*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(16): 161101, 2017 Apr 21.*

##### RESUMO

The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the â=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(4): 041101, 2017 Jul 28.*

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We study the growth and saturation of the superradiant instability of a complex, massive vector (Proca) field as it extracts energy and angular momentum from a spinning black hole, using numerical solutions of the full Einstein-Proca equations. We concentrate on a rapidly spinning black hole (a=0.99) and the dominant m=1 azimuthal mode of the Proca field, with real and imaginary components of the field chosen to yield an axisymmetric stress-energy tensor and, hence, spacetime. We find that in excess of 9% of the black hole's mass can be transferred into the field. In all cases studied, the superradiant instability smoothly saturates when the black hole's horizon frequency decreases to match the frequency of the Proca cloud that spontaneously forms around the black hole.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(4): 041101, 2013 Jul 26.*

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We explore the impact of black hole spins on the dynamics of high-energy black hole collisions. We report results from numerical simulations with Î³ factors up to 2.49 and dimensionless spin parameter χ=+0.85, +0.6, 0, -0.6, -0.85. We find that the scattering threshold becomes independent of spin at large center-of-mass energies, confirming previous conjectures that structure does not matter in ultrarelativistic collisions. It has further been argued that in this limit all of the kinetic energy of the system may be radiated by fine tuning the impact parameter to threshold. On the contrary, we find that only about 60% of the kinetic energy is radiated for Î³=2.49. By monitoring apparent horizons before and after scattering events we show that the "missing energy" is absorbed by the individual black holes in the encounter, and moreover the individual black-hole spins change significantly. We support this conclusion with perturbative calculations. An extrapolation of our results to the limit Î³â∞ suggests that about half of the center-of-mass energy of the system can be emitted in gravitational radiation, while the rest must be converted into rest-mass and spin energy.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(10): 101101, 2013 Mar 08.*

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We study the head-on collision of fluid particles well within the kinetic energy dominated regime (Î³ = 8 to 12) by numerically solving the Einstein-hydrodynamic equations. We find that the threshold for black hole formation is lower (by a factor of a few) than simple hoop conjecture estimates, and, moreover, near this threshold two distinct apparent horizons first form postcollision and then merge. We argue that this can be understood in terms of a gravitational focusing effect. The gravitational radiation reaches luminosities of 0.014 c(5)/G, carrying 16 ± 2% of the total energy.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(16): 161303, 2011 Apr 22.*

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Quantum evaporation of Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black holes is analyzed in the mean-field approximation, incorporating backreaction. Detailed analytical and numerical calculations show that, while some of the assumptions underlying the standard evaporation paradigm are borne out, several are not. Furthermore, if the black hole is initially macroscopic, the evaporation process exhibits remarkable universal properties (which are distinct from the features observed in the simplified, exactly soluble models). Finally, our results provide support for the full quantum gravity scenario recently developed by Ashtekar, Taveras, and Varadarajan.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(10): 101102, 2010 Sep 03.*

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We describe the behavior of 5-dimensional black strings, subject to the Gregory-Laflamme instability. Beyond the linear level, the evolving strings exhibit a rich dynamics, where at intermediate stages the horizon can be described as a sequence of 3-dimensional spherical black holes joined by black string segments. These segments are themselves subject to a Gregory-Laflamme instability, resulting in a self-similar cascade, where ever-smaller satellite black holes form connected by ever-thinner string segments. This behavior is akin to satellite formation in low-viscosity fluid streams subject to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The simulation results imply that the string segments will reach zero radius in finite asymptotic time, whence the classical space-time terminates in a naked singularity. Since no fine-tuning is required to excite the instability, this constitutes a generic violation of cosmic censorship.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 104(11): 111101, 2010 Mar 19.*

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We present results from numerical solution of the Einstein field equations describing the head-on collision of two solitons boosted to ultrarelativistic energies. We show, for the first time, that at sufficiently high energies the collision leads to black hole formation, consistent with hoop-conjecture arguments. This implies that the nonlinear gravitational interaction between the kinetic energy of the solitons causes gravitational collapse, and that arguments for black hole formation in super-Planck scale particle collisions are robust.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 103(13): 131102, 2009 Sep 25.*

##### RESUMO

We study the collision of two highly boosted equal-mass, nonrotating black holes with generic impact parameter. We find such systems to exhibit zoom-whirl behavior when fine-tuning the impact parameter. Near the threshold of immediate merger the remnant black-hole Kerr parameter can be near maximal (a/M greater, similar 0.95) and the radiated energy can be as large as 35 +/- 5% of the center-of-mass energy.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 101(16): 161101, 2008 Oct 17.*

##### RESUMO

We study the head-on collision of two highly boosted equal mass, nonrotating black holes. We determine the waveforms, radiated energies, and mode excitation in the center of mass frame for a variety of boosts. For the first time we are able to compare analytic calculations, black-hole perturbation theory, and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem. Extrapolation of our results, which include velocities of up to 0.94c, indicate that in the ultrarelativistic regime about 14+/-3% of the energy is converted into gravitational waves. This gives rise to a luminosity of order 10_(-2)c_(5)/G, the largest known so far in a black-hole merger.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 95(12): 121101, 2005 Sep 16.*

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We describe early success in the evolution of binary black-hole spacetimes with a numerical code based on a generalization of harmonic coordinates. Indications are that with sufficient resolution this scheme is capable of evolving binary systems for enough time to extract information about the orbit, merger, and gravitational waves emitted during the event. As an example we show results from the evolution of a binary composed of two equal mass, nonspinning black holes, through a single plunge orbit, merger, and ringdown. The resultant black hole is estimated to be a Kerr black hole with angular momentum parameter a approximately 0.70. At present, lack of resolution far from the binary prevents an accurate estimate of the energy emitted, though a rough calculation suggests on the order of 5% of the initial rest mass of the system is radiated as gravitational waves during the final orbit and ringdown.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 93(13): 131101, 2004 Sep 24.*

##### RESUMO

We report a new critical solution found at the threshold of axisymmetric gravitational collapse of a complex scalar field with angular momentum. To carry angular momentum the scalar field cannot be axisymmetric; however, its azimuthal dependence is defined so that the resulting stress-energy tensor and spacetime metric are axisymmetric. The critical solution found is nonspherical, discretely self-similar with an echoing exponent Delta=0.42(+/-4%), and exhibits a scaling exponent gamma=0.11(+/-10%) in near-critical collapse. Our simulations suggest that the solution is universal (within the imposed symmetry class), modulo a family-dependent constant, complex phase.