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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(10): 1128-1141, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More data regarding effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are required. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular events and mortality in LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) participants, by HF history. METHODS: In the multinational, double-blind, randomized LEADER trial, 9,340 patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk were assigned 1:1 to liraglutide (1.8 mg daily or maximum tolerated dose up to 1.8 mg daily) or placebo plus standard care, and followed for 3.5 to 5 years. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF was an exclusion criterion. The primary composite major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Post hoc Cox regression analyses of outcomes by baseline HF history were conducted. RESULTS: At baseline, 18% of patients had a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF (liraglutide: n = 835 of 4,668; placebo: n = 832 of 4,672). Effects of liraglutide versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events were consistent in patients with (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65 to 1.02]) and without (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.53). In both subgroups, fewer deaths were observed with liraglutide (HR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.70 to 1.14] with HF; HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.70 to 0.97] without HF; p interaction = 0.63) versus placebo. No increased risk of HF hospitalization was observed with liraglutide, regardless of HF history (HR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.75 to 1.28] with HF; HR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.61 to 1.00] without HF; p interaction = 0.22). Effects of liraglutide on the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death were consistent in patients with (HR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.15]) and without (HR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.65 to 0.91]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, liraglutide should be considered suitable for patients with T2D with or without a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF. (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]; NCT01179048).

2.
Diabetes Care ; 43(4): 806-812, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contemporary prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in participants with type 1 diabetes in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry throughout the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: DPN was assessed with the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Questionnaire (MNSIQ) in adults with ≥5 years of type 1 diabetes duration. A score of ≥4 defined DPN. Associations of demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors with DPN were assessed. RESULTS: Among 5,936 T1D Exchange participants (mean ± SD age 39 ± 18 years, median type 1 diabetes duration 18 years [interquartile range 11, 31], 55% female, 88% non-Hispanic white, mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 8.1 ± 1.6% [65.3 ± 17.5 mmol/mol]), DPN prevalence was 11%. Compared with those without DPN, DPN participants were older, had higher HbA1c, had longer duration of diabetes, were more likely to be female, and were less likely to have a college education and private insurance (all P < 0.001). DPN participants also were more likely to have cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P < 0.001), worse CVD risk factors of smoking (P = 0.008), hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002), higher BMI (P = 0.009), retinopathy (P = 0.004), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.02), and Charcot neuroarthropathy (P = 0.002). There were no differences in insulin pump or continuous glucose monitor use, although DPN participants were more likely to have had severe hypoglycemia (P = 0.04) and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (P < 0.001) in the past 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DPN in this national cohort with type 1 diabetes is lower than in prior published reports but is reflective of current clinical care practices. These data also highlight that nonglycemic risk factors, such as CVD risk factors, severe hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and lower socioeconomic status, may also play a role in DPN development.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100382

RESUMO

Understanding the benefits and risks of treatments to be used by older individuals (≥65 years old) is critical for informed therapeutic decisions. Glucose-lowering therapy for older patients with diabetes should be tailored to suit their clinical condition, comorbidities and impaired functional status, including varying degrees of frailty. However, despite the rapidly growing population of older adults with diabetes, there are few dedicated clinical trials evaluating glucose-lowering treatment in older people. Conducting clinical trials in the older population poses multiple significant challenges. Despite the general agreement that individualizing treatment goals and avoiding hypoglycaemia is paramount for the therapy of older people with diabetes, there are conflicting perspectives on specific glycaemic targets that should be adopted and on use of specific drugs and treatment strategies. Assessment of functional status, frailty and comorbidities is not routinely performed in diabetes trials, contributing to insufficient characterization of older study participants. Moreover, significant operational barriers and problems make successful enrolment and completion of such studies difficult. In this review paper, we summarize the current guidelines and literature on conducting such trials, as well as the learnings from our own clinical trial (IMPERIUM) that assessed different glucose-lowering strategies in older people with type 2 diabetes. We discuss the importance of strategies to improve study design, enrolment and attrition. Apart from summarizing some practical advice to facilitate the successful conduct of studies, we highlight key gaps and needs that warrant further research.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955209

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated CVD risk factors in a large, contemporary cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes living in the United States. DESIGN: Observational study of CVD and CVD risk factors over a median of 5.3 years. SETTING: The T1D Exchange clinic network. PATIENTS: Adults (age ≥ 18 years) with type 1 diabetes and without known CVD diagnosed before or at enrollment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Associations between CVD risk factors and incident CVD were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The study included 8,727 participants (53% female, 88% non-Hispanic white, median age 33 years [interquartile ratio {IQR} = 21, 48], type 1 diabetes duration 16 years [IQR = 9, 26]). At enrollment, median HbA1c was 7.6% (66 mmol/mol) (IQR = 6.9 [52], 8.6 [70]), 33% used a statin, and 37% used blood pressure medication. Over a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, 325 (3.7%) participants developed incident CVD. Ischemic heart disease was the most common CVD event. Increasing age, body mass index, HbA1c, presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, increasing duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy were associated with increased risk for CVD. There were no significant gender differences in CVD risk. CONCLUSION: HbA1c, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetic nephropathy are important risk factors for CVD in adults with type 1 diabetes. A longer follow-up is likely required to assess the impact of other traditional CVD risk factors on incident CVD in the current era.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895699

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDResidual C-peptide is detected in many people for years following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes; however, the physiologic significance of low levels of detectable C-peptide is not known.METHODSWe studied 63 adults with type 1 diabetes classified by peak mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) C-peptide as negative (<0.007 pmol/mL; n = 15), low (0.017-0.200; n = 16), intermediate (>0.200-0.400; n = 15), or high (>0.400; n = 17). We compared the groups' glycemia from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), ß cell secretory responses from a glucose-potentiated arginine (GPA) test, insulin sensitivity from a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (EU) clamp, and glucose counterregulatory responses from a subsequent hypoglycemic (HYPO) clamp.RESULTSLow and intermediate MMTT C-peptide groups did not exhibit ß cell secretory responses to hyperglycemia, whereas the high C-peptide group showed increases in both C-peptide and proinsulin (P ≤ 0.01). All groups with detectable MMTT C-peptide demonstrated acute C-peptide and proinsulin responses to arginine that were positively correlated with peak MMTT C-peptide (P < 0.0001 for both analytes). During the EU-HYPO clamp, C-peptide levels were proportionately suppressed in the low, intermediate, and high C-peptide compared with the negative group (P ≤ 0.0001), whereas glucagon increased from EU to HYPO only in the high C-peptide group compared with negative (P = 0.01). CGM demonstrated lower mean glucose and more time in range for the high C-peptide group.CONCLUSIONThese results indicate that in adults with type 1 diabetes, ß cell responsiveness to hyperglycemia and α cell responsiveness to hypoglycemia are observed only at high levels of residual C-peptide that likely contribute to glycemic control.FUNDINGFunding for this work was provided by the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

6.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 53-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The associations of chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and insulin with the risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), mortality, and severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) at high cardiovascular (CV) risk are not known. This secondary, pooled analysis of data from the DEVOTE trial examined whether baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) categories were associated with a higher risk of these outcomes. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind trial involving 7637 patients with T2D at high CV risk who were randomized to once-daily treatment with either insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). Patients with estimated GFR data at baseline (n = 7522) were analyzed following stratification into four GFR categories. RESULTS: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality increased with worsening baseline GFR category (P < 0.05), with a trend towards higher rates of severe hypoglycemia. Patients with prior CVD, CKD (estimated GFR < 60 mL/min/m2), or both were at higher risk of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality. Only CKD was associated with a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia, and the risk of MACE was higher in patients with CVD than in those with CKD (P  = 0.0003). There were no significant interactions between randomized treatment and GFR category. CONCLUSION: The risks of MACE, CV death, and all-cause mortality were higher with lower baseline GFR and with prior CVD, CKD, or both. The relative effects of degludec versus glargine U100 on outcomes were consistent across baseline GFR categories, suggesting that the lower rate of severe hypoglycemia associated with degludec use versus glargine U100 use was independent of baseline GFR category. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk.

7.
Diabetes ; 69(2): 146-157, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757794

RESUMO

Incretin hormone dysregulation contributes to reduced insulin secretion and hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Resistance to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) action may occur through desensitization or downregulation of ß-cell GIP receptors (GIP-R). Studies in rodents and cell lines show GIP-R expression can be regulated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) response elements (PPREs). Whether this occurs in humans is unknown. To test this, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone therapy on GIP-mediated insulin secretion and adipocyte GIP-R expression in subjects with well-controlled T2DM. Insulin sensitivity improved, but the insulinotropic effect of infused GIP was unchanged following 12 weeks of pioglitazone treatment. In parallel, we observed increased GIP-R mRNA expression in subcutaneous abdominal adipocytes from subjects treated with pioglitazone. Treatment of cultured human adipocytes with troglitazone increased PPARγ binding to GIP-R PPREs. These results show PPARγ agonists regulate GIP-R expression through PPREs in human adipocytes, but suggest this mechanism is not important for regulation of the insulinotropic effect of GIP in subjects with T2DM. Because GIP has antilipolytic and lipogenic effects in adipocytes, the increased GIP-R expression may mediate accretion of fat in patients with T2DM treated with PPARγ agonists.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 418-425, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The MHC region harbors the strongest loci for latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); however, the strength of association is likely attenuated compared with that for childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this study, we recapitulate independent effects in the MHC class I region in a population with type 1 diabetes and then determine whether such conditioning in LADA yields potential genetic discriminators between the two subtypes within this region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Chromosome 6 was imputed using SNP2HLA, with conditional analysis performed in type 1 diabetes case subjects (n = 1,985) and control subjects (n = 2,219). The same approach was applied to a LADA cohort (n = 1,428) using population-based control subjects (n = 2,850) and in a separate replication cohort (656 type 1 diabetes case, 823 LADA case, and 3,218 control subjects). RESULTS: The strongest associations in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.44 [0.05]), as well as the independent effect of MHC class I genes, on type 1 diabetes risk, particularly HLA-B*39 (ß [SE] = 1.36 [0.17]), were confirmed. The conditional analysis in LADA versus control subjects showed significant association in the MHC class II region (rs3957146, ß [SE] = 1.14 [0.06]); however, we did not observe significant independent effects of MHC class I alleles in LADA. CONCLUSIONS: In LADA, the independent effects of MHC class I observed in type 1 diabetes were not observed after conditioning on the leading MHC class II associations, suggesting that the MHC class I association may be a genetic discriminator between LADA and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

9.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 1932296819894974, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding the burden and predictors of hypoglycemia among older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is limited. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from the Wireless Innovations for Seniors with Diabetes Mellitus (WISDM) study, which enrolled participants at 22 sites in the United States. Eligibility included clinical diagnosis of T1D, age ≥60 years, no real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in prior three months, and HbA1c <10.0%. Blinded CGM data from 203 participants with at least 240 hours were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Median age of the cohort was 68 years (52% female, 93% non-Hispanic white, and 53% used insulin pumps). Mean HbA1c was 7.5%. Median time spent in the glucose range <70 mg/dL was 5.0% (72 min/day) and <54 mg/dL was 1.6% (24 min/day). Among all factors analyzed, only reduced hypoglycemia awareness was associated with greater time spent <54 mg/dL (median time of 2.7% vs 1.3% [39 vs 19 minutes per day] for reduced awareness vs aware/uncertain, respectively, P = .03). Participants spent a mean 56% of total time in target glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL and 37% of time above 180 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Over half of older T1D participants spent at least an hour a day with glucose levels <70 mg/dL. Those with reduced hypoglycemia awareness spent over twice as much time than those without in a serious hypoglycemia range (glucose levels <54 mg/dL). Interventions to reduce exposure to clinically significant hypoglycemia and increase time in range are urgently needed in this age group.

10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 156, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiovascular complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This secondary analysis investigated baseline factors and treatment differences associated with risk of hospitalization for HF (hHF), and the possible association between severe hypoglycemia and hHF. METHODS: DEVOTE was a treat-to-target, double-blind cardiovascular outcomes trial in patients (n = 7637) with T2D and high cardiovascular risk randomized to insulin degludec (degludec) or insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100). The main endpoint of this secondary analysis was time to first hHF (standardized MedDRA Query definition). Severe hypoglycemia was adjudicated (American Diabetes Association definition). The main endpoint and the temporal association between severe hypoglycemia and hHF were analyzed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Predictors of time to first hHF were identified using baseline variables. RESULTS: Overall, 372 (4.9%) patients experienced hHF (550 events). There was no significant difference in the risk of hHF between treatments (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88 [0.72;1.08]95% CI, p = 0.227). Prior HF (HR 4.89 [3.90;6.14]95% CI, p ≤ 0.0001) was the strongest predictor of future hHF events. The risk of hHF significantly increased after (HR 2.2), and within a week after (HR 11.1), experiencing a severe hypoglycemic episode compared with before an episode. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk there were no treatment differences in terms of hHF. Prior HF was the strongest predictor of future hHF events, and there was an association between severe hypoglycemia and subsequent hHF. Further research should evaluate whether the risk of hHF can be modified by treatments aimed at reducing hypoglycemia. Trial Registration NCT01959529.

11.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(11): 586-595, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588872

RESUMO

The effects of exercise training on the skeletal muscle (SKM) lipidome and mitochondrial function have not been thoroughly explored in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesize that 10 wk of supervised endurance training improves SKM mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity that are related to alterations in lipid signatures within SKM of T2D (males n = 8). We employed integrated multi-omics data analyses including ex vivo lipidomics (MS/MS-shotgun) and transcriptomics (RNA-Seq). From biopsies of SKM, tissue and primary myotubes mitochondrial respiration were quantified by high-resolution respirometry. We also performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and blood draws before and after the training. The lipidomics analysis revealed that endurance training (>95% compliance) increased monolysocardiolipin by 68.2% (P ≤ 0.03), a putative marker of mitochondrial remodeling, and reduced total sphingomyelin by 44.8% (P ≤ 0.05) and phosphatidylserine by 39.7% (P ≤ 0.04) and tended to reduce ceramide lipid content by 19.8%. Endurance training also improved intrinsic mitochondrial respiration in SKM of T2D without alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number or cardiolipin content. RNA-Seq revealed 71 transcripts in SKM of T2D that were differentially regulated. Insulin sensitivity was unaffected, and HbA1c levels moderately increased by 7.3% despite an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o2peak) following the training intervention. In summary, endurance training improves intrinsic and cell-autonomous SKM mitochondrial function and modifies lipid composition in men with T2D independently of alterations in insulin sensitivity and glycemic control.

13.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(7): 974-985, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of weight management in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from childhood into adulthood has not been well described. The purpose of the study was to explore qualitative themes presented by young adults with T1D with respect to the dual management of weight and T1D. METHODS: We analyzed focus group data from 17 young adults with T1D (65% female, age 21.7 ± 2.1 years, HbA1c 8.1% ± 1.5) via inductive qualitative analysis methods. Major themes were compared to themes presented by youth with T1D ages 13-16 years in previously published study in order to categorize thematic progression from early adolescence through adulthood. RESULTS: Themes from young adults with T1D, when compared to those from youth were categorized as: (a) persistent and unchanged themes, (b) evolving themes, and (c) newly reported themes. Hypoglycemia and a sense of futility around exercise was an unchanged theme. Importance of insulin usage and a healthy relationship with T1D evolved to gather greater conviction. Newly reported themes are unique to integration of adulthood into T1D, such as family planning and managing T1D with work obligations. Young adults also reported negative experiences with providers in their younger years and desire for more supportive provider relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Issues identified by youth regarding the dual management of T1D and weight rarely resolve, but rather, persist or evolve to integrate other aspects of young adulthood. Individualized and age-appropriate clinical support and practice guidelines are warranted to facilitate the dual management of weight and T1D in persons with T1D.

14.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2450-2458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282028

RESUMO

AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin combination therapy is an effective treatment option for type 2 diabetes, but long-term data are lacking. The aim was to assess the long-term efficacy of the GLP-1RA liraglutide in subgroups by insulin use in the LEADER trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LEADER assessed cardiovascular (CV) safety and efficacy of liraglutide (1.8 mg) versus placebo (plus standard of care therapy) in 9340 patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of CV disease, for up to 5 years. We analyzed CV events, metabolic parameters and hypoglycaemia post hoc in three subgroups by baseline insulin use (basal-only insulin, other insulin or no insulin). Insulin was a non-random treatment allocation as part of standard of care therapy. RESULTS: At baseline, 5171 (55%) patients were not receiving insulin, 3159 (34%) were receiving basal-only insulin and 1010 (11%) other insulins. Insulin users had a longer diabetes duration and slightly worse glycaemic control (HbA1c) than the no-insulin subgroup. Liraglutide reduced HbA1c and weight versus placebo in all three subgroups (P < .001), and severe hypoglycaemia rate in the basal-only insulin subgroup. The need for insulin was less with liraglutide. CV risk reduction with liraglutide was similar to the main trial results in the basal-only and no-insulin subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients on insulin, liraglutide improved glycaemic control, weight and need for insulin versus placebo, for at least 36 months with no increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia, while maintaining CV safety/efficacy, supporting the combination of liraglutide and insulin for management of type 2 diabetes.

15.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2429-2439, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264757

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the safety of efpeglenatide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), and its effects on body weight management in adults without diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this phase II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with comorbidity were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to efpeglenatide (4 mg once weekly, 6 mg once weekly, 6 mg once every 2 wk, or 8 mg once every 2 wk; n = 237) or placebo (n = 60) in combination with a hypocaloric diet. The primary endpoint was body weight change from baseline after 20 wk of treatment, assessed using a mixed-effect model with repeated measures with an unstructured covariance matrix over all post-screening visits; treatment comparisons were based on least squares mean estimates. RESULTS: Over 20 wk, all doses of efpeglenatide significantly reduced body weight from baseline versus placebo (P < 0.0001), with placebo-adjusted reductions ranging between -6.3 kg (6 mg once every 2 wk) and -7.2 kg (6 mg once weekly). Greater proportions of efpeglenatide-treated participants had body weight loss of ≥5% or ≥10% versus placebo (P < 0.01, all comparisons). Efpeglenatide led to significant improvements in glycaemic variables (fasting plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin) and lipid profiles (cholesterol, triglycerides) versus placebo. Rates of study discontinuations as a result of adverse events ranged from 5% to 19% with efpeglenatide. Gastrointestinal effects were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Efpeglenatide once weekly and once every 2 wk led to significant body weight reduction and improved glycaemic and lipid variables versus placebo. It was also well tolerated for weight management in adults without diabetes.

16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(7): 515-527, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral semaglutide is the first oral glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist for glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with renal impairment, restricting treatment options. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral semaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, phase 3a trial was undertaken at 88 sites in eight countries. Patients aged 18 years and older, with type 2 diabetes, an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30-59 mL/min per 1·73 m2, and who had been receiving a stable dose of metformin or sulfonylurea, or both, or basal insulin with or without metformin for the past 90 days were eligible. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by use of an interactive web-response system, with stratification by glucose-lowering medication and renal function, to receive oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg once daily) or matching placebo for 26 weeks, in addition to background medication. Participants and site staff were masked to assignment. Two efficacy-related estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of treatment discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (on treatment without rescue medication) in all participants randomly assigned. Endpoints were change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (primary endpoint) and bodyweight (confirmatory secondary endpoint), assessed in all participants with sufficient data. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02827708, and the European Clinical Trials Registry, number EudraCT 2015-005326-19, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Sept 20, 2016, and Sept 29, 2017, of 721 patients screened, 324 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=163) or placebo (n=161). Mean age at baseline was 70 years (SD 8), and 168 (52%) of participants were female. 133 (82%) participants in the oral semaglutide group and 141 (88%) in the placebo group completed 26 weeks on treatment. At 26 weeks, oral semaglutide was superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c (estimated mean change of -1·0 percentage point (SE 0·1; -11 mmol/mol [SE 0·8]) vs -0·2 percentage points (SE 0·1; -2 mmol/mol [SE 0·8]); estimated treatment difference [ETD]: -0·8 percentage points, 95% CI -1·0 to -0·6; p<0·0001) and bodyweight (estimated mean change of -3·4 kg [SE 0·3] vs -0·9 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD, -2·5, 95% CI -3·2 to -1·8; p<0·0001) by the treatment policy estimand. Significant differences were seen for the trial product estimand: mean change in HbA1c -1·1 percentage points (SE 0·1; -12 mmol/mol [SE 0·8] versus -0·1 percentage points (SE 0·1; -1 mmol/mol [SE 0·8]; ETD -1·0 percentage points, 95% CI -1·2 to -0·8; p<0·0001); mean change in bodyweight -3·7 kg (SE 0·3) versus -1·1 kg (SE 0·3; ETD -2·7 kg, 95% CI -3·5 to -1·9; p<0·0001). More patients taking oral semaglutide than placebo had adverse events (120 [74%] of 163 vs 105 [65%] of 161), and discontinued treatment as a result (24 [15%] vs eight [5%]). Gastrointestinal events, mainly mild-to-moderate nausea, were more common with oral semaglutide than with placebo. Three deaths occurred during the treatment period that were not condsidered to be treatment related, one in the semaglutide group and two in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was effective in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment, potentially providing a new treatment option for this population. Safety, including renal safety, was consistent with the GLP-1 receptor agonist class. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.

17.
Lancet ; 394(10192): 39-50, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once-daily oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg), once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (dose escalated to 1·8 mg), or placebo for 52 weeks. Two estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of study drug discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (assumed all participants were on study drug without rescue medication) in all participants who were randomly assigned. The treatment policy estimand was the primary estimand. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and non-inferiority [margin: 0·4%] and superiority vs subcutaneous liraglutide) and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in bodyweight (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and liraglutide). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02863419, and the European Clinical Trials registry, number EudraCT 2015-005210-30. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2016, and Feb 7, 2017, 950 patients were screened, of whom 711 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=285), subcutaneous liraglutide (n=284), or placebo (n=142). 341 (48%) of 711 participants were female and the mean age was 56 years (SD 10). All participants were given at least one dose of study drug, and 277 (97%) participants in the oral semaglutide group, 274 (96%) in the liraglutide group, and 134 (94%) in the placebo group completed the 52-week trial period. Mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26 was -1·2% (SE 0·1) with oral semaglutide, -1·1% (SE 0·1) with subcutaneous liraglutide, and -0·2% (SE 0·1) with placebo. Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide in decreasing HbA1c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·1%, 95% CI -0·3 to 0·0; p<0·0001) and superior to placebo (ETD -1·1%, -1·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) by use of the treatment policy estimand. By use of the trial product estimand, oral semaglutide had significantly greater decreases in HbA1c than both subcutaneous liraglutide (ETD -0·2%, 95% CI -0·3 to -0·1; p=0·0056) and placebo (ETD -1·2%, -1·4 to -1·0; p<0·0001) at week 26. Oral semaglutide resulted in superior weight loss (-4·4 kg [SE 0·2]) compared with liraglutide (-3·1 kg [SE 0·2]; ETD -1·2 kg, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·6; p=0·0003) and placebo (-0·5 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD -3·8 kg, -4·7 to -3·0; p<0·0001) at week 26 (treatment policy). By use of the trial product estimand, weight loss at week 26 was significantly greater with oral semaglutide than with subcutaneous liraglutide (-1·5 kg, 95% CI -2·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) and placebo (ETD -4·0 kg, -4·8 to -3·2; p<0·0001). Adverse events were more frequent with oral semaglutide (n=229 [80%]) and subcutaneous liraglutide (n=211 [74%]) than with placebo (n=95 [67%]). INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide and superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c, and superior in decreasing bodyweight compared with both liraglutide and placebo at week 26. Safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide were similar to subcutaneous liraglutide. Use of oral semaglutide could potentially lead to earlier initiation of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in the diabetes treatment continuum of care. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
N Engl J Med ; 381(6): 520-530, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies support an association between a low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of diabetes is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults who met at least two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose level, 100 to 125 mg per deciliter; plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose load, 140 to 199 mg per deciliter; and glycated hemoglobin level, 5.7 to 6.4%) and no diagnostic criteria for diabetes to receive 4000 IU per day of vitamin D3 or placebo, regardless of the baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. The primary outcome in this time-to-event analysis was new-onset diabetes, and the trial design was event-driven, with a target number of diabetes events of 508. RESULTS: A total of 2423 participants underwent randomization (1211 to the vitamin D group and 1212 to the placebo group). By month 24, the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the vitamin D group was 54.3 ng per milliliter (from 27.7 ng per milliliter at baseline), as compared with 28.8 ng per milliliter in the placebo group (from 28.2 ng per milliliter at baseline). After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the primary outcome of diabetes occurred in 293 participants in the vitamin D group and 323 in the placebo group (9.39 and 10.66 events per 100 person-years, respectively). The hazard ratio for vitamin D as compared with placebo was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P = 0.12). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D3 supplementation at a dose of 4000 IU per day did not result in a significantly lower risk of diabetes than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; D2d ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01942694.).


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(7): 1625-1633, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850995

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the risks of cardiovascular (CV) events and severe hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec (degludec) vs insulin glargine 100 units/mL (glargine U100) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) aged 65 years or older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 7637 patients in the DEVOTE trial, a treat-to-target, randomized, double-blind trial evaluating the CV safety of degludec vs glargine U100, were divided into three age groups (50-64 years, n = 3682; 65-74 years, n = 3136; ≥75 years, n = 819). Outcomes by overall age group and randomized treatment differences were analysed for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, severe hypoglycaemia and serious adverse events (SAEs). RESULTS: Patients with increasing age had higher risks of CV death, all-cause mortality and SAEs, and there were non-significant trends towards higher risks of MACE and severe hypoglycaemia. Treatment effects on the risk of MACE, all-cause mortality, severe hypoglycaemia and SAEs were consistent across age groups, based on the non-significant interactions between treatment and age with regard to these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: There were higher risks of CV death, all-cause mortality and SAEs, and trends towards higher risks of MACE and severe hypoglycaemia with increasing age after adjusting for baseline differences. The effects across age groups of degludec vs glargine U100 on MACE, all-cause mortality and severe hypoglycaemia were comparable, suggesting that the risk of MACE, as well as all-cause mortality, is similar and the risk of severe hypoglycaemia is lower with degludec regardless of age. Evidence is conclusive only until 74 years of age.

20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(7): 1745-1751, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851070

RESUMO

Cardiovascular risk reduction with liraglutide and semaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes was demonstrated in the LEADER (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01179048) and SUSTAIN 6 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01720446) cardiovascular outcome trials. This post hoc analysis assessed the impact of diabetes duration (<5, 5 to <15, 15 to <25 and ≥25 years at baseline) on cardiorenal efficacy of these human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues using a Cox proportional hazards model. Proportions of patients in the LEADER trial across diabetes duration strata were 15% (<5 years, n = 1377), 50% (5 to <15 years, n = 4692), 27% (15 to <25 years, n = 2504) and 8% (≥25 years, n = 748); corresponding proportions in the SUSTAIN-6 trial were 13% (<5 years, n = 422), 48% (5 to <15 years, n = 1582), 30% (15 to <25 years, n = 977) and 10% (≥25 years, n = 316). Overall, longer diabetes duration was associated with higher age; higher prevalence of females; history of ischaemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and insulin use; and inferior renal function. There was an increased frequency of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), expanded MACE and nephropathy events with increasing diabetes duration. Liraglutide and semaglutide consistently reduced the risk of cardiorenal outcomes across categories of diabetes duration (P-interaction was not significant for all endpoints analysed).

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