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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Triglyceride-Glucose (TyG) index is an accurate biomarker of insulin resistance, which is potentially associated with adverse cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess the dose-response relationship between Triglyceride-Glucose (TyG) Index and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for records published from the inception up until 7 February 2021. Studies that fulfilled all of these criteria were included: 1) prospective or retrospective observational studies reporting patients with ACS and 2) assessing the impact of TyG index on MACE with at least three quantitative classifications. The outcome of interest is MACE across the TyG index intervals. MACE was a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, target vessel revascularization, cerebrovascular accidents, and heart failure. The effect estimates were reported as relative risks (RRs). There are 13,684 subjects from 4 studies included in this meta-analysis. This meta-analysis showed that the highest category of TyG index was associated with twofold MACE (RR 2.09 [1.59, 2.76], p < 0.001; I2: 68.4%, p = 0.02) compared to the lowest category in patients with ACS. Dose-response meta-analysis showed that the relationship between TyG index and MACE was non-linear (p < 0.001), with statistical significance reached around TyG index 8.9 and increased non-linearly. The dose-response curve became significantly steeper after TyG index of 9.1-9.2. CONCLUSION: TyG index was associated with MACE in patients with ACS in a non-linear fashion. PROSPERO: CRD42021235765.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether FIB-4 index is useful in predicting mortality in patients with concurrent hematological malignancies and COVID-19. We also aimed to determine the optimal cut-off point for the prediction. METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective cohort study conducted in Dharmais National Cancer Hospital, Indonesia. Consecutive sampling of adults with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 was performed between May 2020 and January 2021. COVID-19 screening test using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasopharyngeal samples were performed prior to hospitalization for chemotherapy. FIB-4 index is derived from [age (years) × AST (IU/L)]/[platelet count (109/L) × âˆšALT (U/L)]. The primary outcome of this study is mortality, defined as clinically validated death/non-survivor during a 3-months (90 days) follow-up. RESULTS: There were a total of 70 patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 in this study. Median FIB-4 Index was higher in non-survivors (13.1 vs 1.02, p<0.001). FIB-4 index above 3.85 has a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 84%, PLR of 5.27, and NLR of 0.32. The AUC was 0.849 95% CI 0.735-0.962, p<0.001. This cut-off point was associated with OR of 16.70 95% CI 4.07-66.67, p<0.001. In this study, a FIB-4 >3.85 confers to 80% posterior probability of mortality and FIB-4 <3.85 to 19% probability. FIB-4 >3.85 was associated with shorter time-to-mortality (HR 9.10 95% CI 2.99-27.65, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that FIB-4 >3.85 (HR 4.09 95% CI 1.32-12.70, p = 0.015) and CRP> 71.57 mg/L (HR 3.36 95% CI 1.08-10.50, p = 0.037) were independently associated with shorter time-to-mortality. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a FIB-4 index >3.85 was independent predictor of mortality in patients with hematological malignancies and COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237554

RESUMO

AIMS: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effect of ivermectin on mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov from the inception of databases up until April 9, 2021. The intervention group was ivermectin and the control group was standard of care or placebo. The primary outcome was mortality reported as risk ratio (RR). RESULTS: There were 9 RCTs comprising of 1788 patients included in this meta-analysis. Ivermectin was associated with decreased mortality (RR 0.39 [95% 0.20-0.74], p = 0.004; I2: 58.2%, p = 0.051). Subgroup analysis in patients with severe COVID-19 showed borderline statistical significance towards mortality reduction (RR 0.42 [95% 0.18-1.00], p = 0.052; I2: 68.3, p = 0.013). The benefit of ivermectin and mortality was reduced by hypertension (RR 1.08 [95% CI 1.03-1.13], p = 0.001); but was not influenced by age (p = 0.657), sex (p = 0.466), diabetes (p = 0.429). Sensitivity analysis using fixed-effect model showed that ivermectin decreased mortality in general (RR 0.43 [95% CI 0.29-0.62], p < 0.001) and severe COVID-19 subgroup (RR 0.48 [95% CI 0.32-0.72], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Ivermectin was associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19 with a low certainty of evidence. Further adequately powered double-blinded placebo-controlled RCTs are required for definite conclusion.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211029472, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review summarized prophylactic retinectomy technique and its effect on anatomic and functional outcomes in severe open globe injuries (OGIs). METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, Scopus, and EuropePMC databases was performed up until 8 January 2020. Enrolled studies include case series, studies involving pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with retinectomy in severe penetrating injuries with or without IOFB, perforating injuries, and globe ruptures. Primary outcome was best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ⩾20/200 at the end of the study. Secondary outcomes were the rate of proliferative retinopathy (PVR), globe survival rate and retinal reattachment rate. RESULTS: A total of seven studies, involving 275 eyes with severe OGIs, is included in this study. Meta-analysis indicates that final BCVA ⩾20/200 was achieved in 61% (95% CI 49%-73%). Meta-regression analysis showed that improvement was inversely affected by the presence of pre-operative direct macular injury (p = 0.001) and corneal scar (p = 0.015). The proportion of pre-operative BCVA <20/200 was statistically insignificant to the final BCVA ⩾20/200 (p = 0.569). One study showed that the rate is higher in the retinectomy group than the non-retinectomy group (54% vs 11%). Meta-analysis showed that anatomical success can be achieved in 85% (95% CI 78%-91%) of the patients. Meta-regression analysis indicates that the anatomical success did not vary with age (p = 0.653), retinal detachment (p = 0.525), corneal scar (p = 0.596), and lens involvement (p = 0.450). CONCLUSION: Early PPV combined with retinectomy was associated with acceptable visual improvement and anatomical success.

5.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Statin potentially improved outcome in patients with COVID-19. Patients who receive statin generally have a higher proportion of comorbidities than those who did not, which may introduce bias. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the association between statin use and mortality in patients with COVID-19 by pooling the adjusted effect estimates from propensity-score matching (PSM) matched studies or randomised controlled trials to reduce bias. METHODS: A systematic literature search using the PubMed, Scopus and Embase databases were performed up until 1 March 2021. Studies that were designed the study to assess statin and mortality using PSM with the addition of Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting or multivariable regression analysis on top of PSM-matched cohorts were included. The effect estimate was reported in term of relative risk (RR). RESULTS: 14 446 patients were included in the eight PSM-matched studies. Statin was associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 (RR 0.72 (0.55, 0.95), p=0.018; I2: 84.3%, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis in patients receiving statin in-hospital showed that it was associated with lower mortality (RR 0.71 (0.54, 0.94), p=0.030; I2: 64.1%, p<0.025). The association of statin and mortality was not significantly affected by age (coefficient: -0.04, p=0.382), male gender (RR 0.96 (0.95, 1.02), p=0.456), diabetes (RR 1.02 (0.99, 1.04), p=0.271) and hypertension (RR 1.01 (0.97, 1.04), p=0.732) in this pooled analysis. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of PSM-matched cohorts with adjusted analysis, statin was shown to decrease the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021240137.

6.
Endocrine ; 74(2): 254-262, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086260

RESUMO

ABSTARCT: AIMS: We aimed to assess the dose-response relationship between triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We performed a comprehensive systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for records published from inception until 9 February 2021. The effect estimates were reported as relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: 270,229 subjects from 14 studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled incidence of T2DM was 9%. Meta-regression analysis indicates that baseline age (coefficient: 0.67, p = 0.026), drinking (coefficient: 0.03, p = 0.035), and HDL (coefficient: -0.89, p = 0.035) affected the incidence of T2DM in future. High TyG index was associated with increased incidence of T2DM in pooled unadjusted (RR 4.68 [3.01, 7.29], p < 0.001; I2: 96.6%) and adjusted model (adjusted RR 3.54 [2.75, 4.54], p < 0.001; I2: 83.7%). Dose-response meta-analysis for the adjusted RR showed that the linear association analysis was not significant per 0.1 increase in TyG index (RR 1.01 [0.99, 1.03], p = 0.223). There is a non-linear trend (p < 0.001) for the association between TyG index and incidence of T2DM. The dose-response curve became increasingly steeper at TyG index above 8.6. CONCLUSIONS: TyG index was associated with the incidence of T2DM in a non-linear fashion.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to compare the level of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) antigen in patients with poor outcome compared to those without. Additionally, we also explored factors that may affect the difference in terms of vWF antigen between the two groups. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases from inception up until 7 April 2021. The main outcome was poor outcome, which is a composite of mortality and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: There are 10 studies comprising of 996 patients included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. vWF antigen was higher in patients with poor outcome (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.84 [0.45, 1.23], p<0.001; I2: 87.3, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis on vWF antigen that uses percentage as unit (mean difference 121.6 [53.7, 189.4], p<0.001; I2: 92.0, p<0.001). Meta-regression showed that the SMD between poor outcome and good outcome was affected by platelets (coefficient: 0.0061, p=0.001), d-dimer (coefficient: 0.0007, p=0.026), and factor VIII level (coefficient: 0.0057, p=0.031), but not by age (coefficient: -0.0610, p=0.440), gender (coefficient: 0.0135, p=0.698), obesity (coefficient: 0.0282, p=0.666), hypertension (coefficient: 0.0273, p=0.423), diabetes (coefficient: 0.0317, p=0.398), malignancy (coefficient: 0.0487, p=0.608). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the level of vWF antigen was significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, signaling a marked endotheliopathy. Meta-regression showed that differences became larger as the number of platelets, d-dimer levels, and factor VIII levels increases.

8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107723, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review, with meta-analysis and meta-regression aims to evaluate the effect of colchicine administration on mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and factors affecting the association. METHODS: A systematic literature search using the PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases were performed from inception of databases up until 3 March 2021. We included studies that fulfill all of the following criteria: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting colchicine use, and 3) mortality within 30 days. There was no restriction on the age, inpatients or outpatients setting, and severity of diseases. The intervention was colchicine administration during treatment for COVID-19. The control was receiving placebo or standard of care. The outcome was mortality and the pooled effect estimate was reported as odds ratio (OR). Random-effects restricted maximum likelihood meta-regression was performed to evaluate factors affecting the pooled effect estimate. RESULTS: Eight studies comprising of 5530 patients were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. There were three RCTs and five observational studies. Pooled analysis showed that colchicine was associated with lower mortality in patients with COVID-19 (OR 0.47 [0.31, 0.72], p = 0.001; I2: 30.9, p = 0.181). Meta-regression analysis showed that the association between colchicine and mortality was reduced by increasing age (OR 0.92 [0.85, 1.00], p = 0.05), but not gender (reference: male, p = 0.999), diabetes (p = 0.376), hypertension (p = 0.133), and CAD (p = 0.354). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicates that colchicine may reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19. Meta-regression analysis showed that the benefit was reduced as age increases. PROSPERO: CRD42021240609.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Colchicina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão
9.
Metabolism ; 121: 154814, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119537

RESUMO

Diabetes, one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world, is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Scrupulous blood sugar management is crucial, since the worse outcomes are closely associated with higher blood sugar levels in COVID-19 infection. Although recent observational studies showed that insulin was associated with mortality, it should not deter insulin use in hospitalized patients requiring tight glucose control. Back and forth dilemma in the past with regards to continue/discontinue certain medications used in diabetes have been mostly resolved. The initial fears of consequences related to continuing certain medications have been largely dispelled. COVID-19 also necessitates the transformation in diabetes care through the integration of technologies. Recent advances in health-related technologies, notably telemedicine and remote continuous glucose monitoring, have become essential in the management of diabetes during the pandemic. Today, these technologies have changed the landscape of medicine and become more important than ever. Being a high-risk population, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, should be prioritized for vaccination. In the future, as the pandemic fades, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is expected to rise due to lifestyle changes and medical issues/dilemma encountered during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
10.
Postgrad Med J ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103373

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF/DCV) on mortality, the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and clinical recovery in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search through the PubMed, Scopus and Embase from the inception of databases until 6 April 2021. The intervention group was SOF/DCV, and the control group was standard of care. The primary outcome was mortality, defined as clinically validated death. The secondary outcomes were (1) the need for ICU admission or IMV and (2) clinical recovery. The pooled effect estimates were reported as risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: There were four studies with a total of 231 patients in this meta-analysis. Three studies were randomised controlled trial, and one study was non-randomised. SOF/DCV was associated with lower mortality (RR: 0.31 (0.12, 0.78); p=0.013; I2: 0%) and reduced need for ICU admission or IMV (RR: 0.35 (0.18, 0.69); p=0.002; I2: 0%). Clinical recovery was achieved more frequently in the SOF/DCV (RR: 1.20 (1.04, 1.37); p=0.011; I2: 21.1%). There was a moderate certainty of evidence for mortality and need for ICU/IMV outcome, and a low certainty of evidence for clinical recovery. The absolute risk reductions were 140 fewer per 1000 for mortality and 186 fewer per 1000 for the need for ICU/IMV. The increase in clinical recovery was 146 more per 1000. CONCLUSION: SOF/DCV may reduce mortality rate and need for ICU/IMV in patients with COVID-19 while increasing the chance for clinical recovery. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42021247510.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 6-12, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization affects mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aspirin is often prescribed for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities that might increase mortality, and may therefore falsely demonstrate increased mortality. To reduce bias, only studies that performed an adjusted analysis were included in this review. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed, from inception until 16 April 2021. The exposure was active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization. The primary outcome was mortality. The pooled adjusted effect estimate was reported as relative risk (RR). RESULTS: Six eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising 13,993 patients. The studies had low-to-moderate risk of bias based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The meta-analysis indicated that the use of low-dose aspirin was independently associated with reduced mortality {RR 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.61], P < 0.001; I2 = 36.2%}. Subgroup analysis on in-hospital low-dose aspirin administration also showed a significant reduction in mortality [RR 0.39 (95% CI 0.16-0.96), P < 0.001; I2 = 47.0%]. CONCLUSION: Use of low-dose aspirin is independently associated with reduced mortality in patients with COVID-19, with low certainty of evidence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Prescrições , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 159-166, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether the addition of candesartan to the standard care regimen improved the outcome in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A prospective non-randomized open-label study was undertaken from May to August 2020 on 75 subjects (aged 18-70 years) hospitalized in Siloam Kelapa Dua Hospital. Uni- and multi-variable Cox regression analyses were performed to obtain hazard ratios (HRs). The primary outcomes were: (1) length of hospital stay; (2) time to negative swab; and (3) radiological outcome (time to improvement on chest X ray). RESULTS: None of the 75 patients with COVID-19 required intensive care. All patients were angiotensin-receptor-blocker naïve. In comparison with the control group, the candesartan group had a significantly shorter hospital stay [adjusted HR 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-5.29] after adjusting for a wide range of confounders, and no increased risk of intensive care. In the non-obese subgroup, the candesartan group had a shorter time to negative swab (unadjusted HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.02-4.36; adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.08-5.09) and shorter time to improvement in chest x ray (adjusted HR 2.82, 95% CI 1.13-7.03) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Candesartan significantly reduces the length of hospital stay after adjustment for covariates. All primary outcomes improved significantly in the non-obese subgroup receiving candesartan.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Benzimidazóis , Compostos de Bifenilo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 206: 106645, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the latest evidence on the hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HF-SRS) compared to single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) for the treatment of brain metastases. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, EuropePMC, ProQuest, and Cochrane Central Databases. Original research articles investigating patients with brain metastasis receiving HF-SRS or SF-SRS reporting the local control/failure and/or radionecrosis during follow-up were included. RESULTS: There were 1100 patients from 7 studies. 616 lesions were allocated to HF-SRS group and 777 lesions were allocated to SF-SRS group. Pooled rate of local control was 88% (95% CI 84%, 91%) in HF-SRS group and 81% (95% CI 74%, 88%) in the SF-SRS groups. Local control was higher in patients receiving HF-SRS compared to SF-SRS (OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.08, 2.18], p = 0.018; I2: 0%). Pooled rate of radionecrosis was 7% (95% CI 3%, 12%) in HF-SRS group and 15% (95% CI 8%, 23%) in the SF-SRS groups. Similar rate of radionecrosis was observed in both HF-SRS and SF-SRS (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.31, 2.21], p = 0.698; I2: 61.3%). Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) qualification showed a low level of certainty for the higher local control in patients receiving HF-SRS compared to SF-SRS and a very low level of certainty for similar risk of radionecrosis between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that HF-SRS was associated with higher local control and similar rate of radionecrosis compared to SF-SRS in patients with brain metastases. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020210469.

14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046125

RESUMO

Percutaneous transcatheter closure has gained acceptance for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) management ever since its introduction, including the management residual left-to-right shunts following surgical ligations. It is preferred than the more invasive surgical closure. While large PDA is closed to prevent heart failure, the decision to close a small hemodynamically insignificant PDA is still a debatable issue. We present a case of percutaneous transcatheter closure of small residual left-to-right shunt PDA using HeartR™ Lifetech PDA occluder with instantaneous closure in an asymptomatic adult patient. The justification of closure was made based on the previous history of infective endocarditis, followed by PDA ligation and endarterectomy surgery, at 1.5 year before admission.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/cirurgia , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Adulto , Humanos , Ligadura , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 163-168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body mass index (BMI) has previously been shown to increase mortality and disease severity in patients with COVID-19, but the pooled effect estimate was heterogeneous. Although BMI is widely used as an indicator, it cannot distinguish visceral from subcutaneous fat. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between visceral adiposity, subcutaneous fat, and severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using the databases: PubMed, Embase, and EuropePMC. Data on visceral fat area (VTA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) were collected. The outcome of interest was severe COVID-19. We used a REML random-effects model to pool the mean differences and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: There were 5 studies comprising of 539 patients. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a higher VTA (mean difference 41.7 cm2 [27.0, 56.4], p < 0.001; I2: 0%) and TFA (mean difference 64.6 cm2 [26.2, 103.1], p = 0.001; I2: 0%). There was no significant difference in terms of SFA between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (mean difference 9.3 cm2 [-4.9, 23.4], p = 0.199; I2: 1.2%). Pooled ORs showed that VTA was associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 1.9 [1.1, 2.2], p = 0.002; I2: 49.3%). CONCLUSION: Visceral adiposity was associated with increased COVID-19 severity, while subcutaneous adiposity was not. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020215876.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 777-782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use. The exposure was DPP-4 inhibitor, defined as DPP-4 inhibitor use that started prior to COVID-19 hospitalization. The control group was patients with no exposure to DPP-4 inhibitor. The outcome was mortality. The pooled effect estimate was reported as risk ratio (RR). RESULTS: There were 4,477 patients from 9 studies in this systematic review and meta-analysis. 31% of (15%, 46%) the patients use DPP-4 inhibitor. Mortality occurs in 23% (15%, 31%) of the patients. DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with lower mortality in patients with COVID-19 (RR 0.76 [0.60, 0.97], p = 0.030, I2: 44.5%, p = 0.072). Meta-regression analysis showed that the association between DPP-4 inhibitor and mortality was significantly affected by metformin (RR 1.02 [1.00, 1.04], p = 0.048) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEI/ARB) use (RR 1.04 [1.01, 1.07], p = 0.006), but not age (p = 0.759), sex (reference: male, p = 0.148), and hypertension (p = 0.218). CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitor use was associated with lower mortality in COVID-19 patients, and the association was weaker in patients who were also taking metformin and/or ACE inhibitors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
17.
Obes Med ; : 100333, 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842733

RESUMO

Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the prognostic value of fasting hyperglycemia in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were performed up until 18th February 2021. Fasting hyperglycemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose level above the reference value. The outcome of interest was poor outcome, which was a composite of mortality and severe COVID-19. The effect estimate was in odds ratio (OR). Results: There were 9,045 patients from 12 studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia was 29%. The incidence of poor outcome was 15%. Fasting hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome in COVID-19 (OR 4.72 [3.32, 6.72], p<0.001; I2: 69.8%, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis in patients without prior history of diabetes showed that fasting hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome in COVID-19 (OR 3.387 [2.433, 4.714], p<0.001; I2: 0, p=0.90). Fasting hyperglycemia has a sensitivity of 0.57 [0.45, 0.68], specificity of 0.78 [0.70, 0.84], PLR of 2.6 [2.0, 3.3], NLR of 0.55 [0.44, 0.69], DOR of 5 [3, 7], and AUC of 0.74 [0.70, 0.78] for predicting poor outcome. In this pooled analysis, fasting hyperglycemia has a 32% post-test probability for poor outcome, and absence of fasting hyperglycemia confers to a 9% post-test probability. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity varies by chronic kidney disease but not by age, male (gender), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Conclusion: Fasting hyperglycemia was associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients, with or without diabetes. PROSPERO: CRD42021237997.

18.
Pharmacol Rep ; 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative impacts of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), including the risk of pneumonia and mortality, have been reported previously. This meta-analysis aimed to address the current interest of whether the administration of PPI could increase the susceptibility and risk of poor outcome in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Embase, EBSCOhost, and EuropePMC databases up until 3 December 2020. The main outcome was composite poor outcome which comprised of mortality and severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 in this study was defined as patients with COVID-19 that fulfill the criteria for severe CAP, including the need for intensive unit care or mechanical ventilation. The secondary outcome was susceptibility, based on cohort comparing COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative participants. RESULTS: There were a total of 290,455 patients from 12 studies in this meta-analysis. PPI use was associated with increased composite poor outcome (OR 1.85 [1.13, 3.03], p = 0.014; I2 90.26%). Meta-regression analysis indicate that the association does not vary by age (OR 0.97 [0.92, 1.02], p = 0.244), male (OR 1.05 [0.99, 1.11], p = 0.091), hypertension (OR 9.98 [0.95, 1.02], p = 0.317), diabetes (OR 0.99 [0.93, 1.05], p = 0.699), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.01 [0.93, 1.10], p = 0.756), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (OR 1.02 [0.96, 1.09], p = 0.499), and pre-admission/in-hospital PPI use (OR 0.77 [0.26, 2.31], p = 0.644). PPI use was not associated with the susceptibility to COVID-19 (OR 1.56 [0.48, 5.05], p = 0.46; I2 99.7%). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed a potential association between PPI use and composite poor outcome, but not susceptibility. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020224286.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 312-318, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is frequently encountered in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Elevated troponin may signify myocardial damage and is predictive of mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of troponin above the 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) for mortality, and factors affecting the relationship. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Embase was undertaken, from inception of the databases until 16 December 2020. The key exposure was elevated serum troponin, defined as troponin (of any type) above the 99th percentile URL. The outcome was mortality due to any cause. RESULTS: In total, 12,262 patients from 13 studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The mortality rate was 23% (20-26%). Elevated troponin was observed in 31% (23-38%) of patients. Elevated troponin was associated with increased mortality [odds ratio (OR) 4.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.07-5.53; P < 0.001; I2 = 19.9%]. Meta-regression showed that the association did not vary with age (P = 0.218), male gender (P = 0.707), hypertension (P = 0.182), diabetes (P = 0.906) or coronary artery disease (P = 0864). The association between elevated troponin and mortality had sensitivity of 0.55 (0.44-0.66), specificity of 0.80 (0.71-0.86), positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 (2.2-3.3), negative likelihood ratio of 0.56 (0.49-0.65), diagnosis odds ratio of 5 (4-5) and area under the curve of 0.73 (0.69-0.77). The probability of mortality was 45% in patients with elevated troponin and 14% in patients with non-elevated troponin. CONCLUSION: Elevated troponin was associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 with 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Miocárdio/química , Troponina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
J Card Surg ; 36(7): 2233-2239, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether the absence of electrocardiographic (ECG) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was associated with poor outcome in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: We performed systematic review search on PubMed, Embase, and Scopus up until January 22, 2021. The key exposure was the absence of ECG LVH, defined as the absence of LVH by electrocardiographic criteria. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome, which is a composite of mortality and/or rehospitalization after TAVR. The effect estimate was reported as hazard ratio (HR). In addition, we generate sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR and NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under curve (AUC). RESULTS: There are four studies comprising of 827 patients included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The prevalence of poor outcome in this pooled analysis was 30%. The absence of ECG LVH was associated with increased poor outcome in patients undergoing TAVR (HR: 1.86, [1.34, 2.57], p < .001; I2 : 0%). Absence of ECG LVH was associated with a sensitivity of 0.75 [0.64, 0.83], specificity of 0.42 [0.30, 0.55], PLR of 1.3 [1.1, 1.5], NLR of 0.60 [0.45, 0.80], DOR 2 [1, 5], and AUC of 0.66 [0.62, 0.70]. Fagan's nomogram indicates in a 22% prevalence of poor outcome in the included studies, the absence of ECG LVH and ECG LVH was associated with 27% and 15% posttest probability for poor outcome, respectively. CONCLUSION: Absence of ECG LVH was associated with poor outcome in patients undergoing TAVR.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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