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1.
Heart ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sex differences in left ventricular remodelling and outcome in patients undergoing surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (SAVR/TAVR). METHODS: In this multicentre, observational, outcome study with imaging core-lab analysis, patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) listed for intervention at one of six UK centres were prospectively recruited and underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and secondary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: 674 patients (425 men, 249 women, age 75±14 years) were included: 399 SAVR, 275 TAVR. Women were older, had higher surgical risk scores and underwent TAVR more frequently (53% vs 33.6%, p<0.001). More men had bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) (26.7% vs 14.9%, p<0.001) and demonstrated more advanced remodelling than women. During a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 145 (21.5%) patients died, with no significant sex difference in all-cause mortality (23.3% vs 20.5%, p=0.114), but higher cardiovascular mortality in women (13.7% vs 8.5%, p=0.012). There were no significant sex-related differences in outcome in the SAVR or TAVR subgroups, or after excluding those with BAV. Factors independently associated with all-cause mortality were age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), BAV (better) and myocardial fibrosis detected with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in men, and age, LVEF and LGE in women. Age and LGE were independently associated with cardiovascular mortality in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Men demonstrate more advanced remodelling in response to a similar severity of AS. The higher cardiovascular mortality observed in women following AVR is accounted for by women having less BAV and higher risk scores resulting in more TAVR. LGE is associated with a worse prognosis in both sexes.

4.
Dis Model Mech ; 12(8)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324689

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic myocarditis is a potentially fatal complication of excessive levels of systemic inflammation. It has been reported in viral infection, but is also possible in systemic autoimmunity. Epicutaneous treatment of mice with the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) agonist Resiquimod induces auto-antibodies and systemic tissue damage, including in the heart, and is used as an inducible mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we show that overactivation of the TLR-7 pathway of viral recognition by Resiquimod treatment of CFN mice induces severe thrombocytopenia and internal bleeding, which manifests most prominently as hemorrhagic myocarditis. We optimized a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) tissue mapping approach for the in vivo detection of diffuse infiltration, fibrosis and hemorrhages using a combination of T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times, and compared results with ex vivo histopathology of cardiac sections corresponding to CMR tissue maps. This allowed detailed correlation between in vivo CMR parameters and ex vivo histopathology, and confirmed the need to include T2 * measurements to detect tissue iron for accurate interpretation of pathology associated with CMR parameter changes. In summary, we provide detailed histological and in vivo imaging-based characterization of acute hemorrhagic myocarditis as an acute cardiac complication in the mouse model of Resiquimod-induced SLE, and a refined CMR protocol to allow non-invasive longitudinal in vivo studies of heart involvement in acute inflammation. We propose that adding T2 * mapping to CMR protocols for myocarditis diagnosis improves diagnostic sensitivity and interpretation of disease mechanisms.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(6): e196520, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251381

RESUMO

Importance: There is a need for better arrhythmic risk stratification in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtvs) in the TTN gene are the most common genetic cause of DCM and may be associated with higher risk of arrhythmias in patients with DCM. Objective: To determine if TTNtv status is associated with the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia and new persistent atrial fibrillation in patients with DCM and implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study recruited 148 patients with or without TTNtvs who had nonischemic DCM and ICD or CRT-D devices from secondary and tertiary cardiology clinics in the United Kingdom from February 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016, with a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 4.2 (2.1-6.5) years. Exclusion criteria were ischemic cardiomyopathy, primary valve disease, congenital heart disease, or a known or likely pathogenic variant in the lamin A/C gene. Analyses were performed February 1, 2017, to May 31, 2017. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was time to first device-treated ventricular tachycardia of more than 200 beats/min or first device-treated ventricular fibrillation. Secondary outcome measures included time to first development of persistent atrial fibrillation. Results: Of 148 patients recruited, 117 adult patients with nonischemic DCM and an ICD or CRT-D device (mean [SD] age, 56.9 [12.5] years; 76 [65.0%] men; 106 patients [90.6%] with primary prevention indications) were included. Having a TTNtv was associated with a higher risk of receiving appropriate ICD therapy (shock or antitachycardia pacing) for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR], 4.9; 95% CI, 2.2-10.7; P < .001). This association was independent of all covariates, including midwall fibrosis measured by late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance images (adjusted HR, 8.3; 95% CI, 1.8-37.6; P = .006). Having a TTNtv was also associated with the risk of receiving a shock (HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-11.6; P = .03). Individuals with a TTNtv and fibrosis had a greater rate of receiving appropriate device therapy than those with neither (HR, 16.6; 95% CI, 3.5-79.3; P < .001). Having a TTNtv was also a risk factor for developing new persistent atrial fibrillation (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3-12.0; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Having a TTNtv was an important risk factor for clinically significant arrhythmia in patients with DCM and ICD or CRT-D devices. Having a TTNtv, especially in combination with midwall fibrosis confirmed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, may provide a risk stratification approach for evaluating the need for ICD therapy in patients with DCM. This hypothesis should be tested in larger studies.

7.
Circulation ; 140(1): 31-41, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and preexisting cardiovascular disorders. These parameters incompletely account for substantial interindividual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM. METHODS: We studied 213 patients with CCM from 3 cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped adults with breast cancer (n=73), and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including 9 prespecified genes, were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas participants (n=2053), healthy volunteers (n=445), and an ancestry-matched reference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed and stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice. RESULTS: CCM was diagnosed 0.4 to 9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult patients with CCM had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the US population. Among 9 prioritized genes, patients with CCM had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts ( P≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtvs) predominated, occurring in 7.5% of patients with CCM versus 1.1% of The Cancer Genome Atlas participants ( P=7.36e-08), 0.7% of healthy volunteers ( P=3.42e-06), and 0.6% of the reference population ( P=5.87e-14). Adult patients who had CCM with TTNtvs experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation ( P=0.003) and impaired myocardial recovery ( P=0.03) than those without. Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wild-type ( P=0.0004 and P<0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Unrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtvs, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events in adults. Genotype, along with cumulative chemotherapy dosage and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, improves the identification of patients who have cancer at highest risk for CCM. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifiers: NCT01173341; AAML1031; NCT01371981.

8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(3): e007022, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866666

RESUMO

Background Patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, but more discriminating tools are needed to identify those patients likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Whether right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (RVEF) can identify patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure more likely to benefit from ICD implantation is not yet known. Methods In this post hoc analysis of the DANISH trial (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality), patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure randomized to ICD or control underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RVEF ≤45%. Cox regression assessed the effects of RV function and ICD implantation on all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular death. Results Overall, 239 patients had interpretable images of RV volume. Median RVEF was 51%, RV systolic dysfunction was present in 75 (31%) patients, and 55 (23%) patients died. RVEF was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, hazards ratio 1.34 per 10% absolute decrease in RVEF (95% CI, 1.05-1.70), P=0.02. There was a statistically significant interaction between RVEF and the effect of ICD implantation ( P=0.001). ICD implantation significantly reduced all-cause mortality in patients with RV systolic dysfunction, hazards ratio 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.97), P=0.04 but not in patients without RV systolic dysfunction, hazards ratio 1.87 (95% CI, 0.85-3.92), P=0.12, ( P=0.01 for the difference in effect of ICD between RV groups). Conclusions In this post hoc analysis of the DANISH trial, ICD therapy was associated with survival benefit in patients with biventricular heart failure. These findings need confirmation in a prospective study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00542945.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e010114, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922153

RESUMO

Background Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension is common in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction ( HF p EF ). We hypothesized that this could result in pericardial constraint and diastolic ventricular interaction in some patients during exercise. Methods and Results Contrast stress echocardiography was performed in 30 HF p EF patients, 17 hypertensive controls, and 17 normotensive controls (healthy). Cardiac volumes, and normalized radius of curvature ( NRC ) of the interventricular septum at end-diastole and end-systole, were measured at rest and peak-exercise, and compared between the groups. The septum was circular at rest in all 3 groups at end-diastole. At peak-exercise, end-systolic NRC increased to 1.47±0.05 ( P<0.001) in HF p EF patients, confirming development of pulmonary hypertension. End-diastolic NRC also increased to 1.54±0.07 ( P<0.001) in HF p EF patients, indicating septal flattening, and this correlated significantly with end-systolic NRC (ρ=0.51, P=0.007). In hypertensive controls and healthy controls, peak-exercise end-systolic NRC increased, but this was significantly less than observed in HF p EF patients ( HF p EF , P=0.02 versus hypertensive controls; P<0.001 versus healthy). There were also small, non-significant increases in end-diastolic NRC in both groups (hypertensive controls, +0.17±0.05, P=0.38; healthy, +0.06±0.03, P=0.93). In HF p EF patients, peak-exercise end-diastolic NRC also negatively correlated ( r=-0.40, P<0.05) with the change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume with exercise (ie, the Frank-Starling mechanism), and a trend was noted towards a negative correlation with change in stroke volume ( r=-0.36, P=0.08). Conclusions Exercise pulmonary hypertension causes substantial diastolic ventricular interaction on exercise in some patients with HF p EF , and this restriction to left ventricular filling by the right ventricle exacerbates the pre-existing impaired Frank-Starling response in these patients.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

11.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8 Pt 2): 1699-1708, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and examine the relationship between myocardial perfusion and adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling. BACKGROUND: Although regarded as a nonischemic condition, DCM has been associated with microvascular dysfunction, which is postulated to play a role in its pathogenesis. However, the relationship of the resulting perfusion abnormalities to myocardial fibrosis and the degree of LV remodeling is unclear. METHODS: A total of 65 patients and 35 healthy control subjects underwent adenosine (140 µg/kg/min) stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Stress and rest MBF and MPR were derived using a modified Fermi-constrained deconvolution algorithm. RESULTS: Patients had significantly higher global rest MBF compared with control subjects (1.73 ± 0.42 ml/g/min vs. 1.14 ± 0.42 ml/g/min; p < 0.001). In contrast, global stress MBF was significantly lower versus control subjects (3.07 ± 1.02 ml/g/min vs. 3.53 ± 0.79 ml/g/min; p = 0.02), resulting in impaired MPR in the DCM group (1.83 ± 0.58 vs. 3.50 ± 1.45; p < 0.001). Global stress MBF (2.70 ± 0.89 ml/g/min vs. 3.44 ± 1.03 ml/g/min; p = 0.017) and global MPR (1.67 ± 0.61 vs. 1.99 ± 0.50; p = 0.047) were significantly reduced in patients with DCM with LV ejection fraction ≤35% compared with those with LV ejection fraction >35%. Segments with fibrosis had lower rest MBF (mean difference: -0.12 ml/g/min; 95% confidence interval: -0.23 to -0.01 ml/g/min; p = 0.035) and lower stress MBF (mean difference: -0.15 ml/g/min; 95% confidence interval: -0.28 to -0.03 ml/g/min; p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DCM exhibit microvascular dysfunction, the severity of which is associated with the degree of LV impairment. However, rest MBF is elevated rather than reduced in DCM. If microvascular dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of DCM, then the underlying mechanism is more likely to involve stress-induced repetitive stunning rather than chronic myocardial hypoperfusion.

12.
Lancet ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy whose symptoms and cardiac function have recovered often ask whether their medications can be stopped. The safety of withdrawing treatment in this situation is unknown. METHODS: We did an open-label, pilot, randomised trial to examine the effect of phased withdrawal of heart failure medications in patients with previous dilated cardiomyopathy who were now asymptomatic, whose left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) had improved from less than 40% to 50% or greater, whose left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) had normalised, and who had an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) concentration less than 250 ng/L. Patients were recruited from a network of hospitals in the UK, assessed at one centre (Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK), and randomly assigned (1:1) to phased withdrawal or continuation of treatment. After 6 months, patients in the continued treatment group had treatment withdrawn by the same method. The primary endpoint was a relapse of dilated cardiomyopathy within 6 months, defined by a reduction in LVEF of more than 10% and to less than 50%, an increase in LVEDV by more than 10% and to higher than the normal range, a two-fold rise in NT-pro-BNP concentration and to more than 400 ng/L, or clinical evidence of heart failure, at which point treatments were re-established. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02859311. FINDINGS: Between April 21, 2016, and Aug 22, 2017, 51 patients were enrolled. 25 were randomly assigned to the treatment withdrawal group and 26 to continue treatment. Over the first 6 months, 11 (44%) patients randomly assigned to treatment withdrawal met the primary endpoint of relapse compared with none of those assigned to continue treatment (Kaplan-Meier estimate of event rate 45·7% [95% CI 28·5-67·2]; p=0·0001). After 6 months, 25 (96%) of 26 patients assigned initially to continue treatment attempted its withdrawal. During the following 6 months, nine patients met the primary endpoint of relapse (Kaplan-Meier estimate of event rate 36·0% [95% CI 20·6-57·8]). No deaths were reported in either group and three serious adverse events were reported in the treatment withdrawal group: hospital admissions for non-cardiac chest pain, sepsis, and an elective procedure. INTERPRETATION: Many patients deemed to have recovered from dilated cardiomyopathy will relapse following treatment withdrawal. Until robust predictors of relapse are defined, treatment should continue indefinitely. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, Alexander Jansons Foundation, Royal Brompton Hospital and Imperial College London, Imperial College Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, and Rosetrees Trust.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(9): e007722, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis, identified by late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance, predicts outcomes in chronic heart failure (HF). Its prognostic significance in new-onset HF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unclear. We investigated whether the pattern and extent of fibrosis predict survival in new-onset HF and reduced LVEF of initially uncertain pathogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 120 consecutive patients with new-onset (<6 months) HF and reduced LVEF, 31 (26%) had infarct fibrosis, 25 (21%) had midwall fibrosis, and 64 (53%) had no fibrosis. During median follow-up of 8.9 years, 33 (28%) patients died. Patients with infarct fibrosis (hazard ratios [HR], 3.32; 95% CI, 1.46-7.58; P=0.004) or midwall fibrosis (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.24-7.19; P=0.014) were more likely to die compared with those without fibrosis. On multivariable analysis, the pattern and extent of fibrosis were both associated with all-cause mortality (by fibrosis pattern: infarct: HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.08-6.27; P=0.033; midwall: HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.08-6.47; P=0.034; by fibrosis extent per 1%: HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12; P<0.001). Fibrosis pattern also predicted composites of cardiovascular mortality or aborted sudden cardiac death (infarct: HR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.20-9.90; P=0.022; midwall: HR, 6.59; 95% CI, 2.26-19.22; P<0.001), and all-cause mortality, HF hospitalization, or aborted sudden cardiac death (infarct: HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.26-5.76; P=0.011; midwall fibrosis: HR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.37-6.45; P=0.006). Addition of fibrosis pattern to LVEF improved risk prediction for all-cause mortality (LVEF versus LVEF+fibrosis C statistic: 0.66 versus 0.71; P=0.033). Importantly, the absence of fibrosis heralded a favorable prognosis with an 85% survival rate over the duration of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern and extent of myocardial fibrosis predict adverse outcomes in new-onset HF and reduced LVEF. In contrast, the absence of fibrosis portends a durable warranty period with a low incidence of adverse events. These findings support a role for late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the early risk stratification of patients with HF of uncertain pathogenesis.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the association between the extent, location, and pattern of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and outcome in a large dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cohort. BACKGROUND: The relationship between LGE and prognosis in DCM is incompletely understood. METHODS: We examined the association between LGE and all-cause mortality and a sudden cardiac death (SCD) composite based on the extent, location, and pattern of LGE in DCM. RESULTS: Of 874 patients (588 men, median age 52 years) followed for a median of 4.9 years, 300 (34.3%) had nonischemic LGE. Estimated adjusted hazard ratios for patients with an LGE extent of 0 to 2.55%, 2.55% to 5.10%, and >5.10%, respectively, were 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99 to 2.55), 1.56 (95% CI: 0.96 to 2.54), and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.50 to 3.55) for all-cause mortality, and 2.79 (95% CI: 1.42 to 5.49), 3.86 (95% CI: 2.09 to 7.13), and 4.87 (95% CI: 2.78 to 8.53) for the SCD end-point. There was a marked nonlinear relationship between LGE extent and outcome such that even small amounts of LGE predicted a substantial increase in risk. The presence of septal LGE was associated with increased mortality, but SCD was most associated with the combined presence of septal and free-wall LGE. Predictive models using LGE presence and location were superior to models based on LGE extent or pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In DCM, the presence of septal LGE is associated with a large increase in the risk of death and SCD events, even when the extent is small. SCD risk is greatest with concomitant septal and free-wall LGE. The incremental value of LGE extent beyond small amounts and LGE pattern is limited.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14550, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266917

RESUMO

Left ventricular myocardial fibrosis in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) confers worse prognosis. Plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG), a cytokine from the TNF receptor family, correlates with the degree of valve calcification in AS, reflecting the activity of the tissue RANKL/RANK/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand/RANK/osteoprotegerin) axis, and is associated with poorer outcomes in AS. Its association with myocardial fibrosis is unknown. We hypothesised that OPG levels would reflect the extent of myocardial fibrosis in AS. We included 110 consecutive patients with AS who had undergone late-gadolinium contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). Patients were characterised according to pattern of fibrosis (no fibrosis, midwall fibrosis, or chronic myocardial infarction fibrosis). Serum OPG was measured with ELISA and compared between groups defined by valve stenosis severity. Some 36 patients had no fibrosis, 38 had midwall fibrosis, and 36 had chronic infarction. Patients with midwall fibrosis did not have higher levels of OPG compared to those without fibrosis (6.78 vs. 5.25 pmol/L, p = 0.12). There was no difference between those with midwall or chronic myocardial infarction fibrosis (6.78 vs. 6.97 pmol/L, p = 0.27). However, OPG levels in patients with chronic myocardial infarction fibrosis were significantly higher than those without fibrosis (p = 0.005).

17.
JRSM Cardiovasc Dis ; 7: 2048004018772237, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128147

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging physics can be a complex and challenging topic for the practising cardiologist. Its evolving nature and the increasing number of novel sequences used in clinical scanning have been topics of excellent reviews; however, the basic understanding of physics underlying the creation of images remains difficult for many cardiologists. In this review, we go back to the basic physics theories underpinning magnetic resonance and explain their application and use in achieving good quality cardiac imaging, whilst describing established and novel magnetic resonance sequences. By understanding these basic principles, it is anticipated that cardiologists and other health professionals will then appreciate more advanced physics manuscripts on cardiac scanning and novel sequences.

18.
Circulation ; 138(18): 1935-1947, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis is timed primarily on the development of symptoms, but late surgery can result in irreversible myocardial dysfunction and additional risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of focal myocardial scar preoperatively was associated with long-term mortality. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational outcome study, survival analysis was performed in patients with severe aortic stenosis listed for valve intervention at 6 UK cardiothoracic centers. Patients underwent preprocedural echocardiography (for valve severity assessment) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance for ventricular volumes, function and scar quantification between January 2003 and May 2015. Myocardial scar was categorized into 3 patterns (none, infarct, or noninfarct patterns) and quantified with the full width at half-maximum method as percentage of the left ventricle. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were tracked for a minimum of 2 years. RESULTS: Six hundred seventy-four patients with severe aortic stenosis (age, 75±14 years; 63% male; aortic valve area, 0.38±0.14 cm2/m2; mean gradient, 46±18 mm Hg; left ventricular ejection fraction, 61.0±16.7%) were included. Scar was present in 51% (18% infarct pattern, 33% noninfarct). Management was surgical AVR (n=399) or transcatheter AVR (n=275). During follow-up (median, 3.6 years), 145 patients (21.5%) died (52 after surgical AVR, 93 after transcatheter AVR). In multivariable analysis, the factors independently associated with all-cause mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.11-2.04; P=0.009, scaled by epochs of 10 years), Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22; P=0.007), and scar presence (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.40-4.05; P=0.001). Scar independently predicted all-cause (26.4% versus 12.9%; P<0.001) and cardiovascular (15.0% versus 4.8%; P<0.001) mortality, regardless of intervention (transcatheter AVR, P=0.002; surgical AVR, P=0.026 [all-cause mortality]). Every 1% increase in left ventricular myocardial scar burden was associated with 11% higher all-cause mortality hazard (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17; P<0.001) and 8% higher cardiovascular mortality hazard (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis, late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance was independently associated with mortality; its presence was associated with a 2-fold higher late mortality.

19.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 28(8): 516-521, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907466

RESUMO

The major burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart disease occurs in those with a left ventricular ejection fraction > 40%. Although the annual risk of SCD may be lower in these patients compared to those with lower LVEF, their lifetime cumulative risk of SCD may be greater due to a better overall prognosis. It is plausible that those with LVEF > 40% who are at highest risk of life-threatening arrhythmia will benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Features that identify patients with a LVEF > 40% at high risk of SCD are urgently needed. We review existing studies examining SCD markers in this sub-group and discuss gaps in the current evidence base.

20.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 20(10): 1392-1400, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862606

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between sex, age and outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used proportional hazard modelling to examine the association between sex, age and all-cause mortality in consecutive patients with DCM. Overall, 881 patients (290 women, median age 52 years) were followed for a median of 4.9 years. Women were more likely to present with heart failure (64.0% vs. 54.5%; P = 0.007) and had more severe symptoms (P < 0.0001) compared to men. Women had smaller left ventricular end-diastolic volume (125 mL/m2 vs. 135 mL/m2 ; P < 0.001), higher left ventricular ejection fraction (40.2% vs. 37.9%; P = 0.019) and were less likely to have mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement (23.0% vs. 38.9%; P < 0.0001). During follow-up, 149 (16.9%) patients died, including 41 (4.7%) who died suddenly. After adjustment, all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.92; P = 0.018] was lower in women, with similar trends for cardiovascular (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.35-1.05; P = 0.07), non-sudden (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39-1.02; P = 0.06) and sudden death (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.30-1.63; P = 0.41). All-cause mortality (per 10 years: HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.55; P < 0.0001) and non-sudden death (per 10 years: HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.26-1.82; P < 0.00001) increased with age. Cumulative incidence curves confirmed favourable outcomes, particularly in women and those <60 years. Increased all-cause mortality in patients >60 years of age was driven by non-sudden death. CONCLUSION: Women with DCM have better survival compared to men, which may partly be due to less severe left ventricular dysfunction and a smaller scar burden. There is increased mortality driven by non-sudden death in patients >60 years of age that is less marked in women. Outcomes with contemporary treatment were favourable, with a low incidence of sudden death.

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