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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and evaluate associations between HRSV subgroups and/or genotypes and epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). METHODS: Between January 2012 and December 2015, we enrolled patients of all ages admitted to two South African hospitals with SRI in prospective hospital-based syndromic surveillance. We collected respiratory specimens and clinical and epidemiological data. Unconditional random effect multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HRSV infection. RESULTS: HRSV was detected in 11.2% (772/6908) of enrolled patients of which 47.0% (363/772) were under the age of 6 months. There were no differences in clinical outcomes of HRSV subgroup A-infected patients compared with HRSV subgroup B-infected patients but among patients aged <5 years, children with HRSV subgroup A were more likely be coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (23/208, 11.0% vs. 2/90, 2.0%; adjusted odds ratio 5.7). No significant associations of HRSV A genotypes NA1 and ON1 with specific clinical outcomes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: While HRSV subgroup and genotype dominance shifted between seasons, we showed similar genotype diversity as noted worldwide. We found no association between clinical outcomes and HRSV subgroups or genotypes.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255941, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is an important cause of mortality in young children, especially in children living with HIV infection. Disparities in SARI death in children aged <5 years exist in urban and rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To compare the factors associated with in-hospital death among children aged <5 years hospitalized with SARI in an urban vs. a rural setting in South Africa from 2009-2013. METHODS: Data were collected from hospitalized children with SARI in one urban and two rural sentinel surveillance hospitals. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA using polymerase chain reaction. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: From 2009 through 2013, 5,297 children aged <5 years with SARI-associated hospital admission were enrolled; 3,811 (72%) in the urban and 1,486 (28%) in the rural hospitals. In-hospital case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in the rural hospitals (6.9%) than the urban hospital (1.3%, p<0.001), and among HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected children (9.6% vs. 1.6%, p<0.001). In the urban hospital, HIV infection (odds ratio (OR):11.4, 95% confidence interval (CI):5.4-24.1) and presence of any other underlying illness (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.0-9.2) were the only factors independently associated with death. In the rural hospitals, HIV infection (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.3-7.1) and age <1 year (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.9-7.2) were independently associated with death, whereas duration of hospitalization ≥5 days (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) and any respiratory virus detection (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) were negatively associated with death. CONCLUSION: We found that the case-fatality proportion was substantially higher among children admitted to rural hospitals and HIV infected children with SARI in South Africa. While efforts to prevent and treat HIV infections in children may reduce SARI deaths, further efforts to address health care inequality in rural populations are needed.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1521-1525, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568048

RESUMO

We screened nonequine animals with unexplained neurologic signs or death in South Africa during 2010-2018 for Shuni virus (SHUV). SHUV was detected in 3.3% of wildlife, 1.1% of domestic, and 2.0% of avian species. Seropositivity was also demonstrated in wildlife. These results suggest a range of possible SHUV hosts in Africa.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Orthobunyavirus , África do Sul/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(12): 2208-2211, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963178

RESUMO

From 2011 through 2016, we conducted surveillance for severe respiratory illness in infants. Human immunodeficiency virus exposure significantly increased the risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization in infants aged <5 months. More than 60% of RSV-associated hospitalizations occurred in the first 4 months of life and may be preventable through maternal vaccination or birth-dose monoclonal antibody.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , História do Século XXI , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/história , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(5): 773-780, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data describing influenza- or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalized illness in children aged <5 years in Africa are limited. METHODS: During 2011-2016, we conducted surveillance for severe respiratory illness (SRI) in children aged <5 years in 3 South African hospitals. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza and RSV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We estimated rates of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalized SRI by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and compared children who tested positive for influenza vs RSV using multivariable penalized logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 3650 hospitalized children, 203 (5.6%) tested positive for influenza viruses, 874 (23.9%) for RSV, and 19 (0.5%) for both. The median age of children hospitalized with influenza was 13.9 months vs 4.4 months for RSV (P < .01). Annual influenza-associated hospitalization rates per 100000 were highest among infants aged 6-11 months (545; 95% confidence interval [CI], 409-703), while RSV-associated hospitalization rates were highest in infants aged 0-2 months (6593; 95% CI, 5947-7217). HIV exposure was associated with increased incidence of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization in infants aged 0-5 months, with relative risk (RR) 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4-3.4) and 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6), respectively. HIV infection was associated with increased incidence of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization in all age groups; RR 2.7 (95% CI, 2.0-3.5) and 3.8 (95% CI, 3.1-4.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalizations are common among South African infants. HIV infection and HIV exposure in infants increase risk of influenza- and RSV-associated hospitalization.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Influenza Humana/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Infect Dis ; 219(11): 1697-1704, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of rhinovirus (RV) detection to illness is poorly understood. METHODS: We enrolled case patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI) at 2 hospitals and outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and asymptomatic individuals (controls) from 2 affiliated clinics during 2013-2015. We compared the RV prevalence among ILI and SRI cases to those of controls stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus using penalized logistic regression. The attributable fraction (AF) was calculated. RESULTS: During 2013-2015, RV was detected in 17.4% (368/2120), 26.8% (979/3654), and 23.0% (1003/4360) of controls, ILI cases, and SRI cases, respectively. The RV AF (95% confidence interval) was statistically significant among children aged <5 years (ILI: 44.6% [30.7%-55.7%] and SRI: 50.3% [38.6%-59.9%]; P < .001) and individuals aged ≥5 years (ILI: 62.9% [54.4%-69.8%] and SRI: 51.3% [38.7%-61.3%]; P < .001) as well as among HIV-infected (ILI: 59.9% [45.8%-70.3%] and SRI: 39.8% [22.3%-53.3%]; P < .001) and HIV-uninfected (ILI: 53.6% [44.7%-61.1%] and SRI: 55.3% [45.6%-63.2%]; P < .001) individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Although RV detection was common among controls, it was also associated with a substantial proportion of clinical illness across age groups, irrespective of HIV status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pacientes Internados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Sci Rep ; 1(8): e59, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623094

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (hBoV), human coronaviruses (hCoV), and human polyomaviruses (hPyV) among patients with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), in South Africa. Methods: The study included 680 South African patients randomly selected in age-defined categories from hospitalised patients enrolled through SARI surveillance during 2012 to 2013. A multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect hBoV; hCoV-OC43, hCoV-229E, hCoV-NL63, and hCoV-HKU1; and Washington University hPyV (hPyV-WU) and Karolinska Insitute hPyV (hPyV-KI), in respiratory tract specimens collected from patients with SARI. All respiratory specimens from patients enrolled through SARI surveillance were also routinely tested by multiplex reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus; enterovirus; human metapneumovirus; parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; rhinovirus; influenza A, and influenza B. Results: Human bocavirus, hCoV-229E, and hPyV-WU were detected in 3.7% (25/680), 4.1% (28/680), and 4.1% (28/680) of respiratory specimens, respectively. All other viruses were detected in <2% of specimens. Rhinovirus was the most common coinfecting virus (21.4%-60.7%), followed by adenovirus (21.4%-39.3%), and respiratory syncytial virus (10.7%-24.0%). Testing for the additional viruses (hBoV, hCoV, and hPyV) decreased the number of specimens that initially tested negative by 2.9% (20/680). Conclusion: Inclusion of laboratory tests for hBoV, hCoV-229E, and hPyV-WU in differential testing algorithms for surveillance and diagnostics for suspected cases of respiratory illness of unknown cause may improve our understanding of the etiology of SARI, especially in a country like South Africa with a high number of immune compromised persons.

8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(3): 360-373, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The attributable fraction of influenza virus detection to illness (INF-AF) and the duration of symptoms as a surveillance inclusion criterion could potentially have substantial effects on influenza disease burden estimates. METHODS: We estimated rates of influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute (SARI-10) or chronic (SCRI-10) respiratory illness (using a symptom duration cutoff of ≤10 days) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients attending 3 hospitals and 2 affiliated clinics in South Africa during 2013-2015. We calculated the unadjusted and INF-AF-adjusted rates and relative risk (RR) due to HIV infection. Rates were expressed per 100 000 population. RESULTS: The estimated mean annual unadjusted rates of influenza-associated illness were 1467.7, 50.3, and 27.4 among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. After adjusting for the INF-AF, the percent reduction in the estimated rates was 8.9% (rate: 1336.9), 11.0% (rate: 44.8), and 16.3% (rate: 22.9) among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals experienced a 2.3 (95% CI: 2.2-2.4)-, 9.7 (95% CI: 8.0-11.8)-, and 10.0 (95% CI: 7.9-12.7)-fold increased risk of influenza-associated illness among patients with ILI, SARI-10, and SCRI-10, respectively. Overall 34% of the estimated influenza-associated hospitalizations had symptom duration of >10 days; 8% and 44% among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: The marginal differences between unadjusted and INF-AF-adjusted rates are unlikely to affect policies on prioritization of interventions. HIV-infected individuals experienced an increased risk of influenza-associated illness and may benefit more from annual influenza immunization. The use of a symptom duration cutoff of ≤10 days may underestimate influenza-associated disease burden, especially in older individuals.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(12): 2060-2064, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148375
10.
J Infect ; 75(4): 346-355, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. METHODS: Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was calculated for the one site with population denominators. RESULTS: Of 7796 participants investigated, 329 (4%) tested positive for RSV. On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected individuals with RSV-associated SARI had greater odds of being in the age groups 18-44 and 45-64 years (odd ratios (OR) 26.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.2-112.1 and OR 11.4; 95% CI 2.6-50.0) compared with those ≥65 years and being female (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4-5.4). The relative risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated SARI was 12-18 times higher in HIV infected individual compared to that of HIV-uninfected. CONCLUSION: The incidence of RSV-associated SARI was higher in HIV-infected individuals and those aged 65 years and older. Further studies are warranted to describe the disease association of RSV detected in adults with SARI.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/isolamento & purificação , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(7): 1124-1132, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628462

RESUMO

The attributable fraction (AF) of influenza virus detection to illness has not been described for patients in different age groups or with different HIV infection statuses. We compared the age group-specific prevalence of influenza virus infection among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute or chronic respiratory illness (SARI and SCRI, respectively) with that among controls, stratified by HIV serostatus. The overall AF for influenza virus detection to illness was 92.6% for ILI, 87.4% for SARI, and 86.2% for SCRI. Among HIV-uninfected patients, the AF for all syndromes was highest among persons <1 and >65 years of age and lowest among persons 25-44 years of age; this trend was not observed among HIV-infected patients. Overall, influenza viruses when detected in patients with ILI, SARI, or SCRI are likely attributable to illness. This finding is particularly likely among children and the elderly irrespective of HIV serostatus and among HIV-infected persons irrespective of age.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/história , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(1): ofw262, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations in low- and middle-income countries are limited. METHODS: We conducted active syndromic surveillance for hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) in 2 provinces of South Africa during 2012-2015. We compared the characteristics of influenza-positive patients with SARI to those with ILI to identify factors associated with severe disease requiring hospitalization, using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: During the study period, influenza virus was detected in 5.9% (110 of 1861) and 15.8% (577 of 3652) of SARI and ILI cases, respectively. On multivariable analysis factors significantly associated with increased risk of influenza-associated SARI hospitalization were as follows: younger and older age (<6 months [adjusted odds ratio {aOR}, 37.6], 6-11 months [aOR, 31.9], 12-23 months [aOR, 22.1], 24-59 months [aOR, 7.1], and ≥65 years [aOR, 40.7] compared with 5-24 years of age), underlying medical conditions (aOR, 4.5), human immunodeficiency virus infection (aOR, 4.3), and Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization density ≥1000 deoxyribonucleic acid copies/mL (aOR, 4.8). Underlying medical conditions in children aged <5 years included asthma (aOR, 22.7), malnutrition (aOR, 2.4), and prematurity (aOR, 4.8); in persons aged ≥5 years, conditions included asthma (aOR, 3.6), diabetes (aOR, 7.1), chronic lung diseases (aOR, 10.7), chronic heart diseases (aOR, 9.6), and obesity (aOR, 21.3). Mine workers (aOR, 13.8) and pregnant women (aOR, 12.5) were also at increased risk for influenza-associated hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The risk groups identified in this study may benefit most from annual influenza immunization, and children <6 months of age may be protected through vaccination of their mothers during pregnancy.

13.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177655, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies describing the epidemiology of influenza B lineages in South Africa are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to describe the circulation of influenza B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages among patients of all ages enrolled in South Africa through three respiratory illness surveillance systems between 2005 and 2014: (i) the Viral Watch (VW) program enrolled outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) from private healthcare facilities during 2005-2014; (ii) the influenza-like illnesses program enrolled outpatients in public healthcare clinics (ILI/PHC) during 2012-2014; and (iii) the severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARI) program enrolled inpatients from public hospitals during 2009-2014. Influenza B viruses were detected by virus isolation during 2005 to 2009 and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from 2009-2014. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized with SARI and infected with different influenza B lineages were also compared using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Influenza viruses were detected in 22% (8,706/39,804) of specimens from patients with ILI or SARI during 2005-2014, of which 24% (2,087) were positive for influenza B. Influenza B viruses predominated in all three surveillance systems in 2010. B/Victoria predominated prior to 2011 (except 2008) whereas B/Yamagata predominated thereafter (except 2012). B lineages co-circulated in all seasons, except in 2013 and 2014 for SARI and ILI/PHC surveillance. Among influenza B-positive SARI cases, the detection of influenza B/Yamagata compared to influenza B/Victoria was significantly higher in individuals aged 45-64 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-16.5) and ≥65 years (aOR: 12.2; 95% CI: 2.3-64.4) compared to children aged 0-4 years, but was significantly lower in HIV-infected patients (aOR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). CONCLUSION: B lineages co-circulated in most seasons except in 2013 and 2014. Hospitalized SARI cases display differential susceptibility for the two influenza B lineages, with B/Victoria being more prevalent among children and HIV-infected persons.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 11(3): 211-219, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of EV serotypes among patients hospitalized with SARI during 2009-2011. PATIENTS/METHODS: Study samples from patients were tested for the presence of enterovirus using a polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: 8.2% (842/10 260) of SARI cases tested positive for enterovirus; 16% (7/45) were species EV-A, 44% (20/45) EV-B, 18% (8/45) EV-C and 22% (10/45) EV-D. Seventeen different EV serotypes were identified within EV-A to EV-D, of which EV-D68 (22%; 10/45) and Echovirus 3 (11%; 5/45) were the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: EV-D68 should be monitored in South Africa to assess the emergence of highly pathogenic strains.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus Humano D/classificação , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Pediatrics ; 137(4)2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27025960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) has been suggested in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children; however, the contribution of respiratory viruses is unclear. We studied the epidemiology of LRTI hospitalization in HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) and HEU infants aged <6 months in South Africa. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled hospitalized infants with LRTI from 4 provinces from 2010 to 2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for 10 viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. Incidence for 2010-2011 was estimated at 1 site with population denominators. RESULTS: We enrolled 3537 children aged <6 months. HIV infection and exposure status were determined for 2507 (71%), of whom 211 (8%) were HIV infected, 850 (34%) were HEU, and 1446 (58%) were HUU. The annual incidence of LRTI was elevated in HEU (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) and HIV infected (IRR 3.8; 95% CI 3.3-4.5), compared with HUU infants. Relative incidence estimates were greater in HEU than HUU, for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; IRR 1.4; 95% CI 1.3-1.6) and human metapneumovirus-associated (IRR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-2.0) LRTI, with a similar trend observed for influenza (IRR 1.2; 95% CI 0.8-1.8). HEU infants overall, and those with RSV-associated LRTI had greater odds (odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.8, and 12.2, 95% CI 1.7-infinity, respectively) of death than HUU. CONCLUSIONS: HEU infants were more likely to be hospitalized and to die in-hospital than HUU, including specifically due to RSV. This group should be considered a high-risk group for LRTI.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
J Clin Virol ; 75: 21-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26741826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses STUDY DESIGN: We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. RESULTS: We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Orthomyxoviridae , Respirovirus , Rhinovirus , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/virologia , Prevalência , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/etiologia , África do Sul
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 2(4): ofv139, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566534

RESUMO

Background. Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a common cause of acute respiratory tract infections, but little is known about PIV infection in children and adults in Africa, especially in settings where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high. Methods. We conducted active, prospective sentinel surveillance for children and adults hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) from 2009 to 2014 in South Africa. We enrolled controls (outpatients without febrile or respiratory illness) to calculate the attributable fraction for PIV infection. Respiratory specimens were tested by multiplex real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for parainfluenza types 1, 2, and 3. Results. Of 18 282 SARI cases enrolled, 1188 (6.5%) tested positive for any PIV type: 230 (19.4%) were type 1; 168 (14.1%) were type 2; 762 (64.1%) were type 3; and 28 (2.4%) had coinfection with 2 PIV types. After adjusting for age, HIV serostatus, and respiratory viral coinfection, the attributable fraction for PIV was 65.6% (95% CI [confidence interval], 47.1-77.7); PIV contributed to SARI among HIV-infected and -uninfected children <5 years of age and among individuals infected with PIV types 1 and 3. The observed overall incidence of PIV-associated SARI was 38 (95% CI, 36-39) cases per 100 000 population and was highest in children <1 year of age (925 [95% CI, 864-989] cases per 100 000 population). Compared with persons without HIV, persons with HIV had an increased relative risk of PIV hospitalization (9.4; 95% CI, 8.5-10.3). Conclusions. Parainfluenza virus causes substantial severe respiratory disease in South Africa among children <5 years of age, especially those that are infected with HIV.

18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(12): 2225-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26583836

RESUMO

Old World alphaviruses were identified in 52 of 623 horses with febrile or neurologic disease in South Africa. Five of 8 Sindbis virus infections were mild; 2 of 3 fatal cases involved co-infections. Of 44 Middelburg virus infections, 28 caused neurologic disease; 12 were fatal. Middelburg virus likely has zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Cavalos/virologia , Vírus Sindbis/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Alphavirus/genética , Animais , Cavalos/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Sindbis/genética , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
J Clin Virol ; 69: 125-32, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26209394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on human metapneumovirus (HMPV)-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) are limited in settings with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevalence. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and seasonality (all sites), and incidence (Soweto only) of HMPV-associated SARI among children and adults. STUDY DESIGN: Active, prospective, hospital-based, sentinel surveillance for patients hospitalised with SARI was conducted at four sites in South Africa from February 2009-December 2013. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for HMPV and other respiratory viruses. Incidence of hospitalisation, stratified by age and HIV-infection status, was calculated for one hospital with population denominators. RESULTS: HMPV was identified in 4.1% of patients enrolled, including 5.6% (593/10503) in children and 1.7% in adults (≥18 years; 119/6934). The majority of adults (84.0%) had an underlying medical condition, including HIV infection in 87/110 (79.1%). HMPV detection occurred perennially with periods of increased detection, which varied from year to year. The incidence of HMPV-associated hospitalisation in Soweto was highest in infants (653.3 per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 602.2-707.6). The incidence was higher in HIV-infected persons compared to HIV-uninfected persons in age-groups 5-17 years (RR 6.0; 1.1-20.4), 18-44 years (RR 67.6; 38.0-132.6) and 45-64 years (RR 5.3; 3.4-8.3), while not differing in other age-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of HMPV-associated SARI hospitalisation among adults occurred predominantly in HIV-infected persons. Among children, infants were at highest risk, with similar burden of hospitalisation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Metapneumovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pneumovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Metapneumovirus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0118884, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths. METHODS: Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population. RESULTS: We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals >5 years (p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with death were age-group 45-64 years (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-16.3) and ≥65 years (OR 6.5, 95%CI 1.2-34.3) compared to 1-4 year age-group who had the lowest CFP, HIV-infection (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.1-7.8), underlying medical conditions other than HIV (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.2-7.3) and pneumococcal co-infection (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.2). The estimated incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths per 100,000 population was highest in children <1 year (20.1, 95%CI 12.1-31.3) and adults aged 45-64 years (10.4, 95%CI 8.4-12.9). Adjusting for age, the rate of death was 20-fold (95%CI 15.0-27.8) higher in HIV-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals. CONCLUSION: Influenza causes substantial mortality in urban South Africa, particularly in infants aged <1 year and HIV-infected individuals. More widespread access to antiretroviral treatment and influenza vaccination may reduce this burden.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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