT-free period, the TAS-102-treated patients with a previous FBT-free interval had a PFS of 3.1 months and OS of 17.7 months compared with a PFS of 2.2 months and OS of 8.1 months for patients who received TAS-102 immediately after FBT. CONCLUSION: Our results have confirmed the efficacy of TAS-102 and regorafenib in the real-life setting. The treatment sequence analysis showed a tendency for longer PFS and OS for TAS-102-treated patients after an FBT-free interval. Prospective randomized data are needed to gain more information about the most beneficial therapy sequence in the salvage treatment of mCRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Uracila/análogos & derivados
18.
ESMO Open ; 3(2): e000285, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464109

RESUMO

The cancer burden is rising globally, exerting significant strain on populations and health systems at all income levels. In May 2017, world governments made a commitment to further invest in cancer control as a public health priority, passing the World Health Assembly Resolution 70.12 on cancer prevention and control within an integrated approach. In this manuscript, the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology Leadership Generation Programme participants propose a strategic framework that is in line with the 2017 WHO Cancer Resolution and consistent with the principle of universal health coverage, which ensures access to optimal cancer care for all people because health is a basic human right. The time for action is now to reduce barriers and provide the highest possible quality cancer care to everyone regardless of circumstance, precondition or geographic location. The national actions and the policy recommendations in this paper set forth the vision of its authors for the future of global cancer control at the national level, where the WHO Cancer Resolution must be implemented if we are to reduce the cancer burden, avoid unnecessary suffering and save as many lives as possible.

19.
Oncology ; 94(5): 306-310, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. We aimed to evaluate if a personalized medicine approach may be useful for matching patients with ACC to targeted therapies. METHODS: This is an analysis of 10 molecularly profiled ACCs that were progressing under standard of care treatment. The profile consisted of a 50-gene next-generation sequencing panel, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and fluorescence in situ hybridization for several proteins or chromosomal aberrations. RESULTS: In 6 (60%) tumor samples, no somatic mutation was detected, while in 3 (30%) tumors 1 mutation was detected and in 1 (10%) tumor 2 mutations were detected. These mutations were CTNNB1 (2 samples), TP53 (1 sample), RB1 (1 sample) and APC (1 sample). Expression of phospho-mTOR and of EGFR was commonly detected by IHC (87.5 and 62.5%). In 4 (50%) samples, IHC revealed a weak expression of progesterone receptor. Less frequent alterations were expression of PDGFR-α, c-KIT, and estrogen receptor, each in 1 case. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the molecular profile, no recommendation for targeted therapy was made by the multi-disciplinary team. Currently, ACC might not be suitable for a precision medicine approach according to our tests.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , Medicina de Precisão , beta Catenina/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
20.
Pancreas ; 47(2): 142-157, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346215

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with a devastating 5-year overall survival of only approximately 7%. Although just 4% of all malignant diseases are accounted to PDAC, it will become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths before 2030. Immunotherapy has proven to be a promising therapeutic option in various malignancies such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), microsatellite instability-high gastrointestinal cancer, urinary tract cancer, kidney cancer, and others. In this review, we summarize recent findings about immunological aspects of PDAC with the focus on the proposed model of the "cancer immunity cycle". By this model, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism in achieving a T-cell response against cancer cells is provided. There is currently great interest in the field around designing novel immunotherapy combination studies for PDAC based on a sound understanding of the underlying immunobiology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
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