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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469440

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these issues by describing racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational standing, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with at least some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational standing and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational standing shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower standing occupations overall and in lower standing occupations associated with high risk, and thus may be less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low standing occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730061

RESUMO

Latinos in the US live significantly longer than non-Latino whites, but spend more years disabled. Differentials in socioeconomic status account for part, but not all, of the difference in older age disability between Latinos and whites. We hypothesize that a factor often ignored in the literature-the fact that Latinos, on average, have more physically strenuous jobs than non-Latino whites-contributes to the higher Latino risk of functional limitations at older ages. We use longitudinal data from the 1998-2014 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) comprising 17,297 respondents. Compared to US-born whites, Latinos, especially Latino immigrants, report substantially higher levels of physical effort at work. Latino-black differences are much smaller than Latino-white differences. As hypothesized, physical work effort is strongly related to functional limitations. However, differentials in physical work effort for Latinos and whites in their fifties and early sixties are weakly related to Latino-white differentials in FL at later ages.


Assuntos
Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
3.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236022

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these claims by examining racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational status, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ significant COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational status and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational status shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower status occupations overall and in lower status occupations associated with high risk, and are thus less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low status occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.

4.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 25(3): 295-302, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24938508

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the relationship between ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pulmonary function in children. Major sources include vehicular emissions, home heating, wildland fires, agricultural burning, and power plants. PAHs are an important component of fine particulate matter that has been linked to respiratory health. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between estimated individual exposures to the sum of PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings (PAH456) and pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. We applied land-use regression to estimate individual exposures to ambient PAHs for averaging periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship between exposure to PAH456 with pre- and postbronchodilator pulmonary function tests in children in Fresno, California (N=297). Among non-asthmatics, there was a statistically significant association between PAH456 during the previous 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year and postbronchodilator FEV1. The magnitude of the association increased with the length of the averaging period ranging from 60 to 110 ml decrease in FEV1 for each 1 ng/m(3) increase in PAH456. There were no associations with PAH456 observed among asthmatic children. We identified an association between annual PAHs and chronic pulmonary function in children without asthma. Additional studies are needed to further explore the association between exposure to PAHs and pulmonary function, especially with regard to differential effects between asthmatic and non-asthmatic children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/fisiopatologia , California , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 126(4): 845-852.e10, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20920773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most frequent chronic disease in children, and children are at high risk for adverse health consequences associated with ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are suppressors of immune responses involved in asthma pathogenesis. Treg-cell impairment is associated with increased DNA methylation of Forkhead box transcription factor 3 (Foxp3), a key transcription factor in Treg-cell activity. Because AAP exposure can induce epigenetic changes, we hypothesized that Treg-cell function would be impaired by AAP, allowing amplification of an inflammatory response. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether exposure to AAP led to hypermethylation of the Foxp3 gene, causing impaired Treg-cell suppression and worsened asthma symptom scores. METHODS: Children with and without asthma from Fresno, Calif (high pollution, Fresno Asthma Group [FA], n = 71, and Fresno Non Asthmatic Group, n = 30, respectively), and from Stanford, Calif (low pollution, Stanford Asthma Group, n = 40, and Stanford Non Asthmatic Group, n = 40), were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood Treg cells were used in functional and epigenetic studies. Asthma outcomes were assessed by Global Initiative in Asthma score. RESULTS: Fresno Asthma Group Treg-cell suppression was impaired and FA Treg-cell chemotaxis were reduced compared with other groups (P ≤ .05). Treg-cell dysfunction was associated with more pronounced decreases in asthma Global Initiative in Asthma score in FA versus the Stanford Asthma Group. Foxp3 was decreased in FA compared with the Fresno Non Asthmatic Group (P ≤ .05). FA also contained significantly higher levels of methylation at the Foxp3 locus (P ≤ .05). CONCLUSION: Increased exposure to AAP is associated with hypermethylation of the Foxp3 locus, impairing Treg-cell function and increasing asthma morbidity. AAP could play a role in mediating epigenetic changes in Treg cells, which may worsen asthma by an immune mechanism.


Assuntos
Asma/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Adolescente , Asma/imunologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 118(10): 1497-502, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20570778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although studies have demonstrated that air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children with asthma, little is known about the susceptibility of subgroups, particularly those with atopy. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate our a priori hypothesis that identifiable subgroups of asthmatic children are more likely to wheeze with exposure to ambient air pollution. METHODS: A cohort of 315 children with asthma, 6-11 years of age, was recruited for longitudinal follow-up in Fresno, California (USA). During the baseline visit, children were administered a respiratory symptom questionnaire and allergen skin-prick test. Three times a year, participants completed 14-day panels during which they answered symptom questions twice daily. Ambient air quality data from a central monitoring station were used to assign exposures to the following pollutants: particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter, particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10-2.5), elemental carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate, and O3. RESULTS: For the group as a whole, wheeze was significantly associated with short-term exposures to NO2 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 for 8.7-ppb increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.20] and PM10-2.5 (OR = 1.11 for 14.7-µg/m3 increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22). The association with wheeze was stronger for these two pollutants in children who were skin-test positive to cat or common fungi and in boys with mild intermittent asthma. CONCLUSION: A pollutant associated with traffic emissions, NO2, and a pollutant with bioactive constituents, PM10-2.5, were associated with increased risk of wheeze in asthmatic children living in Fresno, California. Children with atopy to cat or common fungi and boys with mild intermittent asthma were the subgroups for which we observed the largest associations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/fisiopatologia , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Asma/complicações , California , Criança , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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