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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653007

RESUMO

Diet has been associated with the risk of depression, whereas different subtypes of depression have been linked with different cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). In this study, our aims were to 1) identify dietary patterns with exploratory factor analysis, 2) assess cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and depression subtypes, and 3) examine the potentially mediating effect of dietary patterns in the associations between CVRFs and depression subtypes. In the first follow-up of the population-based CoLaus|PsyCoLaus study (2009-2013, 3554 participants, 45.6% men, mean age 57.5 years), a food frequency questionnaire assessed dietary intake and a semi-structured interview allowed to characterize major depressive disorder into current or remitted atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Mediterranean, and Sweet-Dairy. Western diet was positively associated with current atypical depression, but negatively associated with current and remitted melancholic depression. Sweet-Dairy was positively associated with current melancholic depression. However, these dietary patterns did not mediate the associations between CVRFs and depression subtypes. Hence, although we could show that people with different subtypes of depression make different choices regarding their diet, it is unlikely that these differential dietary choices account for the well-established associations between depression subtypes and CVRFs.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 136: 71-79, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dynamic trajectories of psychopathology, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provide a key to understanding human adjustment processes after trauma exposure. Recent studies have suggested more heterogeneous mental health outcomes than the initially identified four adjustment trajectories. To explore this heterogeneity, we investigated the after-trauma adjustment patterns of psychopathology based on retrospective lifetime data. This was first carried out on the PTSD symptoms (PTSS, including no symptoms, few symptoms, partial and full PTSD), and secondly together with their post-trauma comorbidities. METHODS: Data of trauma and the post-trauma mental disorders were collected for a large and randomly selected community sample, resulting in a N = 960 trauma-exposed subsample. Pattern recognition as carried out by latent class analysis (LCA) was implemented on this subsample. LCA was first exploited to identify the potential trajectory patterns of PTSS and next to explore the patterns of mental adjustments when additional post-trauma comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, mood and substance use disorders, were assessed. RESULTS: Four PTSS trajectory patterns were found, namely resilient, chronic, recovered, and delayed onset, consistent with findings from longitudinal PTSD studies. When post-trauma comorbidities were evaluated, other than the trajectory pattern of delayed onset which retained a low comorbidity profile, the other three split respectively and paired up with either low, moderate or high comorbidity profile. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health outcomes after trauma exposure were considerably more complex than the four previously established adjustment trajectories. Here, we uncovered additional and more heterogeneous adjustment patterns comprised of PTSS trajectories and post-trauma comorbidity profiles.

3.
J Pain ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640462

RESUMO

Chronic pain (CP) and cognitive impairment are common in older adults. CP was found to be associated with cognitive impairment in many cross-sectional studies. However, their cross-sectional design precluded inference on temporality. Accordingly, we aimed to prospectively assess the association between cognitive functioning and the occurrence of CP in older community dwellers. Analyses were based on data of the first (FU1) and the second follow-up (FU2) of CoLaus|PsyCoLaus, a prospective cohort study conducted in the general population of Lausanne (Switzerland) including the participants aged 65 and over. Neuropsychological functioning including memory, language, attention and executive function was measured at FU1. CP was assessed at FU1 and FU2 by self-rating questionnaire. The association between cognitive scores and subsequent CP was determined using multiple logistic regressions. Among the 337 participants without CP at FU1, 107 (31.8%) developed CP at FU2. A significant association was observed between higher Stroop color-time and interference index at FU1 and a higher risk of CP at FU2 (OR=1.02;p=0.03 and OR=1.49;p=0.03, respectively). Our results suggest that patients with inhibitory deficit may be at higher risk of developing CP in the presence of painful events. A cognitive assessment could be recommended to identify frail patients in these situations. Perspective: This study suggests that presence of inhibitory deficits is associated with a higher risk of developing subsequent CP in older adults. In the presence of painful events, a cognitive assessment should be recommended to identify frail patients and to manage them carefully.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 96, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542229

RESUMO

Studies considering the causal role of body mass index (BMI) for the predisposition of major depressive disorder (MDD) based on a Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach have shown contradictory results. These inconsistent findings may be attributable to the heterogeneity of MDD; in fact, several studies have documented associations between BMI and mainly the atypical subtype of MDD. Using a MR approach, we investigated the potential causal role of obesity in both the atypical subtype and its five specific symptoms assessed according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), in two large European cohorts, CoLaus|PsyCoLaus (n = 3350, 1461 cases and 1889 controls) and NESDA|NTR (n = 4139, 1182 cases and 2957 controls). We first tested general obesity measured by BMI and then the body fat distribution measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results suggested that BMI is potentially causally related to the symptom increase in appetite, for which inverse variance weighted, simple median and weighted median MR regression estimated slopes were 0.68 (SE = 0.23, p = 0.004), 0.77 (SE = 0.37, p = 0.036), and 1.11 (SE = 0.39, p = 0.004). No causal effect of BMI or WHR was found on the risk of the atypical subtype or for any of the other atypical symptoms. Our findings show that higher obesity is likely causal for the specific symptom of increase in appetite in depressed participants and reiterate the need to study depression at the granular level of its symptoms to further elucidate potential causal relationships and gain additional insight into its biological underpinnings.

5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(720-1): 85-89, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443837

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has a major impact on psychiatry by its social consequences and possible direct effect of certain forms of Covid-19 on mental health. During this crisis, the accessibility of technology meets a state of necessity, which has propelled telepsychiatry from the shadows into the light. The contribution of several technologies (i.e. virtual reality, actigraphy, computational psychiatry) combining clinical data and neuroscience underlines the great neurobehavioural variability even within the same diagnostic category, calling for greater precision in therapeutic offers as suggested e.g. by developments in neurofeedback. The place of intranasal esketamin in the panoply of antidepressent drug treatments for resistant depression has not yet been defined.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria/tendências , Telemedicina , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Neurorretroalimentação , Pandemias
6.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117735, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454401

RESUMO

AIM: There is ongoing debate about the role of cortical and subcortical brain areas in force modulation. In a whole-brain approach, we sought to investigate the anatomical basis of grip force whilst acknowledging interindividual differences in connectivity patterns. We tested if brain lesion mapping in patients with unilateral motor deficits can inform whole-brain structural connectivity analysis in healthy controls to uncover the networks underlying grip force. METHODS: Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry in chronic stroke patients (n=55) and healthy controls (n=67), we identified the brain regions in both grey and white matter significantly associated with grip force strength. The resulting statistical parametric maps (SPMs) provided seed areas for whole-brain structural covariance analysis in a large-scale community dwelling cohort (n=977) that included beyond volume estimates, parameter maps sensitive to myelin, iron and tissue water content. RESULTS: The SPMs showed symmetrical bilateral clusters of correlation between upper limb motor performance, basal ganglia, posterior insula and cortico-spinal tract. The covariance analysis with the seed areas derived from the SPMs demonstrated a widespread anatomical pattern of brain volume and tissue properties, including both cortical, subcortical nodes of motor networks and sensorimotor areas projections. CONCLUSION: We interpret our covariance findings as a biological signature of brain networks implicated in grip force. The data-driven definition of seed areas obtained from chronic stroke patients showed overlapping structural covariance patterns within cortico-subcortical motor networks across different tissue property estimates. This cumulative evidence lends face validity of our findings and their biological plausibility.

7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 90: 303-310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the inflammatory reaction, an adaptive response triggered by a variety of harmful stimuli and conditions involved in the risk and development of many chronic diseases, is a potential pathway through which the socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Difficulty in interpreting the role of the inflammatory system in the embodiment dynamic arises because of heterogeneity across studies that use a limited but varied number of inflammatory markers. There is no consensus in the literature as to which inflammatory markers beyond the C-reactive protein and to a lesser extent interleukin 6 are related to the social environment. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the association between educational attainment, and several markers of inflammation - C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6, interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α- in 6 European cohort studies. METHODS: Up to 17,470 participants from six European cohort studies with data on educational attainment, health behaviors and lifestyle factors, and at least two different inflammatory markers. Four sub-datasets were drawn with varying numbers of participants to allow pairwise comparison of the social patterning of C-reactive protein and any other inflammatory markers. To evaluate within each sub-dataset the importance of the context and cohort specificities, linear regression-based analyses were performed separately for each cohort and combined in a random effect meta-analysis to determine the relationship between educational attainment and inflammation. RESULTS: We found that the magnitude of the relationship between educational attainment and five inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 and 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α) was variable. By far the most socially patterned biomarker was C-reactive protein, followed by fibrinogen and to lesser extent interleukin 6, where a low educational attainment was associated with higher inflammation even after adjusting for health behaviours and body mass index. No association was found with interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests different educational patterning of inflammatory biomarkers. Further large-scale research is needed to explore social differences in the inflammatory cascade in greater detail and the extent to which these differences contribute to social inequalities in health.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is still limited evidence from prospective high-risk research on the evolution of specific disorders that may emerge early in the development of mood disorders. Moreover, few studies have examined the specificity of mood disorder subtypes among offspring of parents with both major subtypes of mood disorders and controls based on prospective tracking across the transition from childhood to adulthood. Our specific objectives were to (a) identify differences in patterns of psychopathological precursors among youth with (hypo)mania compared to MDD and (b) examine whether these patterns differ by subtypes of parental mood disorders. METHODS: Our data stem from a prospective cohort study of 449 directly interviewed offspring (51% female, mean age 10.1 years at study intake) of 88 patients with BPD, 71 with MDD, 30 with substance use disorders and 60 medical controls. The mean duration of follow-up was 13.2 years with evaluations conducted every three years. RESULTS: Within the whole cohort of offspring, MDE (Hazard Ratio = 4.44; 95%CI: 2.19-9.02), CD (HR = 3.31;1.55-7.07) and DUD (HR = 2.54; 1.15-5.59) predicted the onset of (hypo)manic episodes, whereas MDD in offspring was predicted by SAD (HR = 1.53; 1.09-2.15), generalized anxiety (HR = 2.56; 1.05-6.24), and panic disorder (HR = 3.13; 1.06-9.23). The early predictors of (hypo)mania in the whole cohort were also significantly associated with the onset of (hypo)mania among the offspring of parents with BPD. CONCLUSIONS: The onset of mood disorders is frequently preceded by identifiable depressive episodes and nonmood disorders. These precursors differed by mood subtype in offspring. High-risk offspring with these precursors should be closely monitored to prevent the further development of MDD or conversion to BPD.

9.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 94: 34-37, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540556

RESUMO

Elevated cortisol levels have been associated with poorer cognitive performance in cross-sectional studies; this may be both a factor contributing to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline and a result of developing brain pathologies. However, it is still unclear (1) whether cortisol measures predict later cognitive decline and (2) whether cortisol changes over the years might be associated with cognitive changes. We analyzed data from CoLaus/PsyCoLaus, a prospective population-based study. Salivary cortisol (4 different measures on 1 day) and neuropsychological assessments were performed at a first visit and a follow-up visit 5 years later in 625 dementia-free participants aged ≥65 years. Salivary cortisol levels at waking and 30 minutes after waking, as well as longitudinal changes in cortisol 30 minutes after waking, cortisol awakening response, and cortisol AM-PM difference were associated with decline in global cognition. After controlling for potential confounders, only longitudinal changes in cortisol 30 minutes after waking remained associated with cognitive decline. These mostly negative findings indicate absent or subtle association between salivary cortisol and cognitive decline.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 270: 114-117, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders have been related to cardiovascular diseases via low-grade inflammation, but longitudinal studies on the association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and inflammatory biomarkers are sparse. Furthermore, no studies have examined the association between GAD and the "cardio-protective" adipocytokine adiponectin in this context so far. METHODS: In a Swiss population-based sample of 2,415 adults participating in baseline and follow-up exams (mean follow-up duration=5.5 years), we diagnosed a total of 55 persons (2.3%) with GAD using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We prospectively examined the relation between GAD and circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and adiponectin), in linear regression models, statistically controlled for the baseline inflammatory marker, socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, health behaviors, and psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared to those without GAD, individuals with GAD had lower IL-6 (ß=-0.249, 95%-CI -0.493-(-0.004), p=0.046), and adiponectin (ß=-0.264, 95%-CI -0.482-(-0.045), p=0.018) levels at follow-up after adjustment for all covariates. Moreover, GAD was unrelated to several other inflammatory measures. CONCLUSION: Individuals with GAD do not seem to exhibit chronic low-grade inflammation, suggesting different underlying biobehavioral mechanisms to those from other anxiety disorders. Low adiponectin levels may be linked to symptoms of GAD through brain areas directly involved in the processing of fear and anxiety.

12.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 437-447, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231276

RESUMO

Minimal phenotyping refers to the reliance on the use of a small number of self-reported items for disease case identification, increasingly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we report differences in genetic architecture between depression defined by minimal phenotyping and strictly defined major depressive disorder (MDD): the former has a lower genotype-derived heritability that cannot be explained by inclusion of milder cases and a higher proportion of the genome contributing to this shared genetic liability with other conditions than for strictly defined MDD. GWAS based on minimal phenotyping definitions preferentially identifies loci that are not specific to MDD, and, although it generates highly predictive polygenic risk scores, the predictive power can be explained entirely by large sample sizes rather than by specificity for MDD. Our results show that reliance on results from minimal phenotyping may bias views of the genetic architecture of MDD and impede the ability to identify pathways specific to MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(3)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients are known to be at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), leading to an increased mortality rate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the CVD risk (presence of metabolic syndrome [MetS] and calculated 10-year CVD risk) in a Swiss psychiatric cohort taking weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, compare the findings to a Swiss population-based cohort, and evaluate the prevalence of participants treated for metabolic disruptions in both cohorts. METHODS: Data for 1,216 psychiatric patients (of whom 634 were aged 35-75 years) were obtained between 2007 and 2017 from a study with metabolic parameters monitored during psychotropic treatment and between 2003 and 2006 for 6,733 participants from the population-based CoLaus|PsyCoLaus study. RESULTS: MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) was identified in 33% of the psychiatric participants and 24.7% of the population-based subjects. Specifically, prevalence per the IDF definition was more than 3 times higher in the psychiatric cohort among women aged 35 to 49 years (25.6% vs 8.0%; P < 10-4). The psychiatric and population-based cohorts, respectively, had comparable predicted CVD risk (10-year risk of CVD event > 20%: 0% vs 0.1% in women and 0.3% vs 1.8% [P = .01] in men; 10-year risk of CVD death > 5%: 8.5% vs 8.4% [P = .58] in women and 13.4% vs 16.6% [P = .42] in men). No difference was observed among the proportion of participants with MetS treated for metabolic disturbances in the two cohorts, with the exception of women aged 35-49 years, for whom those in the psychiatric cohort were half as likely to receive treatment compared to participants in CoLaus|PsyCoLaus (17.8% vs 38.8% per the IDF definition; P = .0004). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the concern that psychiatric patients present an altered metabolic profile and that they do not receive adequate treatment for metabolic disruptions. Presence of metabolic disturbances should be routinely assessed, and adequate follow-up is needed to intervene early after illness onset.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
14.
Ann Neurol ; 87(6): 921-930, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is much controversy about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep-disordered breathing on the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of sleep-related hypoxemia and brain anatomy. METHODS: We used data from a large-scale cohort from the general population (n = 775, 50.6% males, age range = 45-86 years, mean age = 60.3 ± 9.9) that underwent full polysomnography and brain magnetic resonance imaging to correlate respiratory variables with regional brain volume estimates. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors, only mean oxygen saturation during sleep was associated with bilateral volume of hippocampus (right: p = 0.001; left: p < 0.001), thalamus (right: p < 0.001; left: p < 0.001), putamen (right: p = 0.001; left: p = 0.001), and angular gyrus (right: p = 0.011; left: p = 0.001). We observed the same relationship in left hemispheric amygdala (p = 0.010), caudate (p = 0.008), inferior frontal gyrus (p = 0.004), and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.003). The other respiratory variables-lowest oxygen saturation, percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation < 90%, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index-did not show any significant association with brain volumes. INTERPRETATION: Lower mean oxygen saturation during sleep was associated with atrophy of cortical and subcortical brain areas known for high sensitivity to oxygen supply. Their vulnerability to hypoxemia may contribute to behavioral phenotype and cognitive decline in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:921-930.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Respiração , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/sangue
15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 108-118, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035845

RESUMO

Given the worldwide increasing socioeconomic burden of aging-associated brain diseases, there is pressing need to gain in-depth knowledge about the neurobiology of brain anatomy changes across the life span. Advances in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging sensitive to brain's myelin, iron, and free water content allow for a detailed in vivo investigation of aging-related changes while reducing spurious morphometry differences. Main aim of our study is to link previous morphometry findings in aging to microstructural tissue properties in a large-scale cohort (n = 966, age range 46-86 y). Addressing previous controversies in the field, we present results obtained with different approaches to adjust local findings for global effects. Beyond the confirmation of age-related atrophy, myelin, and free water decreases, we report proportionally steeper volume, iron, and myelin decline in sensorimotor and subcortical areas paralleled by free water increase. We demonstrate aging-related white matter volume, myelin, and iron loss in frontostriatal projections. Our findings provide robust evidence for spatial overlap between volume and tissue property differences in aging that affect predominantly motor and executive networks.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Atrofia , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/metabolismo
17.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 9-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910766

RESUMO

PsyCoLaus: A Prospective Study of the Links between Mental Health and Cardiovascular Diseases Abstract. PsyCoLaus, which includes an investigation of mental disorders and cognitive functioning, aims to determine the prevalence and the course of mental disorders in the general population and to study the mechanisms underlying the association between these disorders and cardiovascular diseases. This investigation revealed a very high lifetime prevalence rate of 43.6 % for major depressive disorder in Lausanne. We have also observed that the association between major depression and cardio-metabolic risk factors is essentially attributable to the atypical subtype, characterized by an increased appetite, heaviness in limbs, hypersomnia and conserved affective reactivity. Patients who suffer from this type of depression have an increased risk to develop overweight, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and deserve particular clinical attention on the metabolic level.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Síndrome Metabólica , Comorbidade , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

19.
Drug Dev Res ; 81(1): 102-113, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617956

RESUMO

The severity of symptoms as well as efficacy of antidepressants in major depressive disorder (MDD) is modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different genes, which may contribute in an additive or synergistic fashion. We aimed to investigate depression severity in participants with MDD under treatment with antidepressants in relation to the combinatory effect of selected genetic variants combined using a genetic risk score (GRS). The sample included 150 MDD patients on regular AD therapy from the population-based Swiss PsyCoLaus cohort. We investigated 44 SNPs previously associated with antidepressant response by ranking them with regard to their association to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D) score using random forest. The three top scoring SNPs (rs12248560, rs878567, rs17710780) were subsequently combined into an unweighted GRS, which was included in linear and logistic regression models using the CES-D score, occurrence of a major depressive episode (MDE) during follow-up and regular antidepressant treatment during the 6 months preceding follow-up assessment as outcomes. The GRS was associated with MDE occurrence (p = .02) and ln CES-D score (p = .001). The HTR1A rs878567 variant was associated with ln CES-D after adjustment for demographic and clinical variables [p = .02, lower scores for minor allele (G) carriers]. Additionally, rs12248560 (CYP2C19) CC homozygotes showed a six-fold higher likelihood of regular AD therapy at follow-up compared to minor allele homozygotes [TT; ultrarapid metabolizers (p = .03)]. Our study suggests that the cumulative consideration of pharmacogenetic risk variants more reliably reflects the impact of the genetic background on depression severity than individual SNPs.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cephalalgia ; 40(4): 347-356, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Migraine and major depressive disorder show a high rate of comorbidity, but little is known about the associations between the subtypes of major depressive disorder and migraine. In this cross-sectional study we aimed at investigating a) the lifetime associations between the atypical, melancholic, combined and unspecified subtype of major depressive disorder and migraine with and without aura and b) the associations between major depressive disorder and its subtypes and the severity of migraine. METHODS: A total of 446 subjects with migraine (migraine without aura: n = 294; migraine with aura: n = 152) and 2511 controls from the population-based CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study, Switzerland, were included. Associations between major depressive disorder subtypes and migraine characteristics were tested using binary logistic or linear regression. RESULTS: Melancholic, combined and unspecified major depressive disorder were associated with increased frequency of migraine with aura, whereas only melancholic major depressive disorder was associated with increased frequency of migraine without aura. Lifetime and unspecified major depressive disorder were associated with severe migraine intensity among subjects with migraine with aura but not migraine without aura, while combined major depressive disorder was associated with higher migraine frequency independently from migraine subtype. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that melancholic but not atypical major depressive disorder is associated with migraine and migraine subtypes. Future studies exploring pathophysiological mechanisms shared between melancholic depression and migraine are warranted.

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