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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6115, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731756

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that probiotics and synbiotics ameliorate dyslipidemia. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating their effects remain to be determined. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of a probiotic, a prebiotic, and a synbiotic in dyslipidemic Sprague-Dawley rats, and explore the mechanisms involved using a proteomic approach. The rats were allocated to five groups: a control group that was fed normal chow, and four high-fat diet-fed groups, three of which were administered a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus), a prebiotic (inulin), or a combination of the two (a synbiotic) for 30 days. We showed that the administration of inulin, and especially L. acidophilus, improved the lipid profile and reduced the serum concentrations of inflammatory markers in high-fat diet-fed rats. Proteomic analysis showed changes in lipid elongation, glycerolipid metabolism, activation of antioxidants, and a reduction in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the livers of rats administered L. acidophilus, which likely mediate its beneficial effects on inflammation and dyslipidemia by reduced the levels of 18.56% CRP, 35.71% TNF-α 25.6% LDL-C and 28.57% LDL-C/HDL-C ratio when compared to HF group. L. acidophilus and inulin may represent effective natural means of maintaining inflammation and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Inulina/farmacologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Prebióticos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Food Chem ; 347: 129048, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493835

RESUMO

In this study, we determined the vitamin B12 content of commercially-available edible insect products using a bioassay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Although the vitamin content of giant water bug, bee larva, grasshopper, and weaver ant products was low, we found that diving beetle and cricket products contained relatively high amounts of vitamin B12 (approximately 89.5 and 65.8 µg/100 g dry weight, respectively). In the cricket products most widely circulated as foods, specific corrinoid (vitamin B12) compounds were extracted and identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Despite the bioassay detecting high vitamin B12 content (approximately 50-75 µg/100 g dry weight) in these cricket products, UPLC-MS/MS analysis indicated that pseudovitamin B12 and 2-methylmercaptoadenyl cobamide (also known as factor S) were actually the predominant corrinoid compounds (~74% and ~21%, respectively), with authentic vitamin B12 making up only 5% of total corrinoids.


Assuntos
Corrinoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Gryllidae/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gryllidae/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(4): e13030, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468687

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of a nutrition education intervention on child feeding practices and children's nutritional status. Using a randomized controlled trial, we conducted an intervention for 6 months among caregivers with children aged 6-17 months in two subdistricts of Kendari, SE Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. In all, 22 integrated health posts were randomly assigned to an educational intervention or control group with 266 participants in both groups. Participants in the intervention group attended four nutrition classes and received a monthly home visit by cadres (community volunteers), whereas participants in the control group only received standard monthly health care at the health post. The primary study outcome was children's dietary diversity scores (DDSs). Mixed model analysis was conducted to examine the intervention effects on DDS and children's growth adjusting for clustering within subvillages. The study showed the educational intervention had a significant effect on children's DDS. Children in the intervention group had a larger DDS compared with children in the control group (Beta [mean difference] = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.66, P = 0.038). The intervention effect on height-for-age z-score (HAZ) could not be shown (Beta = 0.24, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.56, P = 0.112). However, stunting prevalence remained stable in the intervention group but increased in the control group. These results indicated nutrition education delivered through nutrition classes combined with regular home visits by cadres as influencers provided a great potential to be adopted to complement other nutrition programmes in community health centres.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Terapia Nutricional , Criança , Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 294, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684925

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Obesity and dyslipidemia are major risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to the accumulation of fat in more than 5% of the liver without alcohol consumption. NAFLD is the most common liver disease and is rapidly becoming a global public health problem. Maoberry (Antidesma bunius) is a fruit rich in antioxidants, especially phenolic compounds, which are reported to have benefits for patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of Maoberry extract on fat metabolism in liver tissues of high fat diet-induced rats. Five (5) groups (n = 12) of male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into those given a high fat diet with no treatment (HF), different dosages of Maoberry extracts (0.38 [ML], 0.76 [MM) and 1.52 [MH] g/kg body weight) and 10 mg/kg statin (STAT). The rats were fed a high fat diet for 4 weeks to induce obesity and subsequently continued more for 12 weeks with treatments of Maoberry extracts or STAT. The levels of triglyceride, liver enzymes, oxidative stress and inflammation markers, triglyceride synthesis regulators, and pathology of the liver in high fat diet-induced rats were investigated. RESULTS: Feeding Maoberry extract in MH groups resulted in decreasing levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver triglyceride, liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT)-1 and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) compared with the HF group (P < 0.05). Moreover, histopathological study of the liver showed reduced fat droplets in the Maoberry extract treatment groups, especially in MH groups and STAT treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: The improvements of fat metabolism in liver tissues of rats fed a high-fat diet were observed in Maoberry extracts treatment groups. The underline mechanism that link to fat metabolism might be through the process accompanied with down-regulated the gene expression of key enzymes of lipid production, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammation properties of Maoberry extracts which contains high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Gorduras/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malpighiales/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/genética , Acetil-CoA C-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 9051929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485456

RESUMO

The linkage of obesity, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been extensively investigated for over a decade. However, the association between inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and T2DM is still inconsistent and limited. Thus, this study is aimed at elucidating the association between inflammatory marker levels and the risk of developing T2DM in many aspects. Among 296 subjects enrolled in 2013, 248 non-T2DM subjects who were completely reinvestigated in 2014 and 2015 were included in a 2-year retrospective analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of baseline inflammatory marker levels and variation with incidence of T2DM. After the 2-year follow-up, 18.6% of total subjects had developed T2DM. The risk of developing T2DM was significantly increased in subjects with a high level of baseline CRP (OR = 4.02, 95% CI: 1.77-9.12, P = 0.001), and a stronger impact was found with the combination of high CRP and IL-6 levels (OR = 5.11, 95% CI: 1.27-20.49, P = 0.021). One-year inflammatory marker variation analysis also revealed the significant association of elevated TNF-α and risk of developing T2DM (OR = 4.88, 95% CI: 1.01-23.49, P = 0.048). In conclusion, besides consideration of CRP levels alone, our findings suggested that IL-6 outstandingly plays a contributing role in T2DM progression and elevated TNF-α levels over time could be a potential predictor of T2DM.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
6.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 89(5-6): 246-254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982444

RESUMO

A lower serum folate level is common in older populations and is associated with increased serum homocysteine concentration. In turn, an elevated homocysteine level is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and age-related diseases. Contemporary studies of folate and dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the elderly population in Thailand are lacking. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationships among serum folate, homocysteine level, and nutritional status in the elderly Thai. Three hundred individuals, aged 60 years and over, underwent anthropometric and physiological measurements, and biochemical parameters, and eating habits were also determined. Folate insufficiency was found in approximately 35% of subjects. Folate and homocysteine showed a significant inverse correlation. Serum homocysteine levels rose with increasing age. Folate deficiency and high waist-to-hip ratio were associated with 7-fold and 2.5-fold increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia, respectively. There were positive correlations between homocysteine and waist-to-hip ratio and systolic blood pressure, but a negative correlation between homocysteine and high-density lipoprotein (r = -0.239, p < 0.01), which are markers for cardiovascular disease risk. Folate negatively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure, but positively with high-density lipoprotein (r = 0.162, p < 0.01). Investigation of eating habits showed that low consumption of green leafy vegetables and high consumption of sugary foods were associated with high homocysteine levels. Given associations between nutritional status and cardiovascular disease confirmed in this study, nutrition education, holistic health promotion, and appropriate behavioral modification of eating habits represent important measures for preventing premature cardiovascular disease in the elderly Thai population.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ácido Fólico , Homocisteína , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia , Lipídeos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia , Vitamina B 12 , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 56-62, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-182574

RESUMO

Introduction: Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats are generally used as models for the cholesterol metabolism experiments. They are acceptable to high fat diet-induced disorders with individual variations, including dyslipidemia and abnormal cardiac pathology. Objective: To compare the effects of high fat diet in inducing dyslipidemia and cardiac pathological alterations between Wistar and SD rats. Methods: We compared the differences in plasma cholesterol levels and cardiac pathological alterations between Wistar and SD rats of standard diet (3.90 kcal/g) and high fat diet (5.40 kcal/g) after 4 weeks. Results: SD rats fed with high fat diet showed significantly enhanced LDL concentration and the decreased HDL concentration when compared to Wistar rats. Additionally, SD rats showed cardiac pathological alterations such as infiltration of mononuclear cells referring to inflammatory response and high amounts of perivascular fat playing a key role in the impairment of vascular functions. Conclusions: Our results indicate that SD rats may be the more suitable model for dyslipidemia and alteration of cardiac pathology induced by high fat diet


Introducción: Las ratas Wistar y Sprague Dawley (SD) se usan generalmente como modelos para los experimentos del metabolismo del colesterol. Son aceptables para los trastornos inducidos por la dieta alta en grasas con variaciones individuales, incluida la dislipidemia y la patología cardiaca anormal. Objetivo: Comparar los efectos de la dieta alta en grasas en la inducción de dislipidemia y alteraciones patológicas cardiacas entre ratas Wistar y SD. Métodos: Comparamos las diferencias en los niveles de colesterol en plasma y las alteraciones patológicas cardkacas entre ratas Wistar y SD de dieta estándar (3,90 kcal/g) y dieta alta en grasas (5,40 kcal/g) después de 4 semanas. Resultados: Las ratas SD alimentadas con una dieta alta en grasas mostraron una concentración significativamente mejorada de LDL y una concentración disminuida de HDL en comparación con las ratas Wistar. Además, las ratas SD mostraron alteraciones patológicas cardiacas, como la infiltración de células mononucleares que se refieren a la respuesta inflamatoria y las altas cantidades de grasa perivascular que juegan un papel clave en el deterioro de las funciones vasculares. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados indican que las ratas SD pueden ser el modelo más adecuado para la dislipidemia y la alteración de la patología cardiaca inducida por una dieta alta en grasas


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
8.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 33(2)2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a transition period involving tremendous physical, psychological and cognitive growth. For appropriate growth of adolescents in these aspects, a correct quantity and quality of nourishment is required, as a lack of such nourishment among adolescents can lead to various degrees of malnutrition, which may have implications on their health as well as their academic achievements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review examines the research topics around factors that influence the nutritional status of adolescent students which can affect their academic performance. RESULTS: Some of the vital factors include knowledge and attitude about nutrition, eating behaviour, physical activity, socio-economic status of the family, the surrounding environment at school and home, the frequency and timing of meals, nutritional contents and amount of food intake. CONCLUSION: Students who consume a balanced diet perform better in exams, show better behaviour as well as attendance at school and get their assigned tasks done more thoroughly compared with those who do not consume a balanced diet.

9.
J Med Food ; 22(1): 29-37, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277837

RESUMO

Excessive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dark purple maoberry (Antidesma bunius) fruit is a very good source of antioxidants. We investigated the effects of maoberry on immune function, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress in HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Seventy-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into the normal group fed with standard diet (ND); HFD groups (HF); and low, medium, and high dose of maoberry extract groups and a simvastatin group (HF-L, HF-M, HF-H, and HF-S, respectively). Maoberry groups were given maoberry extract at concentrations of 0.38, 0.76, and 1.52 g/kg per day. At the same time, HF-S groups were administered simvastatin 10 mg/kg per day. After 12 weeks of maoberry treatment, significant reductions in body weight and triglyceride levels were observed in HF-L, HF-M, and HF-H groups in comparison with HF groups (P < .05). Obvious negative changes in spleen histology were found in HF groups, but not in maoberry-treated groups. Modest, but not significant, improvements were observed in other lipid profiles, immune cells in peripheral blood, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity after maoberry supplementation. In summary, these findings suggest that maoberry was helpful in reducing atherogenic risk factors such as lipid profiles, especially triglyceride, inflammation, oxidative stress related to CVD, and lesions in spleen histopathology.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Magnoliopsida , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Frutas , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/patologia
10.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 31(2): 56-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591270

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats are generally used as models for the cholesterol metabolism experiments. They are acceptable to high fat diet-induced disorders with individual variations, including dyslipidemia and abnormal cardiac pathology. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of high fat diet in inducing dyslipidemia and cardiac pathological alterations between Wistar and SD rats. METHODS: We compared the differences in plasma cholesterol levels and cardiac pathological alterations between Wistar and SD rats of standard diet (3.90 kcal/g) and high fat diet (5.40 kcal/g) after 4 weeks. RESULTS: SD rats fed with high fat diet showed significantly enhanced LDL concentration and the decreased HDL concentration when compared to Wistar rats. Additionally, SD rats showed cardiac pathological alterations such as infiltration of mononuclear cells referring to inflammatory response and high amounts of perivascular fat playing a key role in the impairment of vascular functions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that SD rats may be the more suitable model for dyslipidemia and alteration of cardiac pathology induced by high fat diet.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 344, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591041

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Chronic fat-rich diets consumption is increased risk associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Prevention or reduction the progression of cardiac tissue deterioration could benefit in CVD. This study aimed to examine the effects of maoberry (Antidesma bunius), a antioxidant-rich tropical fruit, supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiac tissues of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: The male rats orally received HFD with maoberry extract doses of 0.38, 0.76 or 1.52 g/kg or simvastatin (10 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were fasted, euthanized and harvested for the hearts. RESULTS: Significantly reduced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde levels) and enhanced antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing activities) in cardiac tissues of the rats were found. Maoberry extract remarkably ameliorated the expressions of genes involved with pro-inflammatory such as the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maoberry extract has remarkable effects on preventing progression of cardiac tissue deterioration at least through lowering oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Malpighiales/química , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Miocárdio/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
12.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 17(1): 44, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elevated levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL6) are supposed to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Frequent high glycemic load (GL) consumption, central obesity, and a lack of physical activity are considered to be T2DM risk factors. This study aimed to determine the difference of these inflammatory markers as well as GL in individuals with versus those without T2DM in rural Thais. METHODS: A total of 296 participants aged 35-66 living in Sung Noen District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand, were recruited. Blood was collected to evaluate blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers. A Semi-food frequency questionnaire was utilized to assess GL followed by socioeconomic and anthropometric assessment. Statistical analysis was subsequently performed. RESULTS: Elevated CRP and IL6 levels were associated with increased risk of developing T2DM [OR (95% CI): 7.51 (2.11, 26.74) and 4.95 (1.28, 19.11)], respectively. There was a trend towards increased risk of T2DM with elevated TNF-α levels [OR (95% CI): 1.56 (0.39, 6.14)]. GL correlated significantly with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.289, P = 0.016), suggesting that it is involved in T2DM in this study group. CONCLUSION: In this study, CRP, IL6, and TNF-α associated with T2DM. Our findings suggested that these inflammatory markers, especially CRP, may initiate T2DM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Carga Glicêmica , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , População Rural , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 31(1)2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525348

RESUMO

Background The prevalence of obesity has increased globally, with childhood and adolescent obesity being more common in developed countries. There has been no study on teenage obesity in Bhutan. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of obesity in Bhutan for the first time in order to provide a baseline for future researchers. Methods The investigation, which included 392 adolescents, aimed to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its contributing factors. Anthropometric measurements, food recall and knowledge, attitude, behaviour and environment questionnaires were administered. The body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for adolescents matched with those of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the participants were 7.1% and 1.5%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 1.0% in females and 0.5% in males (p < 0.001). There were significant (p < 0.001) correlations between BMI and other variables; however, Pearson's χ2 test uncovered no significant associations. BMI also had no significant associations with attitude, behaviour, environment and distance travelled to school. Food recall results revealed the following findings for average food consumption: total energy intake, 3522.6 kcal; fat, 47.6 g; carbohydrate, 690.2 g; protein, 90.5 g; fibre, 20.3 g; and sodium, 12.5 g. Conclusion The results of this study clarified the prevalence of obesity among adolescents in Bhutan, who require appropriate strategies for combating overweight and obesity.

14.
J Diet Suppl ; 14(2): 173-185, 2017 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27715351

RESUMO

Increased inflammation occurs with excessive adiposity and yeast ß-glucan modulates immune responses. This study investigated the potential effect of yeast ß-glucan on inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese people. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial design enrolled 44 overweight/obese participants with body mass index ≥23 kg/m2, randomized to two groups receiving ß-glucan 477 mg/capsule (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) orally for six weeks. At weeks one to two, participants received 1 ß-glucan or placebo capsule/day and at four weeks two tablets/day. Anthropometric changes, lipid profiles, liver and renal functions, and inflammatory cytokines were measured. ß-glucan reduced waist circumference (p = 0.037) and blood pressure (p = 0.006) compared with controls after six weeks of intervention. No statistical significance between groups was observed for triglyceride, cholesterol, lipid profile, liver and renal function, or energy and nutrient intake compared with controls at week six. ß-glucan increased interlukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, by 23.97% from baseline at week two (p < 0.001) and 31.12% at week six (p < 0.001) and was significantly increased compared with controls at week two (p < 0.001) until week six (p < 0.001). ß-glucan reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 at week six (p = 0.005) and tumor necrosis factor-α at week two (p = 0.037) compared with controls. Supplementation of yeast ß-glucan for six weeks modulated pro-cytokines that accelerate overweight/obese comorbidities and reduced blood pressure as well as waist circumference, the strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease, in overweight/obese subjects. Thus, ß-glucan might have the potential to decrease comorbid conditions associated with overweight/ obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , Leveduras/química , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Diet Suppl ; 13(6): 647-59, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27064932

RESUMO

This study explored effects of ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10, two different forms of coenzyme Q10, in diabetic rats. Oxidative stress is characterized by the depletion of antioxidant defenses and overproduction of free radicals that might contribute to, and even accelerate, the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) complications. Coenzyme Q10 was administered orally to diabetic rats and oxidative stress markers were then assessed. Bioavailability in normal rats was additionally assessed in various tissues and subcellular fractions after short-term and long-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation. Elevated nonfasting blood glucose and blood pressure in diabetic rats were decreased by ubiquinone-10. Both ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 ameliorated oxidative stress, based on assays for reactive oxygen metabolites and malondialdehyde. Coenzyme Q10 levels increased with both treatments and liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) coenzyme Q reductase with ubiquinone-10. Ubiquinol-10 was better absorbed in the liver and pancreas than ubiquinone-10, though both were similarly effective. In bioavailability study, a longer period of coenzyme Q10 supplementation did not lead to its accumulation in tissues or organelles. Both forms of coenzyme Q10 reduced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Long-term supplementation of coenzyme Q10 appeared to be safe.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/química , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pâncreas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/farmacocinética , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 12: 17, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The commercial pet-food industry and the market value of the pet industry have increased. Most owners are concerned about their pets' health, and prefer commercial pet foods as their regular diet. This study thus aimed to determine whether a selection of local generic-brand dry canine foods had any potential to promote chronic disease. METHODS: Five local, generic-brand, dry canine foods were studied for potential mutagenicity; the effects of long-term consumption were also observed in rats. All canine foods were extracted with distilled water and absolute ethanol. The Ames test was used to detect short-term genetic damage, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100. Simultaneously, the long-term effects were studied in an animal model by observing rats fed with these canine foods, compared with normal rat food, for a period of 15 weeks. RESULTS: Using the water extracts, all dry canine foods studied showed considerable mutagenic effects on the tester strains. One brand affected both tester strains, whereas 3 showed positive to TA98, and one to TA100. With the absolute ethanol extract, three of the five brands had a considerable mutagenic effect on TA98, and another affected TA100. In the long-term test, all rats remained alive until the end of the experiment, exhibited no apparent signs of toxicity or serious illness, and maintained normal bodyweight and weight gain. Serum blood biochemistry and hematological parameters in canine food-fed rats showed some negative effects. Correspondingly, histopathological investigation of their liver and kidneys showed deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Mutagenic potential and the negative potential health impacts were observed in all local-brand dry canine foods tested.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Mutagênicos , Animais , Cães , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Valor Nutritivo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Salmonella typhimurium , Tailândia
17.
Food Chem ; 138(1): 501-8, 2013 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23265517

RESUMO

Diabetes is a serious health problem. Searching for alternative natural antioxidants is considered important strategy to manage diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of Riceberry bran oil (RBBO) supplementation on oxidative stress and organ histology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat (HF) diet. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with hyperglycemia were divided into four groups: DM group fed a HF diet alone; DMRL group fed a HF diet and 5% RBBO; DMRM group fed a HF diet and 7.5% RBBO; DMRH group fed a HF diet and 15% RBBO. Normal rats were used as normal control and were divided into NC and NR group fed a normal diet containing either 5% corn oil or 5% RBBO, respectively. After 12 weeks, RBBO significantly decreased malondialdehyde and restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, coenzyme Q(10) and ORAC levels in diabetic rats. RBBO additionally improved the regenerative changes of the pancreas, kidneys, heart and liver. These findings indicate that pigmented RBBO could provide beneficial effect on diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and recovering organ histology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Oryza/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Farelo de Arroz , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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