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1.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(1): 102-110, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) to Brazilian Portuguese for the evaluation of sedation in pediatric intensive care. METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation process including the conceptual, item, semantic and operational equivalence stages according to current recommendations. RESULTS: Pretests, divided into two stages, included 30 professionals from the pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital, who administered the translated RASS to patients aged 29 days to 18 years. The pretests showed a content validity index above 0.90 for all items: 0.97 in the first stage of pretests and 0.99 in the second. CONCLUSION: The cross-cultural adaptation of RASS to Brazilian Portuguese resulted in a version with excellent comprehensibility and acceptability in a pediatric intensive care setting. Reliability and validity studies should be performed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the RASS.

2.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923434

RESUMO

Despite great advances in our knowledge of the consequences of Zika virus to human health, many questions remain unanswered, and results are often inconsistent. The small sample size of individual studies has limited inference about the spectrum of congenital Zika manifestations and the prognosis of affected children. The Brazilian Zika Cohorts Consortium addresses these limitations by bringing together and harmonizing epidemiological data from a series of prospective cohort studies of pregnant women with rash and of children with microcephaly and/or other manifestations of congenital Zika. The objective is to estimate the absolute risk of congenital Zika manifestations and to characterize the full spectrum and natural history of the manifestations of congenital Zika in children with and without microcephaly. This protocol describes the assembly of the Consortium and protocol for the Individual Participant Data Meta-analyses (IPD Meta-analyses). The findings will address knowledge gaps and inform public policies related to Zika virus. The large harmonized dataset and joint analyses will facilitate more precise estimates of the absolute risk of congenital Zika manifestations among Zika virus-infected pregnancies and more complete descriptions of its full spectrum, including rare manifestations. It will enable sensitivity analyses using different definitions of exposure and outcomes, and the investigation of the sources of heterogeneity between studies and regions.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768332

RESUMO

Clinical presentation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric immunosuppressed patients is unknown. Emerging data describe a milder or asymptomatic course in children compared with adults in this scenario. We present the seroprevalence and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in a prospective cohort of 114 immunosuppressed children and adolescents from three groups: kidney transplantation, liver transplantation, and cancer patients. Among the thirty-five (30.7%) patients who had a positive serological test for SARS-CoV-2, 77% did not report previous symptoms and none of them developed any complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after 30 or more days of follow-up. Among those who were symptomatic, diarrhea, fever, and cough were the most common findings.Conclusion: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is high among immunosuppressed children and adolescents. COVID-19 has a mild or asymptomatic course in most of these patients. What is Known: • The number of immunosuppressed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is increasing. • Viral infections have the potential for greater severity in immunocompromised children. What is New: • Seroprevalence for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in immunocompromised pediatric patients was 31%. • A quarter of the serology-positive patients reported mild symptoms and none of them developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019.

4.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 41(1): 56-64, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616026

RESUMO

Despite the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), knowledge of the different clinical presentations, ways of transmission, severity and prognosis in children and adolescents is limited. An increasing number of reports describe some of these characteristics in this age range. A non-systematic review was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (VHL), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane and CAPES Portal databases from 1 January until 30 September 2020 [103] with the search terms SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, child, children, youth, adolescent and newborn to identify the more recent clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. In general, SARS-CoV-2 infection in children tends to be asymptomatic or to have mild or moderate signs, and most young ones are infected by family members. Recent reports offer new insights into the disease. Current evidence on SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is presented, especially concerning the clinical presentation, imaging and uncommon severe forms of the disease, particularly the COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome. The impact of COVID-19 infection in the perinatal period is described in detail. Knowledge of the various clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents allows the paediatrician to diagnose earlier, monitor warnings signs, implement treatment and, especially, establish preventive measures.Abbreviations : ACE-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute rheumatic fever; CAA, coronary artery aneurysms; CK-MB, creatine kinase-MB; COVID-19, coronavirus disease-2019; HLA, specific human leucocyte antigen; IPC, infection prevention and control; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin; KD, Kawasaki disease; MIS-C, COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome; RNA, ribonucleic acid; RT-PCR, reserve transcription-polymerase chain reaction; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; TCT, thoracic computed tomography; TSS, toxic shock syndrome; WHO, World Health Organization.


Assuntos
/complicações , Adolescente , /terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/etiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 13-21, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154730

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: To review, analyze, and present the available evidence on the usefulness of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound in the diagnosis and monitoring of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), aiming to facilitate its potential inclusion into pediatric clinical reference guidelines. Source of data: A non-systematic research was carried out in the MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO databases, from January 1985 to September 2019. The articles that were considered the most relevant were selected. Synthesis of data: CAP is a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics and its clinical management remains a major challenge. The systematic use of chest X-ray for its diagnosis is controversial because it exposes the child to ionizing radiation and there are interobserver differences in its interpretation. Recently, the use of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound by the pediatrician has been presented as an alternative for the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. A great deal of evidence has disclosed its high sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, with the advantages of no ionizing radiation, relatively low cost, immediate results, portability, and the possibility of repetition according to the requirements of disease evolution. Moreover, its use can help rule out possible bacterial etiology and thus prevent inappropriate antibiotic treatments that favor bacterial resistance. Conclusions: Point-of-care ultrasonography represents an opportunity to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. However, as an operator-dependent technique, training is required for adequate image acquisition, correct interpretation, and integration with clinical data for correct decision-making.

6.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2020231, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136757

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To present the current evidence on clinical and laboratory characteristics of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during childhood and adolescence. Data source: This is a narrative review conducted in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature in the Virtual Health Library (LILACS/VHL), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, portal of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), ScienceDirect, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The terms used were SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, novel coronavirus, child, newborn, and adolescent. Data synthesis: Unlike adults, most children infected by SARS-CoV-2 have mild or asymptomatic clinical presentations. Symptomatic children mainly have low fever and cough, with some associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases are rare and occur especially in infants under one year of age. Detection of viral particles in feces seems to be more persistent in children and can be used as a tool for diagnosis and control of the quarantine period. Different from adults, children can present distinct inflammatory responses, as has happened in new cases of Kawasaki-like syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: Most children have asymptomatic or mild presentations, with a prevalence of fever, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. New cases with different systemic inflammatory reactions in children have been reported, with clinical manifestations distinct from those typically found in adults.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar as atuais evidências sobre as características clínicas e laboratoriais da infecção pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) durante a infância e a adolescência. Fonte de dados: Revisão narrativa realizada nas bases de dados Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (LILACS/BVS), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, portal da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), ScienceDirect e Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), com o uso dos termos SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 e novo coronavírus e criança, recém-nascido e adolescente. Síntese dos dados: Diferentemente dos adultos, as crianças infectadas pelo SARS-CoV-2 apresentam formas clínicas leves ou assintomáticas na maior parte dos casos. As crianças sintomáticas apresentam predominantemente febre baixa e tosse, com alguns sintomas gastrointestinais associados. Casos graves são a minoria e ocorrem especialmente abaixo de um ano de idade. A detecção de partículas virais em fezes parece ser mais persistente em crianças, podendo servir como ferramenta diagnóstica e de controle do tempo de quarentena. Diferentemente dos adultos, as crianças podem apresentar respostas inflamatórias distintas, como tem ocorrido nos novos casos de síndrome de Kawasaki-like associada à infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões: Crianças, na sua maioria, apresentam quadros assintomáticos ou leves, com predomínio de febre, tosse e sintomas gastrointestinais. Novos relatos de diferentes reações sistêmicas inflamatórias em crianças têm sido notados, com manifestações clínicas distintas daquelas tipicamente observadas em adultos.

7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(5): 582-592, Set.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1135061

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to intensive care with confirmed COVID-19. Method: Prospective, multicenter, observational study, in 19 pediatric intensive care units. Patients aged 1 month to 19 years admitted consecutively (March-May 2020) were included. Demographic, clinical-epidemiological features, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Subgroups were compared according to comorbidities, age < 1 year, and need for invasive mechanical ventilation. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for predictors of severity. Results: Seventy-nine patients were included (ten with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome). Median age 4 years; 54% male (multisystemic inflammatory syndrome, 80%); 41% had comorbidities (multisystemic inflammatory syndrome, 20%). Fever (76%), cough (51%), and tachypnea (50%) were common in both groups. Severe symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and higher inflammatory markers were more frequent in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. Interstitial lung infiltrates were common in both groups, but pleural effusion was more prevalent in the multisystemic inflammatory syndrome group (43% vs. 14%). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 18% (median 7.5 days); antibiotics, oseltamivir, and corticosteroids were used in 76%, 43%, and 23%, respectively, but not hydroxychloroquine. The median pediatric intensive care unit length-of-stay was five days; there were two deaths (3%) in the non- multisystemic inflammatory syndrome group. Patients with comorbidities were older and comorbidities were independently associated with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.43-21.12; p = 0.01). Conclusions: In Brazilian pediatric intensive care units, COVID-19 had low mortality, age less than 1 year was not associated with a worse prognosis, and patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome had more severe symptoms, higher inflammatory biomarkers, and a greater predominance of males, but only comorbidities and chronic diseases were independent predictors of severity.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas de crianças e adolescentes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva com COVID-19 confirmada. Método: Estudo prospectivo, multicêntrico, observacional, em 19 unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Foram incluídos pacientes entre um mês e 19 anos, admitidos consecutivamente (março a maio de 2020). As características demográficas, clínico-epidemiológicas, o tratamento e os resultados foram coletados. Os subgrupos foram comparados de acordo com as comorbidades, idade < 1 ano e necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva. Um modelo de regressão logística multivariável foi utilizado para preditores de gravidade. Resultados: Setenta e nove pacientes foram incluídos (10 com síndrome inflamatória multi-ssistêmica). Mediana de idade, quatro anos; 54% eram do sexo masculino (síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica, 80%); 41% tinham comorbidades (síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica, 20%). Febre (76%), tosse (51%) e taquipneia (50%) foram comuns nos dois grupos. Sintomas graves egastrointestinais e marcadores inflamatórios mais elevados foram mais frequentes na presença de síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica. Infiltrados intersticiais pulmonares foram comuns em ambos os grupos, mas o derrame pleural foi mais prevalente no grupo com síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica (43% vs. 14%). A ventilação mecânica invasiva foi utilizada em 18% (mediana 7,5 dias); antibióticos, oseltamivir e corticosteroides foram utilizados em 76%, 43% e 23%, respectivamente, mas não a hidroxicloroquina. A mediana do tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica foi de 5 dias; duas mortes ocorreram (3%) no grupo não- síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica. Os pacientes com comorbidades eram mais velhos, e as comorbidades foram independentemente associadas à necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva(OR 5,5; IC95%, 1,43-21,12; P 0,01). Conclusões: Nas unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica brasileiras, a COVID-19 apresentou baixa mortalidade, a idade inferior a um ano não foi associada a um pior prognóstico, os pacientes com síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica apresentaram sintomas mais graves, biomarcadores inflamatórios mais elevados e uma grande predominância no sexo masculino, mas apenas a presença de comorbidades e doenças crônicas foi um preditor independente de gravidade.

8.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the current evidence on clinical and laboratory characteristics of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during childhood and adolescence. DATA SOURCE: This is a narrative review conducted in the databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature in the Virtual Health Library (LILACS/VHL), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, portal of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), ScienceDirect, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). The terms used were SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, novel coronavirus, child, newborn, and adolescent. DATA SYNTHESIS: Unlike adults, most children infected by SARS-CoV-2 have mild or asymptomatic clinical presentations. Symptomatic children mainly have low fever and cough, with some associated gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe cases are rare and occur especially in infants under one year of age. Detection of viral particles in feces seems to be more persistent in children and can be used as a tool for diagnosis and control of the quarantine period. Different from adults, children can present distinct inflammatory responses, as has happened in new cases of Kawasaki-like syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Most children have asymptomatic or mild presentations, with a prevalence of fever, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. New cases with different systemic inflammatory reactions in children have been reported, with clinical manifestations distinct from those typically found in adults.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as the outcomes of children with MIS-C. METHOD: Multicenter, prospective cohort study, conducted in 17 pediatric intensive care units in five states in Brazil, from March to July 2020. Patients from 1 month to 19 years who met the MIS-C diagnostic criteria were included consecutively. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were included, with the following conditions: Kawasaki-like disease (n = 26), incomplete Kawasaki disease (n = 16), acute cardiac dysfunction (n = 10), toxic shock syndrome (n = 3), and macrophage activation syndrome (n = 1). Median age was 6.2 years (IQR 2.4-10.3), 70% were boys, 59% were non-whites, 20% had comorbidities, 48% reported a contact with COVID-19 cases, and 55% had a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR and/or serology. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 71%, shock symptoms in 59%, and severe respiratory symptoms in less than 20%. d-Dimer was increased in 80% and cardiac dysfunction markers in more than 75%. Treatment included immunoglobulin (89%); corticosteroids, antibiotics, and enoxaparin in about 50%; and oseltamivir and antifungal therapy in less than 10%. Only 11% needed invasive mechanical ventilation, with a median duration of five days (IQR 5-6.5). The median length of PICU stay was six days (IQR 5-11), and one death occurred (1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Most characteristics of the present MIS-C patients were similar to that of other cohorts. The present results may contribute to a broader understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and its short-term consequences. Long-term multidisciplinary follow-up is needed, since it is not known whether these patients will have chronic cardiac impairment or other sequelae.

11.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of the implementation of the Pediatric Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) protocol on early recognition of sepsis, 1-h treatment bundle and mortality. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center study, before and after the implementation of the sepsis protocol. OUTCOMES: sepsis recognition, compliance with the 1-h bundle (fluid resuscitation, blood culture, antibiotics), time interval to fluid resuscitation and antibiotics administration, and mortality. Patients with febrile neutropenia were excluded. The comparisons between the periods were performed using non-parametric tests and odds ratios or relative risk were calculated. RESULTS: We studied 84 patients before and 103 after the protocol implementation. There was an increase in sepsis recognition (OR 21.5 [95% CI: 10.1-45.7]), in the compliance with the 1-h bundle as a whole (62% x 0%), and with its three components: fluid resuscitation (OR 31.1 [95% CI: 3.9-247.2]), blood culture (OR 15.9 [95% CI: 3.9-65.2]), and antibiotics (OR 35.6 [95% CI: 8.9-143.2]). Significant reduction between sepsis recognition to fluid resuscitation (152min×12min, p<0.001) and to antibiotics administration (137min×30min) also occurred. The risk of death before protocol implementation was four times greater (RR 4.1 [95% CI: 1.2-14.4]), and the absolute death risk reduction was 9%. CONCLUSION: Even if we considered the low precision of some estimates, the lower limits of the Confidence Intervals show that the implementation of the SSC guidelines alongside a qualitive assurance initiative has led to improvements in sepsis recognition, compliance with the 1-h treatment bundle, reduction in the time interval to fluid resuscitation and antibiotics, and reduction in sepsis mortality.

12.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(12): 1059-1063, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, considering the physical distancing and schools closing, on the characteristics of admission and epidemiology on Brazilian PICUs. DESIGN: Observational, multicenter, time series analysis, of electronic medical records from 15 PICU in Brazil. Data consisted of all March, April, and May PICU admissions from 2017 to 2020. SETTING: Fifteen private PICUs in Brazil. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients admitted to the PICU from March to May since 2017. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The period from March 11, 2020, to March 17, 2020, was considered the "intervention point" studied, corresponding to the suspension of school activities and the beginning of physical distancing in Brazil. During the pandemic period studied, there were 28 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (one death). The mean age was higher (p = 0.000), the length of stay was shorter (p = 0.000), but mortality rates were similar among the periods (p = 0.36). The model estimated a reduction of 1,483 PICU admissions from March 2020 to May 2020. At the end of May, there was an estimated drop of -146.6 bronchiolitis admissions (95% CI, -242.8 to -50.3; p = 0.016); -71 asthma admissions (95% CI, -93.6 to -48.63; p = 0.000); and -59 community-acquired pneumonia admissions (95% CI, -74.7 to -43.3; p = 0.000) per period. The model showed no effect of the "intervention" (physical distancing) on hospitalization rates for epilepsy, diarrhea, sepsis, bacterial meningitis, or surgery when analyzed individually. When assessed together, the model estimated a reduction of 73.6 admissions (95% IC, -132 to -15.2; p = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic strongly affected Brazilian PICUs, reducing admissions, length of stay, and the epidemiological profile. The measures to oppose the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic may have prevented thousands of PICU hospitalizations across the country.

13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(3): 299-307, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134146

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The association between prenatal Zika virus infection and hearing alterations in offspring has been the object of some studies, although few have assessed children without microcephaly. However, a current trend to include prenatal Zika virus exposure in the group of risk indicators for hearing loss is noted. Objective To present a series of 27 children prenatally exposed to the Zika virus submitted to multiple hearing assessments over time. Methods A cohort of children born to symptomatic mothers with laboratorial Zika virus infection confirmation during pregnancy was submitted to an otoacoustic emission test, auditory brainstem response test (automated, neurodiagnostic and frequency-specific), audiometry, and imitanciometry over a period of 36 months since birth. The hearing assessment was performed independently of the presence of microcephaly or other apparent signs of congenital Zika syndrome. Results The hearing tests presented predominantly normal results. Some children had signs of middle ear pathology. The only microcephalic child had normal electrophysiological tests, as well as preserved audiometric thresholds, but presented altered motor responses to sound. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to Zika virus does not always determine hearing impairment. This risk seems to be more associated to the severity of the central nervous system damage. Hearing screening and follow-ups of the affected children are important, as well as further research in this area.

14.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review, analyze, and present the available evidence on the usefulness of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound in the diagnosis and monitoring of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), aiming to facilitate its potential inclusion into pediatric clinical reference guidelines. SOURCE OF DATA: A non-systematic research was carried out in the MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO databases, from January 1985 to September 2019. The articles that were considered the most relevant were selected. SYNTHESIS OF DATA: CAP is a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics and its clinical management remains a major challenge. The systematic use of chest X-ray for its diagnosis is controversial because it exposes the child to ionizing radiation and there are interobserver differences in its interpretation. Recently, the use of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound by the pediatrician has been presented as an alternative for the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. A great deal of evidence has disclosed its high sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, with the advantages of no ionizing radiation, relatively low cost, immediate results, portability, and the possibility of repetition according to the requirements of disease evolution. Moreover, its use can help rule out possible bacterial etiology and thus prevent inappropriate antibiotic treatments that favor bacterial resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Point-of-care ultrasonography represents an opportunity to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. However, as an operator-dependent technique, training is required for adequate image acquisition, correct interpretation, and integration with clinical data for correct decision-making.

15.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 96(5): 582-592, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to intensive care with confirmed COVID-19. METHOD: Prospective, multicenter, observational study, in 19 pediatric intensive care units. Patients aged 1 month to 19 years admitted consecutively (March-May 2020) were included. Demographic, clinical-epidemiological features, treatment, and outcomes were collected. Subgroups were compared according to comorbidities, age < 1 year, and need for invasive mechanical ventilation. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for predictors of severity. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients were included (ten with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome). Median age 4 years; 54% male (multisystemic inflammatory syndrome, 80%); 41% had comorbidities (multisystemic inflammatory syndrome, 20%). Fever (76%), cough (51%), and tachypnea (50%) were common in both groups. Severe symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and higher inflammatory markers were more frequent in multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. Interstitial lung infiltrates were common in both groups, but pleural effusion was more prevalent in the multisystemic inflammatory syndrome group (43% vs. 14%). Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 18% (median 7.5 days); antibiotics, oseltamivir, and corticosteroids were used in 76%, 43%, and 23%, respectively, but not hydroxychloroquine. The median pediatric intensive care unit length-of-stay was five days; there were two deaths (3%) in the non- multisystemic inflammatory syndrome group. Patients with comorbidities were older and comorbidities were independently associated with the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 5.5; 95% CI, 1.43-21.12; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian pediatric intensive care units, COVID-19 had low mortality, age less than 1 year was not associated with a worse prognosis, and patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome had more severe symptoms, higher inflammatory biomarkers, and a greater predominance of males, but only comorbidities and chronic diseases were independent predictors of severity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 24(3): e299-e307, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754240

RESUMO

Introduction The association between prenatal Zika virus infection and hearing alterations in offspring has been the object of some studies, although few have assessed children without microcephaly. However, a current trend to include prenatal Zika virus exposure in the group of risk indicators for hearing loss is noted. Objective To present a series of 27 children prenatally exposed to the Zika virus submitted to multiple hearing assessments over time. Methods A cohort of children born to symptomatic mothers with laboratorial Zika virus infection confirmation during pregnancy was submitted to an otoacoustic emission test, auditory brainstem response test (automated, neurodiagnostic and frequency-specific), audiometry, and imitanciometry over a period of 36 months since birth. The hearing assessment was performed independently of the presence of microcephaly or other apparent signs of congenital Zika syndrome. Results The hearing tests presented predominantly normal results. Some children had signs of middle ear pathology. The only microcephalic child had normal electrophysiological tests, as well as preserved audiometric thresholds, but presented altered motor responses to sound. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to Zika virus does not always determine hearing impairment. This risk seems to be more associated to the severity of the central nervous system damage. Hearing screening and follow-ups of the affected children are important, as well as further research in this area.

17.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(9): e869-e873, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of delirium detected by pediatric intensivists, based only on their clinical experience, without a valid and reliable tool. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, descriptive, observational study. SETTINGS: Three PICUs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PATIENTS: Twenty-nine days to 18 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Electronic forms were sent weekly to the pediatric intensivists responsible for the daily care of patients from March to September 2015, to fill in information about the presence of risk factors and diagnosis of delirium in all patients who remained in the PICU in the last week. Demographics and other clinical data were extracted from an electronic system. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 504 admissions in the three PICUs (477 patients) were included. The pediatric intensivists reported only two episodes of delirium in two different patients, based on insufficient criteria. Considering all PICUs admissions, the reported frequency of delirium was only 0.4% (2/504). CONCLUSIONS: The low frequency of delirium detection and the insufficient criteria used for the diagnosis in these units suggest flaws in the recognition of delirium and probably the occurrence of underdiagnosis/misdiagnosis when it is based only on clinical experience, without the use of a valid and reliable tool.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008060, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163415

RESUMO

The northeast (NE) region of Brazil commonly goes through drought periods, which favor cyanobacterial blooms, capable of producing neurotoxins with implications for human and animal health. The most severe dry spell in the history of Brazil occurred between 2012 and 2016. Coincidently, the highest incidence of microcephaly associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak took place in the NE region of Brazil during the same years. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that saxitoxin (STX), a neurotoxin produced in South America by the freshwater cyanobacteria Raphidiopsis raciborskii, could have contributed to the most severe Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) profile described worldwide. Quality surveillance showed higher cyanobacteria amounts and STX occurrence in human drinking water supplies of NE compared to other regions of Brazil. Experimentally, we described that STX doubled the quantity of ZIKV-induced neural cell death in progenitor areas of human brain organoids, while the chronic ingestion of water contaminated with STX before and during gestation caused brain abnormalities in offspring of ZIKV-infected immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice. Our data indicate that saxitoxin-producing cyanobacteria is overspread in water reservoirs of the NE and might have acted as a co-insult to ZIKV infection in Brazil. These results raise a public health concern regarding the consequences of arbovirus outbreaks happening in areas with droughts and/or frequent freshwater cyanobacterial blooms.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcefalia/patologia , Envenenamento/complicações , Envenenamento/patologia , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Encéfalo/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microcistinas/análise , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Neurotoxinas/análise , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Saxitoxina/análise , Água/química
20.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(supl.1): 2-11, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098359

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To present the currently available evidence on transmission, clinical, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prevention methods of major arboviruses that occur in childhood. Source of data Non-systematic review carried out in MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (VHL), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, CAPES Portal, and Google Scholar databases for the past five years using the search terms arboviruses, dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and West Nile fever, as well as child, newborn, and adolescent. Synthesis of data The main characteristic of arboviruses is the fact that part of their replication cycle occurs inside insect vectors, thus being classically transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes (hematophagous arthropods), although non-vector transmission of these viruses is also possible in specific situations. These diseases remain a major public health challenge, due to the lack of specific antiviral treatment, the co-circulation of different arboviruses in endemic/epidemic regions, the lack of effective and safe immunizations for the vast majority of these viruses, and the great difficulty in vector control, especially in large urban centers. Conclusions Children are especially vulnerable to this group of diseases due to characteristics that facilitate the development of the most severe forms. More detailed knowledge of this group of diseases allows the pediatrician to diagnose them earlier, implement the correct treatment, monitor warning signs for the most severe forms, and establish effective preventive measures.


Resumo Objetivos Apresentar as evidências atualmente disponíveis sobre transmissão, quadro clínico, métodos diagnósticos, tratamento e métodos de prevenção das principais arboviroses que ocorrem na infância. Fonte de dados Revisão não sistemática feita nas bases de dados Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs (BVS), Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, portal Capes e Google Scholar nos últimos cinco anos, com o uso dos termos arboviroses, dengue, chikungunya, zika, mayaro, febre do oeste do Nilo e criança, recém-nascido, adolescente. Síntese de dados Os arbovírus têm como característica principal o fato de parte de seu ciclo de replicação ocorrer em insetos vetores. Assim, são classicamente transmitidos aos seres humanos pela picada de mosquitos (artrópodes hematófagos), embora seja também possível a transmissão não vetorial desses vírus em situações específicas. Essas doenças ainda constituem um grande desafio na saúde pública, devido à inexistência de tratamento antiviral específico, à cocirculação de diferentes arbovírus em regiões endêmicas/epidêmicas, à falta de imunizações efetivas e seguras para a grande maioria desses vírus e à grande dificuldade do controle vetorial, em especial nos grandes centros urbanos. Conclusões As crianças constituem um grupo especialmente vulnerável a esse grupo de doenças, pois têm características que facilitam o desenvolvimento das formas mais graves. O conhecimento mais detalhado desse grupo de doenças permite ao pediatra diagnosticar mais precocemente, instituir o tratamento correto, vigiar os sinais de alarme para as formas mais graves e colocar em prática efetivas medidas de prevenção.

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