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1.
JACC Case Rep ; 4(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036936

RESUMO

A 19-year-old female patient presented with Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis, with suspected subdural brain hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and septic renal as well as spleen infarcts. The patient had extensive vegetations on the mitral and tricuspid valves and underwent urgent mitral and tricuspid repair. This paper discusses the clinical case and current evidence regarding the management and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

2.
Heart ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence and risk factors for infective endocarditis (IE) following surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: All patients who underwent first SAVR or TAVI in England between 2007 and 2016 were identified from the NICOR databases. Hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of IE were identified by linkage with the NHS Hospital Episode Statistics database. Approval was obtained from the NHS Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: 2057 of 91 962 patients undergoing SAVR developed IE over a median follow-up of 53.9 months-an overall incidence of 4.81 [95% CI 4.61 to 5.03] per 1000 person-years. Correspondingly, 140 of 14 195 patients undergoing TAVI developed IE over a median follow-up of 24.5 months-an overall incidence of 3.57 [95% CI 3.00 to 4.21] per 1000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of IE at 60 months was higher after SAVR than after TAVI (2.4% [95% CI 2.3 to 2.5] vs 1.5% [95% CI 1.3 to 1.8], HR 1.60, p<0.001). Across the entire cohort, SAVR remained an independent predictor of IE after multivariable adjustment. Risk factors for IE included younger age, male sex, atrial fibrillation, and dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: IE is a rare complication of SAVR and TAVI. In our population, the incidence of IE was higher after SAVR than after TAVI.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920129

RESUMO

Uni-dimensional Doppler echocardiography data provide the mainstay of quantative assessment of aortic stenosis, with the transvalvular pressure drop a key indicator of haemodynamic burden. Sophisticated methods of obtaining velocity data, combined with improved computational analysis, are facilitating increasingly robust and reproducible measurement. Imaging modalities which permit acquisition of three-dimensional blood velocity vector fields enable angle-independent valve interrogation and calculation of enhanced measures of the transvalvular pressure drop. This manuscript clarifies the fundamental principles of physics that underpin the evaluation of aortic stenosis and explores modern techniques that may provide more accurate means to grade aortic stenosis and inform appropriate management.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(22): 2131-2143, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There were gaps between guidelines and practice when surgery was the only treatment for aortic stenosis (AS). OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the decision to intervene in patients with severe AS in the EORP VHD (EURObservational Research Programme Valvular Heart Disease) II survey. METHODS: Among 2,152 patients with severe AS, 1,271 patients with high-gradient AS who were symptomatic fulfilled a Class I recommendation for intervention according to the 2012 European Society of Cardiology guidelines; the primary end point was the decision for intervention. RESULTS: A decision not to intervene was taken in 262 patients (20.6%). In multivariate analysis, the decision not to intervene was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.34 per 10-year increase; 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.61; P = 0.002), New York Heart Association functional classes I and II versus III (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16 to 2.30; P = 0.005), higher age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (OR: 1.09 per 1-point increase; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.17; P = 0.03), and a lower transaortic mean gradient (OR: 0.81 per 10-mm Hg decrease; 95% CI: 0.71 to 0.92; P < 0.001). During the study period, 346 patients (40.2%, median age 84 years, median EuroSCORE II [European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II] 3.1%) underwent transcatheter intervention and 515 (59.8%, median age 69 years, median EuroSCORE II 1.5%) underwent surgery. A decision not to intervene versus intervention was associated with lower 6-month survival (87.4%; 95% CI: 82.0 to 91.3 vs 94.6%; 95% CI: 92.8 to 95.9; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A decision not to intervene was taken in 1 in 5 patients with severe symptomatic AS despite a Class I recommendation for intervention and the decision was particularly associated with older age and combined comorbidities. Transcatheter intervention was extensively used in octogenarians.

8.
EuroIntervention ; 17(10): 791-808, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796878

RESUMO

Approximately 4% of subjects aged 75 years or more have clinically relevant tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Primary TR results from anatomical abnormality of the tricuspid valve apparatus and is observed in only 8-10% of the patients with tricuspid valve disease. Secondary TR is more common and arises as a result of annular dilation caused by right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction as a consequence of pulmonary hypertension, often caused by left-sided heart disease or atrial fibrillation. Irrespective of its aetiology, TR leads to volume overload and increased wall stress, both of which negatively contribute to detrimental remodelling and worsening TR. This vicious circle translates into impaired survival and increased heart failure symptoms in patients with and without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Interventions to correct TR are underutilised in daily clinical practice owing to increased surgical risk and late patient presentation. The recently introduced transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions aim to address this unmet need. Dedicated expertise and an interdisciplinary Heart Team evaluation are essential to integrate these new techniques successfully and select patients. The present article proposes a standardised approach to evaluate patients with TR who may be candidates for transcatheter interventions. In addition, a state-of-the-art review of the available transcatheter therapies, the main criteria for patient and device selection, and information concerning the remaining uncertainties are provided.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794846

RESUMO

A 19-year-old female patient presented with Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis, with suspected subdural brain hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and septic renal as well as spleen infarcts. The patient had extensive vegetations on the mitral and tricuspid valves and underwent urgent mitral and tricuspid repair. This paper discusses the clinical case and current evidence regarding the management and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

12.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(10): 1332-1335, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471889

RESUMO

We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with heart failure, a degenerating bioprosthetic mitral valve, and severely dilated left atrium, and highlight the role of multimodality imaging in planning transseptal transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve implantation. (Level of Difficulty: Advanced.).

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1965-1974, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with significant coronary artery disease would produce noninferior clinical results when compared with no PCI (control arm). BACKGROUND: PCI in patients undergoing TAVR is not without risk, and there are no randomized data to inform clinical practice. METHODS: Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and significant coronary artery disease with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class ≤2 angina were randomly assigned to receive PCI or no PCI prior to TAVR. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death or rehospitalization at 1 year. Noninferiority testing (prespecified margin of 7.5%) was performed in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: At 17 centers, 235 patients underwent randomization. At 1 year, the primary composite endpoint occurred in 48 (41.5%) of the PCI arm and 47 (44.0%) of the no-PCI arm. The requirement for noninferiority was not met (difference: -2.5%; 1-sided upper 95% confidence limit: 8.5%; 1-sided noninferiority test P = 0.067). On analysis of the as-treated population, the difference was -3.7% (1-sided upper 95% confidence limit: 7.5%; P = 0.050). Mortality was 16 (13.4%) in the PCI arm and 14 (12.1%) in the no-PCI arm. At 1 year, there was no evidence of a difference in the rates of stroke, myocardial infarction, or acute kidney injury, with higher rates of any bleed in the PCI arm (P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Observed rates of death and rehospitalization at 1 year were similar between PCI and no PCI prior to TAVR; however, the noninferiority margin was not met, and PCI resulted in a higher incidence of bleeding. (Assessing the Effects of Stenting in Significant Coronary Artery Disease Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation; ISRCTN75836930).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Canadá , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(10): 1775-1783, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363280

RESUMO

AIMS: We report the 2-year outcomes of the MitrAl ValvE RepaIr Clinical (MAVERIC) trial. Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is associated with poor outcomes for which there remains an unmet clinical need. ARTO is a transcatheter annular reduction device for the treatment of FMR and an emerging alternative for patients at high surgical risk. The MAVERIC trial was designed to evaluate the safety and performance of the ARTO system in FMR and heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: MAVERIC is an international multicentre, prospective, single arm study enrolling patients with FMR grade ≥ 2, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥II symptoms despite maximal medical therapy. Patients were excluded if they had significant structural mitral valve abnormality or life expectancy <1 year. The primary outcome measures were a composite safety outcome and efficacy defined as mitral regurgitation (MR) reduction 30 days post-procedure. Secondary outcome measures included safety, change in MR grade, NYHA class and hospitalization for HF at 2 years. Forty-five patients were enrolled. The composite safety outcome was met (2/45 adverse events at 30 days) and no device-related deaths occurred at 2-year follow-up. A sustained reduction in MR [grade < 2: 21/31 (68%) vs. 31/31(0%); P < 0.0001], left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (90.0 ± 30 vs. 106 ± 26 mL/m2 ; P = 0.004) and anteroposterior diameter (35.5 ± 4.7 vs. 41.4 ± 4.6 mm; P < 0.0001) was seen at 2 years compared to baseline. Progressive symptomatic improvement [NYHA class ≤II: 27/34 (80%) vs. 12/34 (36%); P < 0.0001] and a reduction in HF hospitalizations (19.8% 2 years post vs. 52.3% 2 years prior; P < 0.001) were seen at 2 years compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The ARTO system is a safe and effective treatment for FMR with reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes sustained to 2 years.

18.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(12): 853-864, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172950

RESUMO

Valvular heart disease (VHD) is a major contributor to loss of physical function, quality of life and longevity. The epidemiology of VHD varies substantially around the world, with a predominance of functional and degenerative disease in high-income countries, and a predominance of rheumatic heart disease in low-income and middle-income countries. Reflecting this distribution, rheumatic heart disease remains by far the most common manifestation of VHD worldwide and affects approximately 41 million people. By contrast, the prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis and degenerative mitral valve disease is 9 and 24 million people, respectively. Despite a reduction in global mortality related to rheumatic heart disease since 1900, the death rate has remained fairly static since 2000. Meanwhile, deaths from calcific aortic stenosis have continued to rise in the past 20 years. Epidemiological data on other important acquired and congenital forms of VHD are limited. An ageing population and advances in therapies make an examination of the changing global epidemiology of VHD crucial for advances in clinical practice and formulation of health policy. In this Review, we discuss the global burden of VHD, geographical variation in the presentation and clinical management, and temporal trends in disease burden.

19.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127530

RESUMO

AIMS: Durability of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is key to its expansion. We sought to identify incidence of valve thrombosis and predictors of valve thrombosis in our single centre with associated coagulation testing pre-TAVI and post-TAVI. METHODS AND RESULTS: This single-centre observational study comprised patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI discussed in the Heart Team meeting . Patients were followed up with echocardiography at 120 days to identify incidence of elevated transvalvular gradient and multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with an increased odds of developing valve thrombosis. In addition, 11 patients underwent baseline, day 1 and day 120 post-TAVI coagulation testing. Between August 2017 and August 2019, 437 consecutive patients underwent transfemoral TAVI. Of these patients, 207/437 (47.4%) had 3-month follow-up echo data available and were analysed. Of these patients, 26/207 (12.6%) had elevated transvalvular gradients. These patients tended to be younger (80±14 vs 83±6 years; p=0.047) with a lower ejection fraction (49±13 vs 54%±11%; p=0.021), with a greater proportion of the population experiencing atrial fibrillation (14/21, 54% vs 68/181, 38%; p=0.067). Following multivariable analysis, there remained a trend towards higher eccentricity index associated with elevated gradients. Baseline (pre-TAVI) elevation of thrombin antithrombin levels (56±63; reference range 1.0-4.1 ng/L) and PF 1+2 (791±632; reference range 69-229 ng/mL) normalised at 120 days post-TAVI CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that in the cohort of patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI in our centre: younger age, poor ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation and increased baseline eccentricity of the aortic valve annulus were present to a greater extent in patients exhibiting elevated transvalvular gradients at 3-month follow-up. Further work is required to delineate the extent of coagulation derangement and confirm predictors of thrombosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/sangue , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Trombose/sangue , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/sangue , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/complicações , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Heart ; 107(16): 1336-1343, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Valvular heart disease (VHD) is present in half the population aged >65 years but is usually mild and of uncertain importance. We investigated the association between VHD and its phenotypes with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The OxVALVE (Oxford Valvular Heart Disease) population cohort study screened 4009 participants aged >65 years to establish the presence and severity of VHD. We linked data to a national mortality registry and undertook detailed outcome analysis. RESULTS: Mortality data were available for 3511 participants, of whom 361 (10.3%) died (median 6.49 years follow-up). Most had some form of valve abnormality (n=2645, 70.2%). In adjusted analyses, neither mild VHD (prevalence 44.9%) nor clinically significant VHD (moderate or severe stenosis or regurgitation; 5.2%) was associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.51 and HR 1.47, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.31, respectively). Conversely, advanced aortic sclerosis (prevalence 2.25%) and advanced mitral annular calcification (MAC, 1.31%) were associated with an increased risk of death (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.30 and HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.41 to 4.49, respectively). Mortality was highest for people with both clinically significant VHD and advanced aortic sclerosis or MAC (HR 4.38, 95% CI 1.99 to 9.67). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced aortic sclerosis or MAC is associated with a worse outcome, particularly for patients with significant VHD, but also in the absence of other VHD. Older patients with mild VHD can be reassured about their prognosis. The absence of an association between significant VHD and mortality may reflect its relatively low prevalence in our cohort.

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