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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 151-178, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754817

RESUMO

This protocol focuses on the quantitative description of the angioarchitecture of experimental tumor xenografts. This semiautomatic analysis is carried out on functional vessels and microvessels acquired by confocal imaging and processed into progressively reconstructed angioarchitectures following a caliber-classification step. The protocol can be applied also to the quantification of pathological angioarchitectures other than tumor grafts as well as to the microvasculature of physiological tissue samples.

2.
Cancer Lett ; 496: 84-92, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035615

RESUMO

In cancer genomics, recurrence of mutations in gene families that share homologous domains has recently emerged as a reliable indicator of functional impact and can be exploited to reveal the pro-oncogenic effect of previously uncharacterized variants. Pan-cancer analyses of mutation hotspots in the catalytic domain of a subset of tyrosine kinase receptors revealed that two infrequent mutations of VEGFR2 (R1051Q and D1052N) recur in analogous proteins and correlate with reduced patient survival. Functional validation showed that both R1051Q and D1052N mutations increase the enzymatic activity of VEGFR2. The expression of VEGFR2R1051Q potentiates the PI3K/Akt signaling axis in cancer cells, increasing their tumorigenic potential in vitro and in vivo. In addition, it confers to cancer cells an increased sensitivity to the VEGFR2-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor Linifanib. In the context of an efficacious application of anti-cancer targeted therapies, these findings indicate that the screening for uncharacterized mutations, like VEGFR2R1051Q, may help to predict patient prognosis and drug response, with significant clinical implications.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998995

RESUMO

Disturbance of sphingolipid metabolism may represent a novel therapeutic target in metastatic melanoma, the most lethal form of skin cancer. Beta-galactosylceramidase (GALC) removes beta-galactose from galactosylceramide and other sphingolipids. In this study, we show that downregulation of galcb, a zebrafish orthologue of human GALC, affects melanoblast and melanocyte differentiation in zebrafish embryos, suggesting a possible role for GALC in melanoma. On this basis, the impact of GALC expression in murine B16-F10 and human A2058 melanoma cells was investigated following its silencing or upregulation. Galc knockdown hampered growth, motility, and invasive capacity of B16-F10 cells and their tumorigenic and metastatic activity when grafted in syngeneic mice or zebrafish embryos. Galc-silenced cells displayed altered sphingolipid metabolism and increased intracellular levels of ceramide, paralleled by a non-redundant upregulation of Smpd3, which encodes for the ceramide-generating enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase 2. Accordingly, GALC downregulation caused SMPD3 upregulation, increased ceramide levels, and inhibited the tumorigenic activity of human melanoma A2058 cells, whereas GALC upregulation exerted opposite effects. In concordance with information from melanoma database mining, RNAscope analysis demonstrated a progressive increase of GALC expression from common nevi to stage IV human melanoma samples that was paralleled by increases in microphtalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase immunoreactivity inversely related to SMPD3 and ceramide levels. Overall, these findings indicate that GALC may play an oncogenic role in melanoma by modulating the levels of intracellular ceramide, thus providing novel opportunities for melanoma therapy.

4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(12): 165938, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827649

RESUMO

Idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs) are fibrocellular membranes containing extracellular matrix proteins and epiretinal cells of retinal and extraretinal origin. iERMs lead to decreased visual acuity and their pathogenesis has not been completely defined. Aim of this study was to provide a molecular characterization of iERMs by gene expression analysis. To this purpose, 56 iERMs obtained by pars plana vitrectomy were analyzed for the expression levels of genes encoding biomarkers of the cellular and molecular events occurring in iERMs. RT-qPCR analysis showed significant differences in the levels of cell population, extracellular matrix and cytokine/growth factor biomarkers among the iERMs investigated. Hierarchical clustering of RT-qPCR data identified two distinct iERM clusters, Cluster B samples representing transcriptionally "activated" iERMs when compared to transcriptionally "quiescent" Cluster A specimens. Further, Cluster B could be subdivided in two subgroups, Cluster B1 iERMs, characterized by a marked glial cell activation, and Cluster B2 samples characterized by a more pro-fibrotic phenotype. Preoperative decimal best-corrected visual acuity and post-surgery inner segment/outer grading values were higher in Cluster A patients, that showed a prevalence of fovea-attached type iERMs with near-normal inner retina, than in Cluster B patients, that presented more severe clinical and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features. In conclusion, this molecular characterization has identified two major clusters of iERM specimens with distinct transcriptional activities that reflect different clinical and SD-OCT features of iERM patients. This retrospective work paves the way to prospective whole-genome transcriptomic studies to allow a molecular classification of iERMs and for the identification of molecular signature(s) of prognostic and therapeutic significance.

5.
Physiol Rev ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730114

RESUMO

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of proteins possessing paracrine, autocrine or endocrine functions in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, angiogenesis, tissue homeostasis, wound repair, and cancer. Canonical FGFs bind and activate tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs), triggering intracellular signaling cascades that mediate their biological activity. Experimental evidence indicates that FGFs play a complex role in the physiopathology of the prostate gland that ranges from essential functions during embryonic development to modulation of neoplastic transformation. The use of ligand- and receptor-deleted mouse models has highlighted the requirement for FGF signaling in the normal development of the prostate gland. In adult prostate, the maintenance of a functional FGF/FGFR signaling axis is critical for organ homeostasis and function, as its disruption leads to prostate hyperplasia and may contribute to cancer progression and metastatic dissemination. Dissection of the molecular landscape modulated by the FGF family will facilitate ongoing translational efforts directed toward prostate cancer therapy.

6.
Angiogenesis ; 23(3): 357-369, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152757

RESUMO

N-formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors involved in the recruitment and activation of immune cells in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Three FPRs have been identified in humans (FPR1-FPR3), characterized by different ligand properties, biological function and cellular distribution. Recent findings from our laboratory have shown that the peptide BOC-FLFLF (L-BOC2), related to the FPR antagonist BOC2, acts as an angiogenesis inhibitor by binding to various angiogenic growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF). Here we show that the all-D-enantiomer of L-BOC2 (D-BOC2) is devoid of any VEGF antagonist activity. At variance, D-BOC2, as well as the D-FLFLF and succinimidyl (Succ)-D-FLFLF (D-Succ-F3) D-peptide variants, is endowed with a pro-angiogenic potential. In particular, the D-peptide D-Succ-F3 exerts a pro-angiogenic activity in a variety of in vitro assays on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in ex vivo and in vivo assays in chick and zebrafish embryos and adult mice. This activity is related to the capacity of D-Succ-F3 to bind FRP3 expressed by HUVECs. Indeed, the effects exerted by D-Succ-F3 on HUVECs are fully suppressed by the G protein-coupled receptor inhibitor pertussis toxin, the FPR2/FPR3 antagonist WRW4 and by an anti-FPR3 antibody. A similar inhibition was observed following WRW4-induced FPR3 desensitization in HUVECs. Finally, D-Succ-F3 prevented the binding of the anti-FPR3 antibody to the cell surface of HUVECs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the angiogenic activity of D-Succ-F3 is due to the engagement and activation of FPR3 expressed by endothelial cells, thus shedding a new light on the biological function of this chemoattractant receptor.

7.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1564-1577, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029552

RESUMO

Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is a potent second-generation androgen receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in chemotherapy-naïve as well as in patients previously exposed to chemotherapy. However, resistance to enzalutamide and enzalutamide withdrawal syndrome have been reported. Thus, reliable and integrated preclinical models are required to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and to assess therapeutic settings that may delay or prevent the onset of resistance. In this study, the prostate cancer multistage murine model TRAMP and TRAMP-derived cells have been used to extensively characterize in vitro and in vivo the response and resistance to enzalutamide. The therapeutic profile as well as the resistance onset were characterized and a multiscale stochastic mathematical model was proposed to link the in vitro and in vivo evolution of prostate cancer. The model showed that all therapeutic strategies that use enzalutamide result in the onset of resistance. The model also showed that combination therapies can delay the onset of resistance to enzalutamide, and in the best scenario, can eliminate the disease. These results set the basis for the exploitation of this "TRAMP-based platform" to test novel therapeutic approaches and build further mathematical models of combination therapies to treat prostate cancer and CRPC.Significance: Merging mathematical modeling with experimental data, this study presents the "TRAMP-based platform" as a novel experimental tool to study the in vitro and in vivo evolution of prostate cancer resistance to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxoides/farmacologia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
8.
Cancer Res ; 80(11): 2340-2354, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094301

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma, the second most common hematologic malignancy, frequently relapses because of chemotherapeutic resistance. Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) act as proangiogenic and mitogenic cytokines in multiple myeloma. Here, we demonstrate that the autocrine FGF/FGFR axis is essential for multiple myeloma cell survival and progression by protecting multiple myeloma cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In keeping with the hypothesis that the intracellular redox status can be a target for cancer therapy, FGF/FGFR blockade by FGF trapping or tyrosine kinase inhibitor impaired the growth and dissemination of multiple myeloma cells by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death that were prevented by the antioxidant vitamin E or mitochondrial catalase overexpression. In addition, mitochondrial oxidative stress occurred as a consequence of proteasomal degradation of the c-Myc oncoprotein that led to glutathione depletion. Accordingly, expression of a proteasome-nondegradable c-Myc protein mutant was sufficient to avoid glutathione depletion and rescue the proapoptotic effects due to FGF blockade. These findings were confirmed on bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma cells as well as on bone marrow-derived primary multiple myeloma cells from newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients, including plasma cells bearing the t(4;14) translocation obtained from patients with high-risk multiple myeloma. Altogether, these findings dissect the mechanism by which the FGF/FGFR system plays a nonredundant role in multiple myeloma cell survival and disease progression, and indicate that FGF targeting may represent a therapeutic approach for patients with multiple myeloma with poor prognosis and advanced disease stage. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new insights into the mechanisms by which FGF antagonists promote multiple myeloma cell death. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/11/2340/F1.large.jpg.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(6): 1147-1160, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504264

RESUMO

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmias, whose incidence is likely to increase with the aging of the population. It is considered a progressive condition, frequently observed as a complication of other cardiovascular disorders. However, recent genetic studies revealed the presence of several mutations and variants linked to AF, findings that define AF as a multifactorial disease. Due to the complex genetics and paucity of models, molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of AF are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of a familial form of AF, with particular attention to the identification of putative triggering cellular mechanisms, using patient's derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we report the clinical case of three siblings with untreatable persistent AF whose whole-exome sequence analysis revealed several mutated genes. To understand the pathophysiology of this multifactorial form of AF we generated three iPSC clones from two of these patients and differentiated these cells towards the cardiac lineage. Electrophysiological characterization of patient-derived CMs (AF-CMs) revealed that they have higher beating rates compared to control (CTRL)-CMs. The analysis showed an increased contribution of the If and ICaL currents. No differences were observed in the repolarizing current IKr and in the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling. Paced AF-CMs presented significantly prolonged action potentials and, under stressful conditions, generated both delayed after-depolarizations of bigger amplitude and more ectopic beats than CTRL cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the common genetic background of the patients induces functional alterations of If and ICaL currents leading to a cardiac substrate more prone to develop arrhythmias under demanding conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report that, using patient-derived CMs differentiated from iPSC, suggests a plausible cellular mechanism underlying this complex familial form of AF.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487962

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play non-redundant autocrine/paracrine functions in various human cancers. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data mining indicates that high levels of FGF and/or FGF receptor (FGFR) expression are associated with reduced overall survival, chromosome 3 monosomy and BAP1 mutation in human uveal melanoma (UM), pointing to the FGF/FGFR system as a target for UM treatment. Here, we investigated the impact of different FGF trapping approaches on the tumorigenic and liver metastatic activity of liver metastasis-derived murine melanoma B16-LS9 cells that, similar to human UM, are characterized by a distinctive hepatic tropism. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the overexpression of the natural FGF trap inhibitor long-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) inhibits the oncogenic activity of B16-LS9 cells. In addition, B16-LS9 cells showed a reduced tumor growth and liver metastatic activity when grafted in PTX3-overexpressing transgenic mice. The efficacy of the FGF trapping approach was confirmed by the capacity of the PTX3-derived pan-FGF trap small molecule NSC12 to inhibit B16-LS9 cell growth in vitro, in a zebrafish embryo orthotopic tumor model and in an experimental model of liver metastasis. Possible translational implications for these observations were provided by the capacity of NSC12 to inhibit FGF signaling and cell proliferation in human UM Mel285, Mel270, 92.1, and OMM2.3 cells. In addition, NSC12 caused caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage followed by apoptotic cell death as well as -catenin degradation and inhibition of UM cell migration. Together, our findings indicate that FGF trapping may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in UM.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533326

RESUMO

Fibrosarcoma is an aggressive subtype of soft tissue sarcoma categorized in infantile/congenital-type and adult-type. Fibrosarcoma cells and its surrounding immune inflammatory infiltrates overexpress or induce the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) that have a crucial role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. The inflammation-associated long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was found to reduce FGF-2-mediated angiogenesis, but its role on fibrosarcoma immune inflammatory infiltrate is still unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the PTX3 activity on immune infiltrating mast cells, macrophages and T-lymphocytes by immunohistochemistry on murine MC-TGS17-51 fibrosarcoma cells and on transgenic TgN(Tie2-hPTX3) mouse. In these fibrosarcoma models we found a reduced neovascularization and a significant decrease of inflammatory infiltrate. Indeed, we show that PTX3 reduces the level of complement 3 (C3) deposition reducing fibrosarcoma progression. In conclusion, we hypothesize that targeting fibrosarcoma microenvironment by FGF/FGFR inhibitors may improve treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Fibrossarcoma/etiologia , Fibrossarcoma/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrossarcoma/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480336

RESUMO

Bladder tumors are a diffuse type of cancer. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a component of the innate immunity with pleiotropic functions in the regulation of immune response, tissue remodeling, and cancer progression. PTX3 may act as an oncosuppressor in different contexts, functioning as an antagonist of the fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) system, rewiring the immune microenvironment, or acting through mechanisms not yet fully clarified. In this study we used biopsies and data mining to assess that PTX3 is differentially expressed during the different stages of bladder cancer (BC) progression. BC cell lines, representative of different tumor grades, and transgenic/carcinogen-induced models were used to demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that PTX3 production by tumor cells decreases along the progression from low-grade to high-grade advanced muscle invasive forms (MIBC). In vitro and in vivo data revealed for the first time that PTX3 modulation and the consequent impairment of FGF/FGR systems in BC cells have a significant impact on different biological features of BC growth, including cell proliferation, motility, metabolism, stemness, and drug resistance. PTX3 exerts an oncosuppressive effect on BC progression and may represent a potential functional biomarker in BC evolution. Moreover, FGF/FGFR blockade has an impact on drug resistance and stemness features in BC.

13.
Angiogenesis ; 22(4): 521-533, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363885

RESUMO

The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) regulates multiple biological processes, including vascular development and angiogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in mediating the angiogenic activity of BMP4. BMP4 induces a rapid relocation and phosphorylation of VEGFR2 on the endothelial cell membrane. These effects occur in the absence of a direct interaction of BMP4 and/or BMP receptors with VEGFR2. At variance, BMP4, by interacting with the BMPRI-II hetero-complex, induces c-Src phosphorylation which, in turn, activates VEGFR2, leading to an angiogenic response. Accordingly, the BMPR inhibitor dorsomorphin prevents c-Src activation and specific inhibition of c-Src significantly reduces downstream VEGFR2 phosphorylation and the angiogenic activity exerted by BMP4 in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. Together, our data indicate that the pro-angiogenic activity exerted by BMP4 in endothelial cells is mediated by a BMPR-mediated intracellular transactivation of VEGFR2 via c-Src.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1092, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156639

RESUMO

Chemokine receptor CXCR4, its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) and the decoy receptor atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, also named CXCR7), are involved in the guidance of migrating cells in different anatomical districts. Here, we investigated the role of the ACKR3 zebrafish ortholog ackr3b in the vascularization process during embryonic development. Bioinformatics and functional analyses confirmed that ackr3b is a CXCL12-binding ortholog of human ACKR3. ackr3b is transcribed in the endoderm of zebrafish embryos during epiboly and is expressed in a wide range of tissues during somitogenesis, including central nervous system and somites. Between 18 somite and 26 h-post fertilization stages, the broad somitic expression of ackr3b becomes restricted to the basal part of the somites. After ackr3b knockdown, intersomitic vessels (ISVs) lose the correct direction of migration and are characterized by the presence of aberrant sprouts and ectopic filopodia protrusions, showing downregulation of the tip/stalk cell marker hlx1. In addition, ackr3b morphants show significant alterations of lateral dorsal aortae formation. In keeping with a role for ackr3b in endothelial cell guidance, CXCL12 gradient generated by ACKR3 expression in CHO cell transfectants guides human endothelial cell migration in an in vitro cell co-culture chemotaxis assay. Our results demonstrate that ackr3b plays a non-redundant role in the guidance of sprouting endothelial cells during vascular development in zebrafish. Moreover, ACKR3 scavenging activity generates guidance cues for the directional migration of CXCR4-expressing human endothelial cells in response to CXCL12.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091708

RESUMO

We performed a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the microvascular network of the cerebral cortex of twitcher mice (an authentic model of Krabbe disease) using a restricted set of indexes that are able to describe the arrangement of the microvascular tree in CD31-stained sections. We obtained a near-linear graphical "fingerprint" of the microangioarchitecture of wild-type and twitcher animals that describes the amounts, spatial dispersion, and spatial relationships of adjacent classes of caliber-filtered microvessels. We observed significant alterations of the microangioarchitecture of the cerebral cortex of twitcher mice, whereas no alterations occur in renal microvessels, which is keeping with the observation that kidney is an organ that is not affected by the disease. This approach may represent an important starting point for the study of the microvascular changes that occur in the central nervous system (CNS) under different physiopathological conditions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Leucodistrofia de Células Globoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Microvasos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos
17.
Noncoding RNA ; 5(2)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052608

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells. The recent literature has clearly demonstrated clonal heterogeneity in terms of both the genomic and transcriptomic signature of the tumor. Of note, novel studies have also highlighted the importance of the functional cross-talk between the tumor clone and the surrounding bone marrow milieu, as a relevant player of MM pathogenesis. These findings have certainly enhanced our understanding of the underlying mechanisms supporting MM pathogenesis and disease progression. Within the specific field of small non-coding RNA-research, recent studies have provided evidence for considering microRNAs as a crucial regulator of MM biology and, in this context, circulating microRNAs have been shown to potentially contribute to prognostic stratification of MM patients. The present review will summarize the most recent studies within the specific topic of microRNAs and circulating microRNAs in MM.

18.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 72: 100756, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951889

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in the working-age population. DR is a progressive eye disease caused by long-term accumulation of hyperglycaemia-mediated pathological alterations in the retina of diabetic patients. DR begins with asymptomatic retinal abnormalities and may progress to advanced-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), characterized by neovascularization or preretinal/vitreous haemorrhages. The vitreous, a transparent gel that fills the posterior cavity of the eye, plays a vital role in maintaining ocular function. Structural and molecular alterations of the vitreous, observed during DR progression, are consequences of metabolic and functional modifications of the retinal tissue. Thus, vitreal alterations reflect the pathological events occurring at the vitreoretinal interface. These events are caused by hypoxic, oxidative, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and leukostatic conditions that occur during diabetes. Conversely, PDR vitreous can exert pathological effects on the diabetic retina, resulting in activation of a vicious cycle that contributes to disease progression. In this review, we recapitulate the major pathological features of DR/PDR, and focus on the structural and molecular changes that characterize the vitreal structure and composition during DR and progression to PDR. In PDR, vitreous represents a reservoir of pathological signalling molecules. Therefore, in this review we discuss how studying the biological activity of the vitreous in different in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experimental models can provide insights into the pathogenesis of PDR. In addition, the vitreous from PDR patients can represent a novel tool to obtain preclinical experimental evidences for the development and characterization of new therapeutic drug candidates for PDR therapy.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Humanos
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(3): 620-633, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593895

RESUMO

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has proven to be a versatile and reliable in vivo experimental model to study human hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies. As vertebrates, zebrafish has significant anatomical and biological similarities to humans, including the hematopoietic system. The powerful genome editing and genome-wide forward genetic screening tools have generated models that recapitulate human malignant hematopoietic pathologies in zebrafish and unravel cellular mechanisms involved in these diseases. Moreover, the use of zebrafish models in large-scale chemical screens has allowed the identification of new molecular targets and the design of alternative therapies. In this review we summarize the recent achievements in hematological research that highlight the power of the zebrafish model for discovery of new therapeutic molecules. We believe that the model is ready to give an immediate translational impact into the clinic.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hematologia/métodos , Hematologia/tendências , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Hematopoese , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905906

RESUMO

Krabbe disease (KD) is an autosomal recessive sphingolipidosis caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase ß-galactosylceramidase (GALC). Oligodendroglia degeneration and demyelination of the nervous system lead to neurological dysfunctions which are usually lethal by two years of age. At present, the only clinical treatment with any proven efficacy is hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, which is more effective when administered in the neonatal period to presymptomatic recipients. Bone marrow (BM) sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) play a pivotal role in stem cell engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis. Previous observations had shown significant alterations of microvascular endothelial cells in the brain of KD patients and in Galc mutant twitcher mice, an authentic model of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the vascular component of the BM in the femurs of symptomatic homozygous twitcher mice at postnatal day P36. Histological, immunohistochemical, and two-photon microscopy imaging analyses revealed the presence of significant alterations of the diaphyseal BM vasculature, characterized by enlarged, discontinuous, and hemorrhagic SECs that express the endothelial marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) but lack platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) expression. In addition, computer-aided image analysis indicates that twitcher CD31-/VEGFR2+ SECs show a significant increase in lumen size and in the number and size of endothelial gaps compared to BM SECs of wild type littermates. These results suggest that morphofunctional defects in the BM vascular niche may contribute to the limited therapeutic efficacy of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in KD patients at symptomatic stages of the disease.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Galactosilceramidase/metabolismo , Leucodistrofia de Células Globoides/metabolismo , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Galactosilceramidase/genética , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucodistrofia de Células Globoides/genética , Leucodistrofia de Células Globoides/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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