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1.
Am Heart J ; 205: 154-157, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268352

RESUMO

A systematic, nationwide assessment of care of patients with hypertension in Brazil is needed. The objective of the First National Registry of Patients with Hypertension in Brazil is to evaluate the clinical profile, treatment patterns, and outcomes of diagnosed hypertensive patients in the country.

2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(2): t:114-l:122, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-881988

RESUMO

Background: Functional foods such as flaxseed have been commonly consumed to prevent atherosclerosis. Objectives: To assess the effects of flaxseed in atherogenesis in rabbits consuming a high-cholesterol diet. Methods: Thirty male albino rabbits were randomized to three groups based on a 12-week dietary treatment: control group (G1), standard diet; high-cholesterol diet (G2), standard diet plus 0.25% cholesterol from lyophilized eggs; and high-cholesterol plus flaxseed (G3), similar diet as G2 plus flaxseed. Biochemical (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) and immunohistochemical (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF- α ]) analyses were performed in all groups. P values < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: At 12 weeks, serum TC levels increased significantly in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Serum LDL-C levels were higher in group G2, and the increase in group G3 was approximately six times lower than that in G2. HDL-C levels increased in all groups, with the highest increase observed in G2. Triglycerides levels in G3 decreased by ~70% and differed significantly in G1 and G3 (p = 0.034) and G2 and G3 (p = 0.015). ICAM-1 levels increased only in aortic segment 4 in G3. TNF- α levels in G3 were similar to those in the control group, while the levels in G2 were greater than twice as those in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The group fed with a functional diet (flaxseed) showed decreased development of atherosclerosis, reduced serum triglycerides levels, and lower TNF- α levels on immunohistochemistry


Fundamentos: Alimentos funcionais, como a linhaça, têm sido consumidos com frequência para prevenção da aterosclerose. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da linhaça sobre a aterogênese em coelhos submetidos a uma dieta rica em colesterol. Métodos: Trinta coelhos albinos machos foram randomizados em três grupos com base em um tratamento dietético por 12 semanas: grupo controle (G1), dieta padrão; dieta rica em colesterol (G2), dieta padrão mais 0,25% de colesterol proveniente de ovos liofilizados; e dieta rica em colesterol mais linhaça (G3), dieta semelhante à do G2 adicionada de linhaça. Análise bioquímica (colesterol total [CT], lipoproteína de alta densidade [HDL-colesterol], lipoproteína de baixa densidade [LDL-colesterol] e triglicérides) e imunohistoquímica (molécula de adesão intercelular 1 [ICAM-1] e fator de necrose tumoral alfa [TNF- α ]) foram realizadas em todos os grupos. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Às 12 semanas, os níveis séricos de CT aumentaram significativamente nos grupos G2 e G3 em comparação com o G1. Os níveis séricos de LDL-colesterol foram mais altos no grupo G2, e o aumento no grupo G3 foi cerca de seis vezes menor do que no G2. Os níveis de HDL-colesterol aumentaram em todos os grupos, com o maior aumento observado no G2. Os níveis de triglicérides no G3 reduziram em ~70% e diferiram significativamente entre o G1 e G3 (p = 0,034) e G2 e G3 (p = 0,015). Níveis de ICAM-1 aumentaram apenas no segmento aórtico 4 no G3. Os níveis de TNF- α no grupo G3 foram semelhantes aos do grupo controle, enquanto os níveis no G2 foram maiores do que o dobro em relação aos do grupo controle (p < 0,05). Conclusões: O grupo alimentado com uma dieta funcional (linhaça) mostrou redução no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose, níveis séricos mais baixos de triglicérides e níveis mais baixos de TNF- α à imunohistoquímica


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Linho , Hipercolesterolemia , Inflamação , Coelhos , Experimentação Animal , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Dieta Aterogênica/métodos , Epidemiologia Experimental , Modelos Animais , Obesidade/terapia , Análise Estatística
3.
Curr Diabetes Rev ; 14(4): 321-326, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower Socioeconomic Status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM development. METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature on the effects of low SES and the risk of developing T2DM in obese persons. RESULTS: 191 studies were found. The obesity of lower SES individuals is more central than that for individuals from higher socioeconomic position. It is also proposed that the quality of food seems to be lower, with more intake of fat and simple carbohydrates and less of fruits, vegetables and whole wheat bread, in the more disadvantaged social classes. The lower income neighborhoods, without exercise facilities and unsafety are also associated with higher indices of physical inactivity. Cross sectional and prospective studies confirm the relationship between lower socioeconomic status and obesity and diabetes. The lower SES is associated to metabolic implications that are linked to insulin resistance and possibly may also interfere with the ability of beta cell to secrete insulin and change the gut microbiota, increasing even more the future risk of developing diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Epidemias , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Ganho de Peso
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(5): f:401-l:407, set.-out. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-859018

RESUMO

Fundamento: A presença de hipertensão durante a adolescência está correlacionada a mudanças metabólicas, obesidade e sobrepeso. Objetivos: Correlacionar o perfil lipídico e glicêmico de adolescentes hipertensos e não hipertensos com idade, sexo, índice de massa corpórea (IMC), peso e altura. Métodos: Foram selecionados 53 adolescentes hipertensos e 182 adolescentes saudáveis não hipertensos. Os adolescentes foram divididos em três grupos: grupo I (GI; n = 108, 58 do sexo masculino, idade média 15,2 ± 2,2 anos), que incluiu adolescentes saudáveis não hipertensos, filhos de pais saudáveis e sem diagnóstico de dislipidemia, hipertensão ou diabetes; grupo II (GII; n = 53, 28 do sexo masculino, idade média 13,9 ± 1,4 anos), que incluiu adolescentes com hipertensão confirmada; e grupo III (GIII; n = 74, 31 do sexo masculino, idade média 14,9 ± 2,2 anos), que incluiu adolescentes saudáveis não hipertensos, cujos pais possuíam diagnóstico de dislipidemia, hipertensão ou diabetes. Resultados: Sexo e peso não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os grupos. Os sujeitos no GII eram em geral mais jovem (ao redor de 1 ano), mais baixos e com IMC mais alto em comparação aos do GI e GIII. Após ajustes para idade e IMC, o GII apresentou valores mais altos de glicose e LDL-colesterol e mais baixos de HDL-colesterol em relação ao GI e GIII. Os valores de colesterol total e triglicerídeos não diferiram entre os grupos. O GI e GIII não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação às variáveis estudadas. Conclusão: Adolescentes hipertensos apresentaram valores mais elevados de IMC e de glicose e LDL-colesterol séricos, além de níveis mais reduzidos de HDL-colesterol. Esses achados revelam que as mudanças no metabolismo glicídico e no perfil lipídico que ocorrem durante a adolescência podem ser influenciadas pela presença de hipertensão durante esta fase do desenvolvimento


Background: The occurrence of hypertension during adolescence correlates with metabolic changes, obesity, and overweight. Objective: To correlate the lipid and glucose profiles of hypertensive and nonhypertensive adolescents with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), weight, and height. Methods: We selected 53 hypertensive adolescents and 182 healthy, nonhypertensive adolescents. The adolescents were divided into three groups: group I (GI; n = 108, 58 males, mean age 15.2 ± 2.2 years), consisted of healthy, nonhypertensive adolescents of healthy parents without a diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes; group II (GII, n = 53, 28 males, mean age 13.9 ± 1.4 years), consisted of adolescents with confirmed hypertension; and group III (GIII; n = 74, 31 males, mean age 14.9 ± 2.2 years), consisted of healthy, nonhypertensive adolescents of parents with a diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes. Results: Gender and weight did not differ significantly among the groups. The subjects in GII were overall younger (around 1 year), shorter, and had a higher BMI compared with those in GI and GIII. After adjustment for age and BMI, GII presented higher glucose and LDL-C levels and lower HDL-C levels compared with GI and GIII. Total cholesterol and triglycerides levels showed no differences between groups. GI and GIII had no significant differences with regard to the analyzed variables. Conclusion: Hypertensive adolescents showed higher values of BMI, and serum glucose and LDL-C levels, and lower serum HDL-C levels. These findings reveal that the changes in lipid profile and glucose metabolism that occur during adolescence may be influenced by the occurrence of hypertension during this developmental phase


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adolescente , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Hipertensão , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Pressão Arterial , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Estatística
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 127: 275-284, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412543

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of major clinical events and its determinants in patients with previous cardiovascular event or not, and with or without diabetes from a middle-income country. METHODS: REACT study is a multicenter registry conducted between July 2010 and May 2013 in Brazil. Patients were eligible if they were over 45years old and high cardiovascular risk. Patients were followed for 12months; data were collected regarding adherence to evidence-based therapies and occurrence of clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or stroke). RESULTS: A total of 5006 subjects was included and analyzed in four groups: No diabetes and no previous cardiovascular event, n=430; diabetes and no previous cardiovascular event, n=1138; no diabetes and previous cardiovascular event, n=1747; and diabetes and previous cardiovascular event, n=1691. Major clinical events in one-year follow-up occurred in 332 patients. A previous cardiovascular event was associated with a higher risk of having another event in the follow-up (HR 2.31 95% CI 1.74-3.05, p<0.001), as did the presence of diabetes (HR 1.28 95% CI 1.10-1.73, p=0.005). In patients with diabetes,failure to reach HbA1c targetswas related topoorer event-free survival compared to patients with good metabolic control (HR 1.70 95% CI 1.01-2.84, p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, diabetes confers high risk for major clinical events, but this condition is not equivalent to having a previous cardiovascular event. Moreover, not so strict targets for HbA1c in patients with diabetes and previous cardiovascular events might be considered.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
6.
Am Heart J ; 184: 88-96, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892891

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence suggests that statins may prevent major perioperative vascular complications. METHODS: We randomized 648 statin-naïve patients who were scheduled for noncardiac surgery and were at risk for a major vascular complication. Patients were randomized to a loading dose of atorvastatin or placebo (80 mg anytime within 18hours before surgery), followed by a maintenance dose of 40 mg (or placebo), started at least 12hours after the surgery, and then 40 mg/d (or placebo) for 7days. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, and stroke at 30days. RESULTS: The primary outcome was observed in 54 (16.6%) of 326 patients in the atorvastatin group and 59 (18.7%) of 316 patients in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.60-1.26, P=.46). No significant effect was observed on the 30-day secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (4.3% vs 4.1%, respectively; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.53-2.47, P=.74), nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.4% vs 4.4%, respectively; HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.35-1.68, P=.50), myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (13.2% vs 16.5%; HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.19, P=.26), and stroke (0.9% vs 0%, P=.25). CONCLUSION: In contrast to the prior observational and trial data, the LOAD trial has neutral results and did not demonstrate a reduction in major cardiovascular complications after a short-term perioperative course of statin in statin-naïve patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. We demonstrated, however, that a large multicenter blinded perioperative statin trial for high-risk statin-naïve patients is feasible and should be done to definitely establish the efficacy and safety of statin in this patient population.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Troponina/sangue
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 127: 275-284, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37395

RESUMO

AIMS:The aim of this study was to determine the rate of major clinical events and its determinants in patients with previous cardiovascular event or not, and with or without diabetes from a middle-income country.METHODS:REACT study is a multicenter registry conducted between July 2010 and May 2013 in Brazil. Patients were eligible if they were over 45years old and high cardiovascular risk. Patients were followed for 12months; data were collected regarding adherence to evidence-based therapies and occurrence of clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or stroke). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia
8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 105(2 Suppl 1): 1-105, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26375058
9.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 77(3): 168-72, 2014 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25295904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHOD: Twenty-one New Zealand male albino rabbits were divided into two groups: NG and HG. The NG group was fed a standard rabbit diet and the HG group was fed a cholesterol-enriched diet (1%). The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels were determined at the beginning of the experiment and on the day of euthanasia. Euthanasia of animals in the NG and HG groups was performed at the end of the 4th and 8th week, respectively. The eyes were analyzed immunohistochemically using TNF-α and IL-6 antibodies. RESULTS: At the time of euthanasia, the HG group showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with the NG group (p<0.001). When compared with the NG group, there was a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.002) in the choroid and sclera of animals in the HG group. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the hypercholesterolemic diet induces expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the choroid and sclera of rabbits.


Assuntos
Corioide/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Esclera/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta , Corioide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-6/análise , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Masculino , Coelhos , Valores de Referência , Esclera/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Br J Nutr ; 112(9): 1438-46, 2014 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25247699

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of flaxseed on choroid-sclera complex thickness and on LDL oxidation in the sclera, choroid and retina of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. New Zealand male albino rabbits (n 21) were divided into two groups: group 1 (G1; n 11), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet, and group 2 (G2; n 10), fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet enriched with flaxseed flour. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and fasting blood glucose were determined at the start of the experiment and on the day of killing (8th week). Choroid and sclera samples were subjected to haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses with the anti-oxidised LDL antibody. Sensory retina samples were subjected to an immunohistochemical analysis with the primary monoclonal nitrotyrosine antibody. At the end of the experiment, a significant increase was observed in TC and LDL-C concentrations in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·008 and P= 0·02, respectively). HE staining revealed a significant increase in choroid-sclera complex thickness in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of choroid and sclera samples with the anti-oxidised LDL marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P< 0·001). Immunohistochemical analysis of sensory retina samples with the anti-nitrotyrosine marker revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in G1 rabbits when compared with G2 rabbits (P= 0·002). Flaxseed reduced the choroid-sclera complex thickness of diet-induced hypercholesterolaemic rabbits and the expression of oxidised LDL in the choroid-sclera complex as well as the expression of nitrotyrosine in the sensory retina.


Assuntos
Corioide/patologia , Linho , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Retina/química , Esclera/patologia , Animais , Corioide/química , Dieta , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Coelhos , Esclera/química , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/análise
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 73(4): 210-215, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-730583

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a expressão da molécula de adesão intercelular-1 (ICAM-1) na esclera e coroide de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Métodos: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN (grupo dieta normal), composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos), recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; GH (grupo hipercolesterolêmico), composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos), recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 4ª semana para o GN e 8ª semana para o GH foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais. Os olhos foram corados com hematoxilina-eosina e submetidos à análise histológica, histomorfométrica e imunohistoquímica com o anticorpo ICAM-1. Resultados: Observou-se significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). A avaliação histológica com hematoxilina eosina revelou grande quantidade de macrófagos no complexo esclero-coroidal do GH. No GH constatou-se significativo aumento da espessura da esclera e coroide em relação ao GN (p<0,001). Houve significativo aumento da expressão da ICAM-1 na esclera e coroide dos animais do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica induz ao aumento da expressão da ICAM-1 na esclera e coroide de coelhos. .


Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits Methods: New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups: the normal diet group (NG), with 8 rabbits (8 eyes), was fed a standard rabbit diet for 4 weeks; the hypercholesterolemic group (HG), with 13 rabbits (13 eyes), was fed a 1% cholesterol- enriched diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose exams were performed at the start of the experiment and at the euthanasia time. HG and NG animals were euthanized after 8th week and 4th week, respectively. Their eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and underwent histological, histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses with ICAM-1 antibody. Results: The diet has induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HG when compared with NG (p<0.001). The histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin revealed a large number of macrophages in the HG sclera-choroid complex. Moreover, a significant increase in the HG sclera and choroid thickness was observed in relation to NG (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in the ICAM-1 expression in HG sclera and choroid in relation to NG Conclusion: This study has revealed that the hypercholesterolemic diet induces an increase in the ICAM-1 expression in the rabbits’ sclera and choroid. .

12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(6): 566-70, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25004418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The radial access provides a lower risk of bleeding and vascular complications related to the puncture site in comparison to the femoral access. Recent studies have suggested a reduction in mortality associated with the radial access in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. OBJECTIVE: To compare the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients undergoing primary angioplasty according to the type of arterial access route. METHODS: From August 2010 to December 2011, 588 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were assessed; they were recruited from 47 centers participating in the ACCEPT registry. Patients were grouped and compared according to the arterial access used for the procedure. RESULTS: The mean age was 61.8 years; 75% were males and 24% had diabetes mellitus. There was no difference between groups as regards the procedure success rate, as well as regards the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or stroke at six months of follow-up. Severe bleeding was reported in 1.1% of the sample analyzed, with no statistical difference related to the access used. CONCLUSIONS: The femoral and radial accesses are equally safe and effective for the performance of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The low rate of cardiovascular events and of hemorrhagic complications reflects the quality of the participating centers and the operators expertise with the use of both techniques.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 168-172, May-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723830

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Method: Twenty-one New Zealand male albino rabbits were divided into two groups: NG and HG. The NG group was fed a standard rabbit diet and the HG group was fed a cholesterol-enriched diet (1%). The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels were determined at the beginning of the experiment and on the day of euthanasia. Euthanasia of animals in the NG and HG groups was performed at the end of the 4th and 8th week, respectively. The eyes were analyzed immunohistochemically using TNF-α and IL-6 antibodies. Results: At the time of euthanasia, the HG group showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride when compared with the NG group (p<0.001). When compared with the NG group, there was a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.002) in the choroid and sclera of animals in the HG group. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the hypercholesterolemic diet induces expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the choroid and sclera of rabbits. .


Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão das citocinas inflamatórias TNF-α e IL-6 na esclera e coroide de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Método: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN recebeu ração padrão para coelhos; GH recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1%. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 4ª semana para o GN e 8ª semana para o GH foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais. Os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos TNF-α e IL-6. Resultados: O GH manifestou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos em relação ao GN (p<0,001). Houve significativo aumento da expressão da TNF-α (p<0,001) e da IL-6 (p=0,002) na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica induz ao aumento da expressão das citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 na coroide e esclera de coelhos. .


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Corioide/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Esclera/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta , Corioide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , /análise , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Valores de Referência , Esclera/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(6): 566-570, 06/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-712915

RESUMO

Background: The radial access provides a lower risk of bleeding and vascular complications related to the puncture site in comparison to the femoral access. Recent studies have suggested a reduction in mortality associated with the radial access in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Objective: To compare the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients undergoing primary angioplasty according to the type of arterial access route. Methods: From August 2010 to December 2011, 588 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were assessed; they were recruited from 47 centers participating in the ACCEPT registry. Patients were grouped and compared according to the arterial access used for the procedure. Results: The mean age was 61.8 years; 75% were males and 24% had diabetes mellitus. There was no difference between groups as regards the procedure success rate, as well as regards the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or stroke at six months of follow-up. Severe bleeding was reported in 1.1% of the sample analyzed, with no statistical difference related to the access used. Conclusions: The femoral and radial accesses are equally safe and effective for the performance of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The low rate of cardiovascular events and of hemorrhagic complications reflects the quality of the participating centers and the operators expertise with the use of both techniques. .


Fundamentos: O acesso radial promove menor risco de sangramento e complicações vasculares relacionadas ao sítio de punção quando comparado ao acesso femoral. Estudos recentes sugerem redução de mortalidade favorável ao primeiro em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea. Objetivo: Comparar a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares adversos isquêmicos e hemorrágicos em pacientes submetidos à angioplastia primária conforme a via de acesso arterial. Métodos: No período de agosto de 2010 a dezembro de 2011, foram avaliados 588 pacientes que realizaram intervenção coronária percutânea primária na vigência de um infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento de ST, incluídos em 47 centros participantes do registro ACCEPT. Os pacientes foram agrupados e comparados de acordo com a via de acesso arterial utilizada para a efetivação do procedimento. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 61,8 anos, sendo 75% pertencentes ao sexo masculino e 24% portadores de diabetes melito. Não houve diferença entre os grupos na taxa de sucesso do procedimento, bem como na ocorrência de óbito, reinfarto ou acidente vascular encefálico aos seis meses de seguimento. Sangramento grave foi relatado em 1,1% da amostra analisada, sem diferença estatística conforme a via de acesso utilizada. Conclusões: As vias de acesso femoral e radial são igualmente seguras e eficazes para a realização de intervenção coronária percutânea primária. A baixa taxa de eventos cardiovasculares, bem como de complicações hemorrágicas, reflete a qualidade dos centros participantes e a experiência dos operadores com a utilização de ambas as técnicas. .


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Femoral/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 69(2): 145-9, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. RESULTS: Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera and choroid morphometry showed a significant increase in thickness in comparison to GI and GIII. GIII presented a significant increase in thickness in relation to GI. Sclera and choroid immunohistochemical analysis for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in GII in relation to GI and GIII. GIII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in relation to GI. CONCLUSION: Candesartan reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and consequently macrophage accumulation in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Corioide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Esclera/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Coelhos , Valores de Referência , Esclera/anatomia & histologia
18.
Clinics ; 69(2): 145-149, 2/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-701377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor by the systemic administration of candesartan on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups, as follows: GI, which was fed a rabbit standard diet; GII, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and GIII, which received hypercholesterolemic diet plus candesartan. Samples of the rabbits' sclera and choroid were then studied by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. RESULTS: Histological analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sclera and choroid revealed that macrophages were rarely present in GI, and GII had significantly increased macrophage numbers compared to GIII. Moreover, in GII, the sclera and choroid morphometry showed a significant increase in thickness in comparison to GI and GIII. GIII presented a significant increase in thickness in relation to GI. Sclera and choroid immunohistochemical analysis for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression revealed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in GII in relation to GI and GIII. GIII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity in relation to GI. CONCLUSION: Candesartan reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and consequently macrophage accumulation in the sclera and choroid of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. .


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Corioide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Esclera/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Macular/fisiopatologia , Valores de Referência , Esclera/anatomia & histologia
19.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 76(1): 1-5, 2013 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23812517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the choroid and sclera using hypercholesterolemia experimental model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups: 8 rabbits (8 eyes), in the normal diet group (NG), were fed by a standard diet for 4 weeks; and 13 rabbits (13 eyes), in the hypercholesterolemic group (HG), were fed by a 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose exams were performed at the initiation of the experiment and at the euthanasia time. After hypercholesterolemic group 8th week and NG 4th week, animals were euthanized and their eyes underwent immunohistochemical analysis with the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1). RESULTS: The diet has induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HG when compared with NG (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1 expressions in hypercholesterolemic group choroid and sclera in relation to NG (p<0,001). CONCLUSION: This study has revealed that the hypercholesterolemic diet in rabbits induces an increase in the macrophage concentration and immunoreactivity to VEGFR-1 in the choroid and sclera, resembling human age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Corioide/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Esclera/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Corioide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Masculino , Coelhos , Esclera/patologia
20.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 29(8): 709-14, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23683100

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Demonstrate that the blockade of angiotensin II AT-1 receptors, through the systemic administration of olmesartan, can reduce the MCP-1 expression and the resulting macrophage accumulation in the choroid and sclera of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups: group I (GI) was fed a standard rabbit diet; group II (GII) was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet; and group III (GIII) was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet plus olmesartan. Serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and blood glucose were determined in fasting rabbits at the beginning of the experiment and on the day of euthanasia. The choroid and sclera were submitted to morphometric analysis as well as immunohistochemical analysis with MCP-1 and RAM-11 (macrophage marker) antibodies. RESULTS: No abnormality was detected in GI. Group II and III had significant increases in choroid-sclera complex thicknesses when compared with group I (P<0.001). GII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity for MCP-1 in relation to GI (P=0.001) and GIII (P=0.004). GII showed a significant increase in immunoreactivity for RAM-11 of the choroid-sclera complex in relation to GI (P<0.001) and GIII (P=0.034). A significant increase in immunoreactivity for RAM-11 was observed in GIII in relation to GI (P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Olmesartan reduced the MCP-1 expression and the resultant macrophage accumulation in the choroid-sclera complex of hypercholesterolemic rabbits.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/efeitos dos fármacos , Corioide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Esclera/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Corioide/imunologia , Corioide/metabolismo , Corioide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipercolesterolemia/imunologia , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Macrófagos/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Degeneração Macular/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Coelhos , Esclera/imunologia , Esclera/metabolismo , Esclera/patologia , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem
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