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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968182

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Gender gaps exist in academic leadership positions in critical care. Peer-reviewed publications are crucial to career advancement, yet little is known regarding gender differences in authorship of critical care research. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate gender differences in authorship of critical care literature. METHODS: We used a validated database of author gender to analyze authorship of critical care articles indexed in PubMed between 2008-2018 in 40 frequently-cited journals. High-impact journals were defined as those in the top 5% of all journals. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to evaluate the association of senior author gender with first and middle author gender, and first author gender with journal impact factor. RESULTS: Among 18,483 studies, 30.8% had female first authors and 19.5% had female senior authors. Female authorship rose slightly over the last decade (average annual increase of 0.44% (p<0.01) and 0.51% (p<0.01) for female first and senior authors, respectively). When the senior author was female, the odds of female co-authorship rose substantially (first author aOR1.93, 95%CI:1.71-2.17; middle author aOR1.48, 95%CI:1.29-1.69). Female first authors had higher odds of publishing in lower-impact journals than men (aOR1.30, 95%CI:1.16-1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Women comprise less than one-third of first authors and one-quarter of senior authors of critical care research, with minimal increase over the past decade. When the senior author was female, the odds of female co-authorship rose substantially. However, female first authors tend to publish in lower-impact journals. These findings may help explain the underrepresentation of women in critical care academic leadership positions and identify targets for improvement.

2.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 26(1): 292-311, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25085115

RESUMO

Length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common outcome measure in randomized trials of ICU interventions. Because many patients die in the ICU, it is difficult to disentangle treatment effects on length of stay from effects on mortality; conventional analyses depend on assumptions that are often unstated and hard to interpret or check. We adapt a proposal from Rosenbaum that addresses concerns about selection bias and makes its assumptions explicit. A composite outcome is constructed that equals ICU length of stay if the patient was discharged alive and indicates death otherwise. Given any preference ordering that compares death with possible lengths of stay, we can estimate the intervention's effects on the composite outcome distribution. Sensitivity analyses can show results for different preference orderings. We discuss methods for constructing approximate confidence intervals for treatment effects on quantiles of the outcome distribution or on proportions of patients with outcomes preferable to various cutoffs. Strengths and weaknesses of possible primary significance tests (including the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum test and a heteroskedasticity-robust variant due to Brunner and Munzel) are reviewed. An illustrative example reanalyzes a randomized trial of an ICU staffing intervention.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pennsylvania , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Recursos Humanos
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