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1.
Ultramicroscopy ; 212: 112976, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217349

RESUMO

Convergent beam electron diffraction is routinely applied for studying deformation and local strain in thick crystals by matching the crystal structure to the observed intensity distributions. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CBED can be applied for imaging two-dimensional (2D) crystals where a direct reconstruction is possible and three-dimensional crystal deformations at a nanometre resolution can be retrieved. Here, we demonstrate that second-order effects allow for further information to be obtained regarding stacking arrangements between the crystals. Such effects are especially pronounced in samples consisting of multiple layers of 2D crystals. We show, using simulations and experiments, that twisted multilayer samples exhibit extra modulations of interference fringes in CBED patterns, i. e., a CBED moiré. A simple and robust method for the evaluation of the composition and the number of layers from a single-shot CBED pattern is demonstrated.

2.
Langmuir ; 35(41): 13318-13331, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478662

RESUMO

Hybrids composed of liposomes (L) and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) hold great potential for imaging and drug delivery purposes. However, the efficient incorporation of metallic NPs into liposomes using conventional methodologies has so far proved to be challenging. In this study, we report the fabrication of hybrids of liposomes and hydrophobic gold NPs of size 2-4 nm (Au) using a microfluidic-assisted self-assembly process. The incorporation of increasing amounts of AuNPs into liposomes was examined using microfluidics and compared to L-AuNP hybrids prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method. Our microfluidics strategy produced L-AuNP hybrids with a homogeneous size distribution, a smaller polydispersity index, and a threefold increase in loading efficiency when compared to those hybrids prepared using the reverse-phase method of production. Quantification of the loading efficiency was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and centrifugal field flow fractionation, and qualitative validation was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The higher loading of gold NPs into the liposomes achieved using microfluidics produced a slightly thicker and more rigid bilayer as determined with small-angle neutron scattering. These observations were confirmed using fluorescent anisotropy and atomic force microscopy. Structural characterization of the liposomal-NP hybrids with cryo-electron microscopy revealed the coexistence of membrane-embedded and interdigitated NP-rich domains, suggesting AuNP incorporation through hydrophobic interactions. The microfluidic technique that we describe in this study allows for the automated production of monodisperse liposomal-NP hybrids with high loading capacity, highlighting the utility of microfluidics to improve the payload of metallic NPs within liposomes, thereby enhancing their application for imaging and drug delivery.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(7): 4678-4683, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192613

RESUMO

The ability of different materials to display self-limiting growth has recently attracted an enormous amount of attention because of the importance of nanoscale materials in applications for catalysis, energy conversion, (opto)electronics, and so forth. Here, we show that the electrochemical deposition of palladium (Pd) between graphene oxide (GO) sheets result in the self-limiting growth of 5-nm-thick Pd nanosheets. The self-limiting growth is found to be a consequence of the strong interaction of Pd with the confining GO sheets, which results in the bulk growth of Pd being energetically unfavorable for larger thicknesses. Furthermore, we have successfully carried out liquid exfoliation of the resulting Pd-GO laminates to isolate Pd nanosheets and have demonstrated their high efficiency in continuous flow catalysis and electrocatalysis.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(6): 5282-5293, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667060

RESUMO

Transformation products of two-line ferrihydrite associated with Lu(III) were studied after 12 years of aging using aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), high-efficiency energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and density functional theory (DFT). The transformation products consisted of hematite nanoparticles with overgrown goethite needles. High-efficiency STEM-EDXS revealed that Lu is only associated with goethite needles, and atomic-resolution HAADF-STEM reveals structural incorporation of Lu within goethite, partially replacing structural Fe sites. This finding corroborates those recently obtained by AsFlFFF and EXAFS spectroscopy on the same sample (Finck et al. 2018). DFT calculations indicate that Lu incorporation within goethite or hematite are almost equally likely, suggesting that experimental parameters such as temperature and reaction time which affect reaction kinetics, play important roles in determining the Lu uptake. It seems likely that these results may be transferable to predict the behavior of chemically homologous trivalent actinides.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/química , Lutécio/química , Adsorção , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Ferro/química , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Minerais/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(96): 13543-13546, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443652

RESUMO

A facile molten-salt (MS) route for the scalable synthesis of free-standing, long-range oriented and corrugated graphene-like sheets from a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) precursor is reported. Their unique arrangement and transformation behavior in molten potassium chloride (KCl) play a key role in promoting the successful synthesis of the anisotropic nanostructure.

6.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5373-5381, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067903

RESUMO

Atomically thin black phosphorus (BP) has attracted considerable interest due to its unique properties, such as an infrared band gap that depends on the number of layers and excellent electronic transport characteristics. This material is known to be sensitive to light and oxygen and degrades in air unless protected with an encapsulation barrier, limiting its exploitation in electrical devices. We present a new scalable technique for nanopatterning few layered BP by direct electron beam exposure of encapsulated crystals, achieving a spatial resolution down to 6 nm. By encapsulating the BP with single layer graphene or hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), we show that a focused electron probe can be used to produce controllable local oxidation of BP through nanometre size defects created in the encapsulation layer by the electron impact. We have tested the approach in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and using industry standard electron beam lithography (EBL). Etched regions of the BP are stabilized by a thin passivation layer and demonstrate typical insulating behavior as measured at 300 and 4.3 K. This new scalable approach to nanopatterning of thin air sensitive crystals has the potential to facilitate their wider use for a variety of sensing and electronics applications.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(29): 7473-7478, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970422

RESUMO

The van der Waals heterostructures, which explore the synergetic properties of 2D materials when assembled into 3D stacks, have already brought to life a number of exciting phenomena and electronic devices. Still, the interaction between the layers in such assembly, possible surface reconstruction, and intrinsic and extrinsic defects are very difficult to characterize by any method, because of the single-atomic nature of the crystals involved. Here we present a convergent beam electron holographic technique which allows imaging of the stacking order in such heterostructures. Based on the interference of electron waves scattered on different crystals in the stack, this approach allows one to reconstruct the relative rotation, stretching, and out-of-plane corrugation of the layers with atomic precision. Being holographic in nature, our approach allows extraction of quantitative information about the 3D structure of the typical defects from a single image covering thousands of square nanometers. Furthermore, qualitative information about the defects in the stack can be extracted from the convergent diffraction patterns even without reconstruction, simply by comparing the patterns in different diffraction spots. We expect that convergent beam electron holography will be widely used to study the properties of van der Waals heterostructures.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(11): 11082-11090, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019650

RESUMO

Laminar membranes of two-dimensional materials are excellent candidates for applications in water filtration due to the formation of nanocapillaries between individual crystals that can exhibit a molecular and ionic sieving effect, while allowing high water flux. This approach has been exemplified previously with graphene oxide, however these membranes suffer from swelling when exposed to liquid water, leading to low salt rejection and reducing their applicability for desalination applications. Here, we demonstrate that by producing thin (∼5 µm) laminar membranes of exfoliated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a straightforward and scalable process, followed by a simple chemical functionalization step, we can efficiently reject ∼99% of the ions commonly found in seawater, while maintaining water fluxes significantly higher (∼5 times) than those reported for graphene oxide membranes. These functionalized MoS2 membranes exhibit excellent long-term stability with no swelling and consequent decrease in ion rejection, when immersed in water for periods exceeding 6 months. Similar stability is observed when exposed to organic solvents, indicating that they are ideal for a variety of technologically important filtration applications.

9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 10080, 2017 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855655

RESUMO

Solid phase crystallization offers an attractive route to synthesize Ni nanoparticles on a La2O3 support. These materials have shown great promise as catalysts for methane oxidation and similar reactions. Synthesis is achieved by the reduction of a LaNiO3 (LNO) precursor at high temperatures, but the reduction pathway can follow a variety of routes. Optimization of catalytic properties such as the long-term stability has been held back by a lack of understanding of the factors impacting the reduction pathway, and its strong influence on the structure of the resulting Ni/La2O3 catalyst. Here we show the first evidence of the importance of extended structural defects in the LNO precursor material (2D stacking faults and 3D inclusions) for determining the reaction pathway and therefore the properties of the final catalyst. Here we compare the crystallization of LNO nanoparticles via two different pathways using in-situ STEM, in-situ synchrotron XRD, and DFT electronic structure calculations. Control of extended defects is shown to be a key microstructure component for improving catalyst lifetimes.

10.
Nano Lett ; 17(9): 5222-5228, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741958

RESUMO

Vertically stacked van der Waals heterostructures are a lucrative platform for exploring the rich electronic and optoelectronic phenomena in two-dimensional materials. Their performance will be strongly affected by impurities and defects at the interfaces. Here we present the first systematic study of interfaces in van der Waals heterostructure using cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging. By measuring interlayer separations and comparing these to density functional theory (DFT) calculations we find that pristine interfaces exist between hBN and MoS2 or WS2 for stacks prepared by mechanical exfoliation in air. However, for two technologically important transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) systems, MoSe2 and WSe2, our measurement of interlayer separations provide the first evidence for impurity species being trapped at buried interfaces with hBN interfaces that are flat at the nanometer length scale. While decreasing the thickness of encapsulated WSe2 from bulk to monolayer we see a systematic increase in the interlayer separation. We attribute these differences to the thinnest TMDC flakes being flexible and hence able to deform mechanically around a sparse population of protruding interfacial impurities. We show that the air sensitive two-dimensional (2D) crystal NbSe2 can be fabricated into heterostructures with pristine interfaces by processing in an inert-gas environment. Finally we find that adopting glovebox transfer significantly improves the quality of interfaces for WSe2 compared to processing in air.

11.
Chemphyschem ; 18(16): 2151-2156, 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605152

RESUMO

We have developed a new experimental platform for in situ scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) which allows real time, nanoscale, elemental and structural changes to be studied at elevated temperature (up to 1000 °C) and pressure (up to 1 atm). Here we demonstrate the first application of this approach to understand complex structural changes occurring during reduction of a bimetallic catalyst, PdCu supported on TiO2 , synthesized by wet impregnation. We reveal a heterogeneous evolution of nanoparticle size, distribution, and composition with large differences in reduction behavior for the two metals. We show that the data obtained is complementary to in situ STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and when combined with in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows correlation of bulk chemical state with nanoscale changes in elemental distribution during reduction, facilitating new understanding of the catalytic behavior for this important class of materials.

12.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2878, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588234

RESUMO

Plasmon-induced phenomena have recently attracted considerable attention. At the same time, relatively little research has been conducted on electrochemistry mediated by plasmon excitations. Here we report plasmon-induced formation of nanoscale quantized conductance filaments within metal-insulator-metal heterostructures. Plasmon-enhanced electromagnetic fields in an array of gold nanodots provide a straightforward means of forming conductive CrOx bridges across a thin native chromium oxide barrier between the nanodots and an underlying metallic Cr layer. The existence of these nanoscale conducting filaments is verified by transmission electron microscopy and contact resistance measurements. Their conductance was interrogated optically, revealing quantised relative transmission of light through the heterostructures across a wavelength range of 1-12 µm. Such plasmon-induced electrochemical processes open up new possibilities for the development of scalable devices governed by light.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(6): 546-550, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369049

RESUMO

Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ∼9 Š(ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ∼13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ∼9.8 Što 6.4 Šare demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ∼10-100 kJ mol-1 depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

14.
ACS Nano ; 10(12): 10753-10767, 2016 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936585

RESUMO

Understanding how two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials interact with the biological milieu is fundamental for their development toward biomedical applications. When thin, individualized graphene oxide (GO) sheets were administered intravenously in mice, extensive urinary excretion was observed, indicating rapid transit across the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). A detailed analysis of kidney function, histopathology, and ultrastructure was performed, along with the in vitro responses of two highly specialized GFB cells (glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes) following exposure to GO. We investigated whether these cells preserved their unique barrier function at doses 100 times greater than the dose expected to reach the GFB in vivo. Both serum and urine analyses revealed that there was no impairment of kidney function up to 1 month after injection of GO at escalating doses. Histological examination suggested no damage to the glomerular and tubular regions of the kidneys. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed absence of damage, with no change in the size of podocyte slits, endothelial cell fenestra, or the glomerular basement membrane width. The endothelial and podocyte cell cultures regained their full barrier function after >48 h of GO exposure, and cellular uptake was significant in both cell types after 24 h. This study provided a previously unreported understanding of the interaction between thin GO sheets with different components of the GFB in vitro and in vivo to highlight that the glomerular excretion of significant amounts of GO did not induce any signs of acute nephrotoxicity or glomerular barrier dysfunction.


Assuntos
Membrana Basal Glomerular/fisiologia , Grafite , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Células Endoteliais , Camundongos , Óxidos , Podócitos
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(7): 077205, 2012 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22401249

RESUMO

In Co/CoO nanostructures, of dimensions l×3l, at small Co thickness (≈6,10 nm), a strong increase in the bias field and the associated coercive field are found as the nanostructure size is reduced from l=120 nm to l=30 nm. This property indicates that the characteristic length D(AF) within the antiferromagnet which governs exchange-bias effects is the nanostructure size. By contrast, at larger Co thickness (≈23 nm), the exchange-bias field does not depend on the nanostructure size, implying that D(AF) is smaller than the nanostructure size. The results are discussed in the framework of the Malozemoff model, taking into account that the coupling between CoO grains is weak. Exchange bias is dominated either by coupling within the antiferromagnetic layer (6- and 10-nm-thick Co samples) or by ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling (23-nm-thick Co sample).

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