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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362308

RESUMO

We present here the first published use of letermovir for the treatment of resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a pediatric patient. A 14-year-old girl underwent a double unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation to treat her sickle cell disease (hemoglobin SS) and developed ganciclovir-resistant CMV DNAemia with end-organ involvement that was treated successfully with a combination of foscarnet and letermovir. After she was transitioned to letermovir monotherapy for secondary prophylaxis, she developed recurrent DNAemia with laboratory-confirmed ganciclovir, foscarnet, and letermovir resistance.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(4): e27602, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609294

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for primary immunodeficiencies. Bone marrow from an unaffected human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor is the ideal graft source. For minor donors, meaningful consent or assent may not be feasible, and permission from parents or legal guardians is considered acceptable. Adverse events, albeit extremely small, can be associated with bone marrow harvest in pediatric donors. Donor safety concerns potentially increase with multiple bone marrow harvests. Very little is known about multiple bone marrow harvests from pediatric donors. We describe the ethical considerations and clinical decision-making in an unusual clinical situation where three patients with the same primary immunodeficiency were HLA identical to one another and their younger sibling, who underwent bone marrow harvests three times between 1.3 and 4 years of age, resulting in successful transplantation for all three patients. We hope that this experience will provide guidance to providers and families in a similar situation.

4.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(5): 955-964, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605731

RESUMO

Although donation of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) from children to family members undergoing allogeneic transplantation are well-established procedures, studies detailing levels of pain, symptoms, and long-term recovery are lacking. To address this lack, we prospectively enrolled 294 donors age <18 years at 25 pediatric transplantation centers in North America, assessing them predonation, peridonation, and at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year postdonation. We noted that 71% of children reported pain and 59% reported other symptoms peridonation, with resolution to 14% and 12% at 1 month postdonation. Both older age (age 13 to 17 years versus younger) and female sex were associated with higher levels of pain peridonation, with the highest rates in older females (57% with grade 2-4 pain and 17% with grade 3-4 pain). Multivariate analyses showed a 4-fold increase in risk for older females compared with males age <13 years (P <.001). At 1 year, 11% of 13- to 17-year-old females reported grade 2-4 pain, compared with 3% of males age 13 to 17 years, 0% of females age <13 years, and 1% of males age <13 years (P = .01). Males and females age 13 to 17 years failed to return to predonation pain levels at 1 year 22% and 23% of the time, respectively, compared with 3% and 10% in males and females age <13 years (P = .002). Our data show that females age 13 to 17 years are at increased risk of grade 2-4 pain at 1 year and >20% of females and males age 13 to 17 years do not return to baseline pain levels by 1 year after BM donation. Studies aimed at decreasing symptoms and improving recovery in older children are warranted.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524972

RESUMO

Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are well-described after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but less well understood in solid organ transplantation (SOT). We describe a case of disseminated HAdV type 21 infection 5 months after combined liver-kidney transplantation, expanding the limited literature describing this infection in the SOT population.

6.
Haematologica ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381298

RESUMO

Unlike unrelated donor registries, transplant centers lack uniform approaches to related donor assessment and deferral. To test whether related donors are at increased risk for donation related toxicities we conducted a prospective observational trial of 11,942 related and unrelated age 18-60. Bone marrow was collected at 37 transplant and 78 National Marrow Donor Program centers and peripheral blood stem cells were collected at 42 transplant and 87 unrelated donor centers in North America. Ascertainment of medical comorbidities occurred prior to donation and standardized pain and toxicity measures were assessed pre-donation, peri-donation, and one year following. Multivariate analyses showed similar experiences for marrow collection in related and unrelated donors, however, related stem cell donors had increased risk of moderate (OR 1.42, p<0.001) and severe pain (OR 8.91, p<0.001) and toxicities (OR 1.84, p<0.001) with collection. Related stem cell donors were at increased risk of persistent toxicities (OR 1.56 p=0.021) and non-recovery from pain (OR 1.42 p=0.001) at 1 year. RD with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43, p<0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71, p<0.001) at 1 year. Related donors with more significant comorbidities were at especially high risk for grade 2-4 pain (OR 3.43, p<0.001) and non-recovery from toxicities (OR 3.71, p<0.001) at 1 year. Related donors reporting grade ≥2 pain had significant decreases in HR-QoL at 1 month and 1 year post-donation (p=0.004). Conclusion: related peripheral blood stem cell donors with comorbidities are at increased risk for pain, toxicity, and non-recovery at 1 year after donation. Risk profiles described in this study should be used for donor education, planning studies to improve the related donor experience, and decisions regarding donor deferral. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00948636.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections and graft-versus-host disease have historically resulted in high mortality among children undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, recent advances in clinical practice have likely improved outcomes of these patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children (<18 years of age) undergoing UCBT at Duke University between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. We compared two-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality during three time periods based on year of transplantation (1995-2001, 2002-2007, 2008-2014). We used multivariable Cox regression to identify demographic and UCBT characteristics that were associated with all-cause mortality, transplantation-related mortality, and death from invasive aspergillosis after adjustment for time period. RESULTS: During the 20-year study period, 824 children underwent UCBT. Two-year all-cause mortality declined from 48% in 1995-2001 to 30% in 2008-2014 (P=0.0002). White patient race and non-malignant UCBT indications were associated with lower mortality. Black children tended to have a higher risk of death for which graft-versus-host disease (18% vs 11%; P=0.06) or graft failure (9% vs 3%; P=0.01) were contributory than white children. Comparing 2008-2014 to 1995-2001, more than half (59%) of the reduced mortality was attributable to a reduction in infectious mortality, with 45% specifically related to reduced mortality from invasive aspergillosis. Antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole was associated with lower mortality from invasive aspergillosis than low-dose amphotericin B lipid complex [hazard ratio (HR): 0.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.76]. With the decline in mortality from invasive aspergillosis, adenovirus and cytomegalovirus have become the most frequent infectious causes of death in children after UCBT. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in clinical practice over the past 20 years improved survival of children after UCBT. Reduced mortality from infections, particularly invasive aspergillosis, accounted for the largest improvement in survival and was associated with use of voriconazole for antifungal prophylaxis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423480

RESUMO

The development of reduced-intensity approaches for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has resulted in growing numbers of older related donors (RDs) of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). The effects of age on donation efficacy, toxicity, and long-term recovery in RDs are poorly understood. To address this we analyzed hematologic variables, pain, donation-related symptoms, and recovery in 1211 PBSC RDs aged 18 to 79 enrolled in the Related Donor Safety Study. RDs aged > 60 had a lower median CD34+ level before apheresis compared with younger RDs (age > 60, 59 × 106/L; age 41 to 60, 81 × 106/L; age 18 to 40, 121 × 106/L; P < .001). This resulted in older donors undergoing more apheresis procedures (49% versus 30% ≥ 2 collections, P < .001) and higher collection volumes (52% versus 32% > 24 L, P < .001), leading to high percentages of donors aged > 60 with postcollection thrombocytopenia <50 × 109/L (26% and 57% after 2 and 3 days of collection, respectively). RDs aged 18 to 40 had a higher risk of grades 2 to 4 pain and symptoms pericollection, but donors over age 40 had more persistent pain at 1, 6, and 12 months (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; P = 0.02) and a higher rate of nonrecovery to predonation levels (OR, 1.7; P = .01). Donors reporting comorbidities increased significantly with age, and those with comorbidities that would have led to deferral by National Marrow Donor Program unrelated donor standards had an increased risk for persistent grades 2 to 4 pain (OR, 2.41; P < .001) and failure to recover to predonation baseline for other symptoms (OR, 2.34; P = .004). This information should be used in counseling RDs regarding risk and can assist in developing practice approaches aimed at improving the RD experience for high-risk individuals.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292747

RESUMO

Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) is a rapidly progressing, often fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, resulting in deficiency of ALD protein. Clinical benefit has been reported following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a large multicenter retrospective chart review to characterize the natural history of CALD, to describe outcomes after HSCT, and to identify predictors of treatment outcomes. Major functional disabilities (MFDs) were identified as having the most significant impact on patients' abilities to function independently and were used to assess HSCT outcome. Neurologic function score (NFS) and Loes magnetic resonance imaging score were assessed. Data were collected on 72 patients with CALD who did not undergo HSCT (untreated cohort) and on 65 patients who underwent transplantation (HSCT cohort) at 5 clinical sites. Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates of 5-year overall survival (OS) from the time of CALD diagnosis were 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.2% to 65.7%) for the untreated cohort and 78% (95% CI, 64% to 86.6%) for the HSCT cohort overall (P = .01). KM estimates of 2-year MFD-free survival for patients with gadolinium-enhanced lesions (GdE+) were 29% (95% CI, 11.7% to 48.2%) for untreated patients (n = 21). For patients who underwent HSCT with GdE+ at baseline, with an NFS ≤1 and Loes score of 0.5 to ≤9 (n = 27), the 2-year MFD-free survival was 84% (95% CI, 62.3% to 93.6%). Mortality rates post-HSCT were 8% (5 of 65) at 100 days and 18% (12 of 65) at 1 year, with disease progression (44%; 7 of 16) and infection (31%; 5 of 16) listed as the most common causes of death. Adverse events post-HSCT included infection (29%; 19 of 65), acute grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (31%; 18 of 58), and chronic GVHD (7%; 4 of 58). Eighteen percent of the patients (12 of 65) experienced engraftment failure after their first HSCT. Positive predictors of OS in the HSCT cohort may include donor-recipient HLA matching and lack of GVHD, and early disease treatment was predictive of MFD-free survival. GdE+ status is a strong predictor of disease progression in untreated patients. This study confirms HSCT as an effective treatment for CALD when performed early. We propose survival without MFDs as a relevant treatment goal, rather than solely assessing OS as an indicator of treatment success.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(11): 2233-2238, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933067

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can retard the progression of early infantile Krabbe disease (EIKD). Superior outcomes are achieved if HSCT is performed before the onset of symptoms; however, little information is available about the long-term outcomes in surviving patients. We now describe functional outcomes in presymptomatic infants who underwent HSCT for EIKD at ≤ 2 months of age. Records of the 19 patients who underwent HSCT for EIKD at ≤ 2 months of age from 1996 to 2010 were reviewed. Long-term functional outcomes were compared between those transplanted at < 30 days and ≥ 30 days of life. Median age at transplant was 27 days (range, 19 to 61). Median follow-up of the cohort was 12.6 years. Overall survival at 5 and 10 years post-transplant was 84.2% (95% confidence interval, 58.7% to 94.6%) and 78.6% (95% confidence interval, 52.5% to 91.4%), respectively. More favorable outcomes were seen in patients who underwent HSCT at < 30 days of age, particularly in domains of mobility (P = .01), communication (P = .02), and feeding (P = .008). Improved functional outcomes were observed when HSCT was performed in the first month of life, defining a critical period for intervention. These results support the implementation of newborn screening to enable rapid diagnosis and early treatment of infants with EIKD.

11.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 40(6): e364-e368, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846280

RESUMO

Brincidofovir (CMX001) is an oral agent with activity against double-strand DNA viruses undergoing clinical trials in immunocompromised patients. We report a patient clinically diagnosed with brincidofovir-related gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and his histologic findings. A 2-year-old boy with medulloblastoma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation developed adenovirus viremia 9 days posttransplant. After initial treatment with intravenous cidofovir he was started on oral brincidofovir as part of a clinical trial. He developed hematochezia, anorexia, and emesis 11 weeks later. Sigmoid colon biopsy showed marked crypt drop out, moderate epithelial apoptosis, and lamina propria edema. The pathologic diagnosis was drug-related injury versus infection. Brincidofovir toxicity was diagnosed clinically and the drug was discontinued. His GI symptoms improved in 2 weeks with supportive care and octreotide. Brincidofovir causes GI toxicity and histologically demonstrates epithelial apoptosis and crypt injury, similar to graft versus host disease and mycophenolate mofetil toxicity.

12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 188: 268-275, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732284

RESUMO

A theoretical model of NAREX (non-adiabatic rotational excitation) and field-free molecular orientation by a short specific elliptically polarised laser pulses (EPLPs) driving a polar molecule is presented. By choosing the proper value of elliptically polarised field parameters, efficient field-free orientation could be achieved. It is demonstrated that NAREX can be controlled by various laser parameters, out of which pulse shape plays the most significant role. The effect of elliptic parameter on the rotational excitation and orientation dynamics is also under concern.

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(10): 1722-1728, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28647558

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, central nervous system disease, increased inflammatory markers, and hemophagocytosis. Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative approach for patients with HLH, with reported survival ranging from 50% to 70% with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, donor availability and transplantation-related mortality associated with conventional MAC are major barriers to success. Unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) provides a readily available alternative donor source for patients lacking matched related donors. Accordingly, we report the results of UCBT in 14 children treated between 1998 and 2016. All children received standard HLH chemotherapy before UCBT. The median age at diagnosis was 2.7 months (range, .8 to 10.4) and at transplantation was 7.5 months (range, 3.8 to 17). Ten patients received MAC with busulfan/cyclophosphamide/etoposide /antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 5), busulfan/cyclophosphamide /ATG (n = 4), or busulfan /melphalan/ATG (n = 1). Four patients received reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) with alemtuzumab/fludarabine/melphalan/hydroxyurea ± thiotepa. Cord blood units were mismatched at either 1 (n = 9) or 2 (n = 5) loci and delivered a median total nucleated cell dose of 11.9 × 107/kg (range, 4.6 to 27.9) and CD34+ dose of 3.1 × 105/kg (range, 1.1 to 6.8). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment by day 42 was 78.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.9% to 93.4%) with a median of 19 days (range, 13 to 27), and that for platelet (50,000) engraftment by day 100 was 64.3% (95% CI, 28.2% to 85.7%) with a median of 51 days (range, 31 to 94). Six patients developed either grade II (n = 5) or grade IV (n = 1) acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); no extensive chronic GVHD was seen. Ten patients (71.4%) are alive and well at a median of 11.2 years after transplantation (range, .85 to 18.25), 9 of whom maintain sustained full donor chimerism after a single UCBT, whereas 1 patient with autologous recovery after first UCBT with RTC has achieved full donor chimerism after a second UCBT with MAC. This series demonstrates that, in combination with standard HLH therapy, UCBT after MAC or RTC conditioning can provide long-term survival with durable complete donor chimerism comparable to that of conventional donors. UCBT should be considered for patients with HLH lacking a fully matched related or unrelated adult donor.


Assuntos
Quimerismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/métodos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/mortalidade , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical/normas , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Humanos , Lactente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(3): 512-521, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063938

RESUMO

Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients contributes to significant morbidity and mortality, especially after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001) is an orally bioavailable lipid conjugate of cidofovir that has in vitro activity against adenoviruses and other double-stranded DNA viruses. This randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial evaluated pre-emptive treatment with BCV for the prevention of adenovirus disease in pediatric and adult allogeneic HCT recipients with asymptomatic adenovirus viremia. Allogeneic HCT recipients with adenovirus viremia were randomized 1:1:1 to receive oral BCV 100 mg (2 mg/kg if <50 kg) twice weekly (BIW), BCV 200 mg (4 mg/kg if <50 kg) once weekly (QW), or placebo for 6 to 12 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of post-treatment follow-up. For randomization, subjects were stratified by screening absolute lymphocyte count (<300 cells/mm3 versus ≥300 cells/mm3). Assignment to BCV or placebo was double blinded; dose frequency was unblinded. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects experiencing treatment failure, defined as either progression to probable or definitive adenovirus disease or confirmed increasing adenovirus viremia (≥1 log10 copies/mL) during randomized therapy. Between June 2011 and December 2012, 48 subjects were randomized to the BCV BIW (n = 14), BCV QW (n = 16), or placebo (n = 18) groups. The proportion of subjects with treatment failure in the BCV BIW group was 21% (odds ratio, .53; 95% confidence interval [CI], .11 to 2.71; P = .45), 38% (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, .30 to 5.05, P = .779) in the BCV QW group, and 33% in the placebo group. All-cause mortality was lower in the BCV BIW (14%) and BCV QW groups (31%) relative to the placebo group (39%), but these differences were not statistically significant. After 1 week of therapy, 8 of 12 subjects (67%) randomized to BCV BIW had undetectable adenovirus viremia (<100 copies/mL), compared with 4 of 14 subjects (29%) randomized to BCV QW and 5 of 15 subjects (33%) randomized to placebo. In a post hoc analysis of subjects with viremia ≥1000 copies/mL at baseline, 6 of 7 BCV BIW subjects (86%) achieved undetectable viremia compared with 2 of 8 placebo subjects (25%; P = .04). Early treatment discontinuation because of adverse events was more common in subjects treated with BCV than with placebo. Diarrhea was the most common event in all groups (57% BCV BIW, 38% BCV QW, 28% placebo), but it led to treatment discontinuation in only 1 subject receiving BCV QW. Events diagnosed as acute graft-versus-host disease, primarily of the gastrointestinal tract, were more frequent in the BCV BIW group (50%) than in the BCV QW (25%) and placebo (17%) groups. There was no evidence of myelotoxicity or nephrotoxicity in BCV-treated subjects. The results of this trial confirm the antiviral activity of BCV against adenoviruses. Further investigation is ongoing to define the optimal treatment strategy for HCT recipients with serious adenovirus infection and disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Citosina/análogos & derivados , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Organofosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citosina/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/etiologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Medicação , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Falha de Tratamento , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Surg Res ; 208: 187-191, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease that leads to neurological deterioration and visceral involvement, including sulphatide deposition in the gallbladder wall. Using our institution's extensive experience in treating MLD, we examined the incidence of gallbladder abnormalities in the largest cohort of children with MLD to date. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all children with MLD, adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), or Krabbe disease who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at our institution between 1994 and 2015. Baseline characteristics and unadjusted outcomes were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 test for categorical variables, with significance defined as P < 0.05. RESULTS: In total, 87 children met study criteria: 29 children with MLD and 58 children with ALD or Krabbe disease. Children with MLD were more likely to demonstrate gallbladder abnormalities on imaging, both before HSCT (41.4% versus 5.2%, P < 0.001) and after HSCT (75.9% versus 41.4%, P = 0.002). Consequently, a larger proportion of children with MLD underwent surgical or interventional management of biliary disease (10.3% versus 3.4%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Children with MLD have a significantly greater incidence of gallbladder abnormalities than children with other lysosomal storage diseases. Biliary disease should be considered in children with MLD who develop abdominal pain, and cholecystectomy should be considered for persistent, symptomatic gallbladder abnormalities.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/etiologia , Vesícula Biliar/anormalidades , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/complicações , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Doenças Biliares/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588726

RESUMO

Field-free molecular alignment is studied theoretically in presence of orienting laser pulse and a delayed Infrared laser (IRL) pulse train. The pulse shapes taken are sine square (sin2) and square. The degree of alignment can be significantly enhanced by the combination of orienting pulse and IRL pulse train compared with only IRL pulse train. Special emphasis is laid on time delay between orienting and aligning pulse, the width and shape of the pulse train. By adjusting the time delay, width and intensity of coupling laser one can suppress a population of particular state while simultaneously enhancing the population of desired states.

17.
JCI Insight ; 1(17): e89890, 2016 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777981

RESUMO

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25. Neither patient developed Aspergillus infection of the lungs. One patient had homozygous M1I CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain family member 9) mutation, while the other had homozygous Q295X CARD9 mutation; both patients lacked CARD9 protein expression. The patients had normal monocyte and Th17 cell numbers in peripheral blood, but their mononuclear cells exhibited impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines upon fungus-specific stimulation. Neutrophil phagocytosis, killing, and oxidative burst against Aspergillus fumigatus were intact, but neither patient accumulated neutrophils in infected tissue despite normal neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. The neutrophil tissue accumulation defect was not caused by defective neutrophil-intrinsic chemotaxis, indicating that production of neutrophil chemoattractants in extrapulmonary tissue is impaired in CARD9 deficiency. Taken together, our results show that CARD9 deficiency is the first known inherited or acquired condition that predisposes to extrapulmonary Aspergillus infection with sparing of the lungs, associated with impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/deficiência , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aspergilose/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Criança , Homozigoto , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Mutação , Neutrófilos/imunologia
18.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162567, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583549

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159959.].

19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 169: 238-45, 2016 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387127

RESUMO

We study the rotational excitation of a molecule adsorbed on a surface. As is well known the interaction potential between the surface and the molecule can be modeled in number of ways, depending on the molecular structure and the geometry under which the molecule is being adsorbed by the surface. We explore the effect of change of confining potential on the excitation, which is largely controlled by the static electric fields and continuous wave laser fields. We focus on dipolar molecules and hence we restrict ourselves to the first order interaction in field-molecule interaction potential either through permanent dipole moment or/and the molecular polarizability parameter. It is shown that confining potential shapes, strength of the confinement, strongly affect the excitation. We compare our results for different confining potentials.

20.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159959, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467528

RESUMO

Recently, studies have reported the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for developing Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) by applying online pattern classification of brain states from subject-specific fNIRS signals. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test a real-time method for subject-specific and subject-independent classification of multi-channel fNIRS signals using support-vector machines (SVM), so as to determine its feasibility as an online neurofeedback system. Towards this goal, we used left versus right hand movement execution and movement imagery as study paradigms in a series of experiments. In the first two experiments, activations in the motor cortex during movement execution and movement imagery were used to develop subject-dependent models that obtained high classification accuracies thereby indicating the robustness of our classification method. In the third experiment, a generalized classifier-model was developed from the first two experimental data, which was then applied for subject-independent neurofeedback training. Application of this method in new participants showed mean classification accuracy of 63% for movement imagery tasks and 80% for movement execution tasks. These results, and their corresponding offline analysis reported in this study demonstrate that SVM based real-time subject-independent classification of fNIRS signals is feasible. This method has important applications in the field of hemodynamic BCIs, and neuro-rehabilitation where patients can be trained to learn spatio-temporal patterns of healthy brain activity.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Movimento , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Humanos
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