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1.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065600

RESUMO

Importance: Chlorthalidone is currently recommended as the preferred thiazide diuretic to treat hypertension, but no trials have directly compared risks and benefits. Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide as first-line therapies for hypertension in real-world practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a Large-Scale Evidence Generation and Evaluation in a Network of Databases (LEGEND) observational comparative cohort study with large-scale propensity score stratification and negative-control and synthetic positive-control calibration on databases spanning January 2001 through December 2018. Outpatient and inpatient care episodes of first-time users of antihypertensive monotherapy in the United States based on 2 administrative claims databases and 1 collection of electronic health records were analyzed. Analysis began June 2018. Exposures: Chlorthalidone and hydrochlorothiazide. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were acute myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and a composite cardiovascular disease outcome including the first 3 outcomes and sudden cardiac death. Fifty-one safety outcomes were measured. Results: Of 730 225 individuals (mean [SD] age, 51.5 [13.3] years; 450 100 women [61.6%]), 36 918 were dispensed or prescribed chlorthalidone and had 149 composite outcome events, and 693 337 were dispensed or prescribed hydrochlorothiazide and had 3089 composite outcome events. No significant difference was found in the associated risk of myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, or stroke, with a calibrated hazard ratio for the composite cardiovascular outcome of 1.00 for chlorthalidone compared with hydrochlorothiazide (95% CI, 0.85-1.17). Chlorthalidone was associated with a significantly higher risk of hypokalemia (hazard ratio [HR], 2.72; 95% CI, 2.38-3.12), hyponatremia (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.16-1.47), acute renal failure (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15-1.63), chronic kidney disease (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.30). Chlorthalidone was associated with a significantly lower risk of diagnosed abnormal weight gain (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that chlorthalidone use was not associated with significant cardiovascular benefits when compared with hydrochlorothiazide, while its use was associated with greater risk of renal and electrolyte abnormalities. These findings do not support current recommendations to prefer chlorthalidone vs hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension treatment in first-time users was found. We used advanced methods, sensitivity analyses, and diagnostics, but given the possibility of residual confounding and the limited length of observation periods, further study is warranted.

2.
Aust Dent J ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor recognition of medicine-induced dry mouth can have a number of adverse effects, including difficulties with speech, chewing and swallowing dry foods, gum disease, dental caries and oral candidosis. This study examined the prevalence of use of medicines that cause dry mouth and claims for dental services funded by the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) in an Australian cohort. METHODS: We used the DVA administrative health claims data to identify persons using medicines that can cause dry mouth at 1st of September 2016 and determine their DVA dental claims in the subsequent year. Results were stratified by gender, residence in community or residential aged cared facility, and number of medicines. RESULTS: We identified 50,679 persons using medicines known to cause dry mouth. Of these, 72.6% were taking only one medicine that may cause dry mouth, and 21.6% were taking two. Less than half (46.2%) of all people taking at least one of these medicines had a dental claim in the following year. A smaller proportion of women (35.9%) made claims than men (56.9%), χ2 = 2248.77, p<.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted interventions raising awareness of the relationship between some medicines and dry mouth, and the importance of dental visits are warranted.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e032426, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the paediatric user and prescription prevalence in inpatient and ambulatory settings in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and Australia by age and gender. A further objective was to list the most commonly used drugs per drug class, per country. DESIGN AND SETTING: Hospital inpatient and insurance paediatric healthcare data from the following databases were used to conduct this descriptive drug utilisation study: (i) the South Korean Ajou University School of Medicine database; (ii) the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System; (iii) the Japan Medical Data Center; (iv) Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and (v) the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Country-specific data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model. PATIENTS: Children (≤18 years) with at least 1 day of observation in any of the respective databases from January 2009 until December 2013 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each drug class, we assessed the per-protocol overall user and prescription prevalence rates (per 1000 persons) per country and setting. RESULTS: Our study population comprised 1 574 524 children (52.9% male). The highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the youngest age category (<2 years) for inpatients (45.1%) with a relatively high user prevalence of analgesics and antibiotics. Adrenergics, antihistamines, mucolytics and corticosteroids were used in 10%-15% of patients. For ambulatory patients, the highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the middle age category (2-11 years, 67.1%) with antibiotics the most dispensed drug overall. CONCLUSIONS: Country-specific paediatric drug utilisation patterns were described, ranked and compared between four East Asian countries and Australia. The widespread use of mucolytics in East Asia warrants further investigation.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(2): 201-211.e2, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between benzodiazepine use and the risk of dementia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using a nationwide healthcare database of South Korea (2002-2016). The participants included new users of benzodiazepines aged ≥50 years, with no prior prescription record of benzodiazepines or a history of dementia within the previous 5 years (2002-2006). METHODS: Outcome was defined as an incident dementia with specified algorithms using diagnosis and prescription records, with the application of a 5-year lag-time following the index date during which outcomes were censored. We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). Comorbidities and comedications were treated as time-varying covariates in 90-day windows, and an active comparator was used to reduce potential bias from confounding by indication. Active comparators were defined as new-users of antidepressants. RESULTS: Our final participants included 616,256 patients, after propensity score estimation and matching on a 1:1 ratio. We observed a 23% increase in the risk of dementia in benzodiazepine users, compared with that in nonusers, over a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32). A consistent finding was observed when the lag-time duration was extended to 7 years, revealing a close to null association (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.30). When new-users of antidepressants were used as the active comparator, no increase in the risk of dementia with benzodiazepines was observed over 7 years (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81-1.27). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: A significant association was observed between benzodiazepine use and the risk of dementia, compared with nonusers. However, a null or negative association was observed with the use of the active comparator, suggesting the absence of a causal association between dementia and benzodiazepine use.

5.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 29(1): 9-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance on the evaluation of data linkage quality through the development of a checklist for reporting key elements of the linkage process. METHODS: Responding to a call for manuscripts from the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE), a working group including international representation from the academic, industry, and contract research, and regulatory sectors was formed to develop a checklist for evaluation of data linkage performance and reporting data linkage specifically for pharmacoepidemiologic research. This checklist expands on the reporting of studies conducted using observational routinely collected health data specific to pharmacoepidemiology (RECORD-PE) guidelines. RESULTS: A key aspect of data linkage evaluation for pharmacoepidemiology is to articulate how a linkage process was performed and its accuracy in terms of validation and verification of the resulting linked data. This study generates a checklist, which covers domains including data sources, linkage variables, linkage methods, linkage results, and linkage evaluation. For each domain, specific recommendations provide a clear and transparent assessment of the linkage process. CONCLUSIONS: Linking data sources can help to enrich analytic databases to more accurately define study populations, enable adjustment for confounding, and improve the capture of health outcomes. Clear and transparent reporting of data linkage processes will help to increase confidence in the evidence generated from these data by allowing researchers and end users to critically assess the potential for bias owing to the data linkage process.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031657, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication following hip arthroplasty (HA) and knee arthroplasty (KA). This study aims to determine whether aspirin is non-inferior to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in preventing symptomatic VTE following HA and KA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a cluster randomised, crossover, non-inferiority, trial nested within the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR). The clusters will consist of Australian hospitals performing at least 250 HA and/or KA procedures per annum. All adult patients undergoing HA or KA will be included. The intervention will be aspirin, orally, 85-150 mg daily. The comparator will be LMWH (enoxaparin) 40 mg, subcutaneously, daily. Both drugs will commence within 24 hours postoperatively and continue for 35 days after HA and 14 days after KA. Each hospital will be randomised to commence with aspirin or LMWH and then crossover to the alternative treatment after meeting the recruitment target. Data will be collected through the AOANJRR via patient-reported surveys. The primary outcome is symptomatic VTE within 90 days post surgery, verified by AOANJRR staff. The primary analysis will include only patients undergoing elective primary total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Secondary outcomes will include symptomatic VTE for all HA and KA (including partial and revision) within 90 days, readmission, reoperation, major bleeding and death within 90 days and reoperation, death and patient-reported pain, function and health status at 6 months. If aspirin is found to be inferior, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. The study will aim to recruit 15 562 patients from 31 hospitals. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been granted. Trial results will be submitted for publication. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618001879257, pre-results) and is endorsed by the Australia and New Zealand Musculoskeletal Clinical Trials Network.

7.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1816-1826, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains about the optimal monotherapy for hypertension, with current guidelines recommending any primary agent among the first-line drug classes thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, in the absence of comorbid indications. Randomised trials have not further refined this choice. METHODS: We developed a comprehensive framework for real-world evidence that enables comparative effectiveness and safety evaluation across many drugs and outcomes from observational data encompassing millions of patients, while minimising inherent bias. Using this framework, we did a systematic, large-scale study under a new-user cohort design to estimate the relative risks of three primary (acute myocardial infarction, hospitalisation for heart failure, and stroke) and six secondary effectiveness and 46 safety outcomes comparing all first-line classes across a global network of six administrative claims and three electronic health record databases. The framework addressed residual confounding, publication bias, and p-hacking using large-scale propensity adjustment, a large set of control outcomes, and full disclosure of hypotheses tested. FINDINGS: Using 4·9 million patients, we generated 22 000 calibrated, propensity-score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing all classes and outcomes across databases. Most estimates revealed no effectiveness differences between classes; however, thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics showed better primary effectiveness than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: acute myocardial infarction (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95), hospitalisation for heart failure (0·83, 0·74-0·95), and stroke (0·83, 0·74-0·95) risk while on initial treatment. Safety profiles also favoured thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers were significantly inferior to the other four classes. INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive framework introduces a new way of doing observational health-care science at scale. The approach supports equivalence between drug classes for initiating monotherapy for hypertension-in keeping with current guidelines, with the exception of thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics superiority to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the inferiority of non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation, US National Institutes of Health, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
8.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 496-503, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into complexities of seeking access to state and federal cross-jurisdictional data for linkage with the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). We provide recommendations for improving access and receipt of linked datasets involving Australian Government-administered data. METHODS: We describe requirements for linking eleven federal and state data sources to establish a national linked dataset for safety evaluation of vaccines. The required data linkage methodology for integrating cross-jurisdictional data sources is also described. RESULTS: Extensive negotiation was required with 18 different agencies for 21 separate authorisations and 12 ethics approvals. Three variations of the 'best practice' linkage model were implemented. Australian Government approval requests spanned nearly four years from initial request for data, with a further year before ACIR data transfer to the linkage agency. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of immunisation registers with other data collections is achievable in Australia but infeasible for routine and rapid identification of vaccine safety concerns. Lengthy authorisation requirements, convoluted disparate application processes and inconsistencies in data supplied all contribute to delayed data availability. Implications for public health: Delayed data access for safety surveillance prevents timely epidemiological reviews. Poor responsiveness to safety concerns may erode public confidence, compromising effectiveness of vaccination programs through reduced participation.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Imunização , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistema de Registros , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Formulação de Políticas , Vacinas
9.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029221, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the association between use of medicines with anticholinergic or sedative properties and physical function, cognitive function, appetite and frailty. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study analysed baseline data collected as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a population-based cohort of 2087 participants aged 65 years or over living in South Australia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physical function was measured at baseline using measures including hand grip strength, walking speed, chair stands, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Cognitive function was measured using Mini-Mental State Examination. Appetite was measured using Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression question 2. Frailty was measured using frailty index. The association between use of anticholinergics or sedatives and physical or cognitive function, appetite, or frailty was assessed using analysis of covariance and ordinal or binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Almost half of the population were using anticholinergics or sedatives (n=954, 45.7%). Use of anticholinergics was significantly associated with poorer grip strength, slower walking speed, poorer IADL and poorer appetite. Use of sedatives was significantly associated with poorer grip strength, slower walking speed and poorer IADL. We found no significant association between medicine use and cognitive function. Users of anticholinergics or sedatives were significantly more likely to be frail compared with non-users. CONCLUSION: Use of medicines with anticholinergic or sedative properties is significantly associated with poorer physical function, poorer appetite and increased frailty. Early identification of signs and symptoms of deterioration associated with medicine use is particularly important in older people so that worsening frailty and subsequent adverse events are prevented.

11.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(3)2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336574

RESUMO

Background: Risperidone is the only antipsychotic approved in Australia for the management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). In June 2015, the Australian Government Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) amended the indication to restrict use in BPSD to patients with Alzheimer's dementia for a maximum twelve-week duration. We aimed to determine whether the rate and duration of risperidone use for BPSD decreased following the regulatory changes. Methods: we conducted a study using the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs administrative claims data and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) 10% sample data. We included people aged 65 years or older and compared the rate and duration of risperidone use before and after the TGA labelling changes. Results: There was a sustained decrease in the trend of risperidone use for BPSD following the TGA labelling changes, with a monthly decrease of 1.7% in the aged care population, 0.5% in the community living population and 1.5% in the general older Australian population. Overall, in the 24 months post the TGA changes the reduction in the rate of use of risperidone ranged from 20% to 28% lower than compared to what the rate would have been without the TGA changes. The median duration of use of risperidone in aged-care residents decreased from 338 days in the year prior to the TGA labelling changes, to 240 days per person in the year after the changes. Conclusion: The TGA labelling changes were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of use of risperidone for BPSD in veterans living in both the aged care and community settings, and in the general older Australian population. The labelling changes were also associated with a reduced duration of risperidone use in aged care residents, although for most people the duration of use still exceeded the recommended 12-week maximum duration.

12.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 143, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequence symmetry analysis (SSA) is a signal detection method that can be used to assist with adverse drug event detection. It provides both a risk estimate and a data visualisation. Published methods provide results in the form of an adjusted sequence ratio, which adjusts for underlying market trends of medicine use, however no method for adjusting the visualisation is available. We aimed to develop and evaluate another method of adjustment for prescribing trends and apply it to the SSA visualisation. METHODS: The SSA method relies on incident prescriptions for pairs of medicines of interest. Smoothing curves were fitted to the frequency distributions of incident medicine use. When divided and normalised, these curves yielded a set of proportions related to differences in prescribing trends over follow-up. These were then used to adjust the unit counts for incident prescriptions in the SAA visualisation and to calculate the sequence ratio. Curve fitting was also used to identify the proportional relationship between sequences over time for SSA and is presented as a supplementary visualisation to the SSA. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of our method with that from the SSA method of Tsiropolous et al. RESULTS: Curve-fit adjusted SSA visualisations yielded adjusted sequence ratios very close to those of Tsiropolous, with a p-value of 0.999 for the two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results for sensitivity and specificity derived from adjusted sequence ratios were also practically the same. The curve-fit method graphically indicates the proportionality of the sequence and provides a useful supplement of net differences between the two sides of the SSA visualisation. Additionally, we found that incident prescriptions for patients common to both distributions are best precluded from adjustment calculations, leaving only incident prescriptions for patients unique to one or other distribution. This improved the accuracy of SSA in some atypical instances with negligible affect on accuracy elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Our curve-fit method is equivalent to current methods in the literature for adjusting prescribing trends in SAA, with the advantage of providing adjustment incorporated in the SAA visualisation.

13.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 7(2)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have assessed the appropriateness of the use of medicines for nursing home residents; however, few have included duration of use in their assessment. The aim of this study was to assess the level and duration of use of medications recommended for short-term use in residents of aged care facilities in Australia. METHODS: Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) administrative claims data were used for this study. Veterans eligible for all health services subsidised by DVA were followed for one year from 1 July 2015 to 30 June 2016. The number of days covered for each medicine was calculated by multiplying the number of prescriptions dispensed during the year by the pack duration for the medicine. The pack duration was calculated by dividing the quantity supplied at each dispensing by the usual number of doses per day in older people according to Australian prescribing guidelines. The proportion of patients using each medicine and the number of days covered during the study period were determined. RESULTS: 14, 237 residents met the inclusion criteria. One in five participants were dispensed antipsychotics, and the median duration of use was 180 days in the one-year period. More than one-third were dispensed a benzodiazepine, and the median duration of use was 240 days in the year. Half were dispensed an opioid analgesic with a median duration of use of 225 days in the year. Fifty-two percent were dispensed proton pump inhibitors with a median duration of use of 360 days in the year. A quarter received an antibiotic recommended for the management of urinary tract infection, with a median duration of use of 14 days in the year. CONCLUSION: Long-term use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, opioid analgesics and proton pump inhibitors is common in aged care residents. Ensuring appropriate duration of use for these medicines is necessary to reduce risk of harm.

14.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(5): 1341-1347, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240552

RESUMO

Background Internationally, antipsychotics are frequently initiated during hospital admission for older patients and use often continues post-discharge without indication. We located no Australian studies on this topic. Objective to identify the hospital admissions (excluding psychosis) associated with antipsychotic initiation and continuation in older Australians. Setting Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs. Method Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data for people admitted to hospital from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014, aged ≥ 65 years, who were antipsychotic naïve. Main outcome measure number of admissions associated with antipsychotic initiation, and the major diagnosis groups for these admissions. Where antipsychotics were initiated, we determined the time to cessation of antipsychotics after discharge. Results There were 142,009 hospital admissions for 66,415 people with a median age of 86 years. 921 (0.65%) admissions were associated with antipsychotic initiation, most commonly where the primary diagnoses were for mental and behavioural disorders excluding psychosis (17.8%) and injuries (16%). Fourteen percent of antipsychotic initiations were for primary diagnoses of delirium or dementia. When secondary diagnoses were considered, 55% of antipsychotic initiations were associated with delirium, dementia or both. The median duration of use among people who used antipsychotics was 132 days, and 40% continued use until death or one year follow-up. Conclusion Initiation of antipsychotics during hospital admissions was not frequent in this Australian population. Amongst those who did initiate antipsychotics, for almost half no diagnosis corresponding with an approved indication for use was recorded and long-term use of up to one year was common.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e026486, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness and safety of low-strength and high-strength direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) with warfarin in the Australian Veteran population. DESIGN: Sequential cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) and propensity score matching. Initiators of high-strength (apixaban 5 mg, dabigatran 150 mg, rivaroxaban 20 mg) and low-strength DOACS (apixaban 2.5 mg, dabigatran 110 mg, rivaroxaban 15 mg) were compared with warfarin initiators. SETTING: Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs claims database. PARTICIPANTS: 4836 patients who initiated oral anticoagulants (45.8%, 26.0% and 28.2% on low-strength, high-strength DOACs and warfarin, respectively) between August 2013 and March 2015. Mean age was 85, 75 and 83 years for low-strength, high-strength DOACs and warfarin initiators, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: One-year risk of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke, any bleeding event or haemorrhagic stroke. Secondary outcomes were 1-year risk of hospitalisation for myocardial infarction and death. RESULTS: Using the IPTW method, no difference in risk of ischaemic stroke or bleeding was found with low-strength DOACs compared with warfarin. As a class, no increased risk of myocardial infarction was found for low-strength DOACs, however, risk was elevated for apixaban (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.13). For high-strength DOACs, no difference was found for ischaemic stroke compared with warfarin, however, there was a significant reduction in risk of bleeding events (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89) and death (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.58). Propensity score matching showed no difference in risk of ischaemic stroke or bleeding. CONCLUSION: We found that in the practice setting both DOAC formulations were similar to warfarin with regard to effectiveness and had no increased risk of bleeding.

16.
Stat Med ; 38(18): 3342-3345, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069820

RESUMO

Girardeau, Ravaud and Donner in 2008 presented a formula for sample size calculations for cluster randomised crossover trials, when the intracluster correlation coefficient, interperiod correlation coefficient and mean cluster size are specified in advance. However, in many randomised trials, the number of clusters is constrained in some way, but the mean cluster size is not. We present a version of the Girardeau formula for sample size calculations for cluster randomised crossover trials when the number of clusters is fixed. Formulae are given for the minimum number of clusters, the maximum cluster size and the relationship between the correlation coefficients when there are constraints on both the number of clusters and the cluster size. Our version of the formula may aid the efficient planning and design of cluster randomised crossover trials.

17.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(6): 1414-1421, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality after THA and TKA is lower than expected for several years after surgery when compared with age- and sex-adjusted population data. With long-term followup (beyond approximately 10 years), some evidence has suggested that this trend reverses, such that postsurgical mortality is higher than expected as more time passes. However, the degree to which this may be the case has not been clearly established. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this large-registry study, we asked: What is the long-term mortality after THA and TKA compared with the expected mortality, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar year. METHODS: Using data on 243,057 THAs and 363,355 TKAs performed for osteoarthritis from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) from 2003 to 2016, and life tables from the Australian Bureau of Statistics the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR), relative mortality and excess mortality (relative to the expected mortality for people of the same sex and age in the same country) was calculated separately for hips and knees. The AOANJRR contains near-complete (98%-100%) data from all hospitals in Australia performing arthroplasty but does not include followup data on people who have left the country. Followup was from the date of surgery to 13 years, mean 5.8 years. RESULTS: We found a lower-than-expected mortality for THA and TKA in the early years after surgery. This association diminished over time and the mortality became higher than expected after 12 years for both THA and TKA. For THA, the excess mortality (per thousand people) increased from 11 fewer deaths (95% CI, 10-11 fewer) after 1 year to four more deaths (95% CI, 0-9 more) in the 13th year, and the SMR increased from 0.50 (95% CI, 0.48-0.52) after 1 year to 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99-1.14) in the 13th year. For TKA, the excess mortality (per thousand people) increased from 12 fewer deaths (95% CI, 12-13 fewer) after 1 year to five more deaths (95% CI 2-9 more) in the 13th year, and the SMR increased from 0.39 (95% CI, 0.37-0.40) after 1 year to 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03-1.15) in the 13th year. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality after hip and knee arthroplasty is lower than expected (based on population norms) in the first 8 years to 9 years but gradually increases over time, becoming higher than expected after 12 years. The lower-than-expected mortality in the early years after surgery is likely the result of patient selection with patients undergoing primary arthroplasty having better health at the time of surgery than that of the age- and sex-matched population. The increasing mortality over time cannot be regression to the mean, as late mortality is higher than expected, moving beyond the mean. It is important to understand if there are modifiable factors associated with this increased mortality. The reasons for the change are uncertain. Factors to consider in future research include determining the effect of different patient factors on late mortality. Some of these included higher obesity rates for joint replacement patients and the association or causal impact of osteoarthritis and/or its treatment to increase late mortality in a similar manner to other forms of arthritis. There is also a possibility that the arthroplasty device itself may affect late mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e023990, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine time to opioid cessation post discharge from hospital in persons who had been admitted to hospital for a surgical procedure and were previously naïve to opioids. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study using administrative health claims database from the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA). DVA gold card holders aged between 18 and 100 years who were admitted to hospital for a surgical admission between 1 January 2014 and 30 December 2015 and naïve to opioid therapy prior to admission were included in the study. Gold card holders are eligible for all health services that DVA funds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome of interest was time to cessation of opioids, with follow-up occurring over 12 months. Cessation was defined as a period without an opioid prescription that was equivalent to three times the estimated supply duration. The proportion who became chronic opioid users was defined as those who continued taking opioids for greater than 90 days post discharge. Cumulative incidence function with death as a competing event was used to determine time to cessation of opioids post discharge. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, 24 854 persons were admitted for a surgical admission. In total 3907 (15.7%) were discharged on opioids. In total 3.9% of those discharged on opioids became chronic users of opioids. The opioid that the patients were most frequently discharged with was oxycodone; oxycodone alone accounted for 43%, while oxycodone with naloxone accounted for 8%. CONCLUSIONS: Opioid initiation post-surgical hospital admission leads to chronic use of opioids in a small percentage of the population. However, given the frequency at which surgical procedures occur, this means that a large number of people in the population may be affected. Post-discharge assessment and follow-up of at-risk patients is important, particularly where psychosocial elements such as anxiety and catastrophising are identified.

19.
Vaccine ; 37(2): 280-288, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in combination DTaP vaccine types at 2, 4 and 6 months of age were associated with mortality (all-cause or non-specific), within 30 days of vaccination. DESIGN: Observational nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Linked population data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and National Death Index. PARTICIPANTS: Australian infants administered a combination trivalent, quadrivalent or hexavalent DTaP vaccine (DTaP types) between January 1999 and December 2010 at 2, 4 and 6 months as part of the primary vaccination series. The study population included 2.9, 2.6, & 2.3 million children in the 2, 4 and 6 month vaccine cohorts, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infants were evaluated for the primary outcome of all-cause mortality within 30 days. A secondary outcome was non-specific mortality (unknown cause of death) within 30 days of vaccination. Non-specific mortality was defined as underlying or other cause of death codes, R95 'Sudden infant death syndrome', R96 'Other sudden death, cause unknown', R98 'Unattended death', R99 'Other ill-defined and unspecified cause of mortality' or where no cause of death was recorded. RESULTS: The rate of 30 day all-cause mortality was low and declined from 127.4 to 59.3 deaths per 100,000 person-years between 2 and 6 month cohorts. When compared with trivalent DTaP vaccines, no elevated risk in all-cause or non-specific mortality was seen with any quadrivalent or hexavalent DTaP vaccines, for any cohort. CONCLUSION: Use of routine DTaP combination vaccines with differing disease antigens administered during the first six months of life is not associated with infant mortality.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade Infantil , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistema de Registros , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Combinadas/efeitos adversos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
20.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 17(3): 411-417, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe how post-market utilisation analysis in Australia informs cost-effectiveness assessment and pricing decisions, using aflibercept and ranibizumab as case studies. METHODS: Pharmaceutical claims were used to identify initiators of aflibercept and ranibizumab in the year after aflibercept-listing (December 2012), and ranibizumab initiators in the year before aflibercept listing. The dispensing rates for each cohort were calculated, and their demographic and clinical characteristics compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: Aflibercept and ranibizumab each accounted for half the age-related macular degeneration market following aflibercept listing. Aflibercept initiators had similar dispensing rates to ranibizumab initiators in the pre- and post-aflibercept era (~ three scripts during the first 90 days, and eight to nine scripts during the following 12 months). All cohorts were similar in terms of their age, sex, residential aged-care status and geographic remoteness, and no differences were observed in their overall co-morbidity scores and history of thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to clinical trial protocols, post-market utilisation research for ranibizumab and aflibercept demonstrates equivalent use in practice in terms of dose frequency, and the demographic and clinical characteristics of initiators. This supports Australia's decision to pay the same price for each rather than giving a premium to aflibercept. Many other countries are likely overpaying for aflibercept if their utilization patterns are similar to Australia's, and could benefit from incorporating routine utilisation assessment.

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