Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 173
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900416, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutations are associated with a favorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) is absent (FLT3-ITDneg) or present with a low allelic ratio (FLT3-ITDlow). The 2017 European LeukemiaNet guidelines assume this is true regardless of accompanying cytogenetic abnormalities. We investigated the validity of this assumption. METHODS: We analyzed associations between karyotype and outcome in intensively treated patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML who were prospectively enrolled in registry databases from nine international study groups or treatment centers. RESULTS: Among 2,426 patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML, 2,000 (82.4%) had a normal and 426 (17.6%) had an abnormal karyotype, including 329 patients (13.6%) with intermediate and 83 patients (3.4%) with adverse-risk chromosomal abnormalities. In patients with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML, adverse cytogenetics were associated with lower complete remission rates (87.7%, 86.0%, and 66.3% for normal, aberrant intermediate, and adverse karyotype, respectively; P < .001), inferior 5-year overall (52.4%, 44.8%, 19.5%, respectively; P < .001) and event-free survival (40.6%, 36.0%, 18.1%, respectively; P < .001), and a higher 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (43.6%, 44.2%, 51.9%, respectively; P = .0012). These associations remained in multivariable mixed-effects regression analyses adjusted for known clinicopathologic risk factors (P < .001 for all end points). In patients with adverse-risk chromosomal aberrations, we found no significant influence of the NPM1 mutational status on outcome. CONCLUSION: Karyotype abnormalities are significantly associated with outcome in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML. When adverse-risk cytogenetics are present, patients with NPM1mut share the same unfavorable prognosis as patients with NPM1 wild type and should be classified and treated accordingly. Thus, cytogenetic risk predominates over molecular risk in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITDneg/low AML.

3.
Cancer Med ; 8(3): 1279-1288, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740913

RESUMO

CD9 is a cell surface protein and belongs to the tetraspanin family. Its role in carcinomagenesis has been widely studied in solid tumors but remains controversial, depending on the cancer type. Although CD9 seems to be associated with unfavorable outcome and disease progression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), this marker has not yet been studied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). First, we explored its prognostic role and its association with biological factors in a cohort of 112 AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy. CD9 was expressed in 40% of AML and was associated with a favorable outcome (event-free survival and relapse-free survival) in univariate (P = 0.009 and P = 0.048, respectively) and multivariate (P = 0.004 and P = 0.039, respectively) analyses. Interestingly, CD9 expression was different between the more immature physiologic and AML cells (CD34+CD38-) as it was also expressed in AML on putative leukemic stem cells (LSCs) but not on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Hence, CD9 could be a very relevant marker for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in AML based on LSC targeting.

4.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1565-1571, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733271

RESUMO

High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia patients have a very poor survival after azacitidine failure. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a novel subcutaneous hypomethylating agent which results in extended decitabine exposure. This multicenter phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of guadecitabine in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients refractory or relapsing after azacitidine. We included 56 patients with a median age of 75 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 69-76]. Fifty-five patients received at least one cycle of guadecitabine (60 mg/m2/d subcutaneously days 1-5 per 28-day treatment cycles), with a median of 3 cycles (range, 0-27). Eight (14.3%) patients responded, including two complete responses; median response duration was 11.5 months. Having no or few identified somatic mutations was the only factor predicting response (P=0.035). None of the 11 patients with TP53 mutation responded. Median overall survival was 7.1 months, and 17.9 months in responders (3 of whom had overall survival >2 years). In multivariate analysis, IPSS-R (revised International Prognostic Scoring System) score other than very high (P=0.03) primary versus secondary azacitidine failure (P=0.01) and a high rate of demethylation in blood during the first cycle of treatment (P=0.03) were associated with longer survival. Thus, guadecitabine can be effective, sometimes yielding relatively prolonged survival, in a small proportion of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients who failed azacitidine. (Trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02197676).

6.
Haematologica ; 104(6): 1150-1155, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573507

RESUMO

Clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells could concern chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The European LeukemiaNet distinguishes -7/del(7q) abnormalities as a "warning". However, the impact of clonal chromosome abnormalities, and specifically those of -7/del(7q), in Philadelphia-negative cells on clinical outcomes is unclear and based on case-reports showing morphological dysplasia and increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia, suggesting the coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine whether the impact of -7/del(7q) clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells on the clinical outcome is different from that of other types of abnormalities, and we argue for an underlying associated high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Among 102 chronic myeloid leukemia patients with clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells with more than a median of 6 years of follow up, patients with -7/del(7q) more frequently had signs of dysplasia, a lower cumulative incidence of deep molecular response and often needed further treatment lines, with the consequent impact on event-free and progression-free survival. Morphological features of dysplasia are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia mutations and compromise the optimal response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, irrespectively of the type of clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells. However, mutation patterns determined by next-generation sequencing could not clearly explain the underlying high-risk disease. We hereby confirm the pejorative prognostic value of -7/del(7q) clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells and suggest that myelodysplastic features constitute a warning signal that response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be less than optimal.

9.
Leukemia ; 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089916

RESUMO

Despite constant progress in prognostic risk stratification, children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relapse. Treatment failure and subsequent relapse have been attributed to acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LSC), which harbor stem cell properties and are inherently chemoresistant. Although pediatric and adult AML represent two genetically very distinct diseases, we reasoned that common LSC gene expression programs are shared and consequently, the highly prognostic LSC17 signature score recently developed in adults may also be of clinical interest in childhood AML. Here, we demonstrated prognostic relevance of the LSC17 score in pediatric non-core-binding factor AML using Nanostring technology (ELAM02) and RNA-seq data from the NCI (TARGET-AML). AML were stratified by LSC17 quartile groups (lowest 25%, intermediate 50% and highest 25%) and children with low LSC17 score had significantly better event-free survival (EFS: HR = 3.35 (95%CI = 1.64-6.82), P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS: HR = 3.51 (95%CI = 1.38-8.92), P = 0.008) compared with patients with high LSC17 scores. More importantly, the high LSC17 score was an independent negative EFS and OS prognosticator determined by multivariate Cox model analysis (EFS: HR = 3.42 (95% CI = 1.63-7.16), P = 0.001; OS HR = 3.02 (95%CI = 1.16-7.85), P = 0.026). In conclusion, we have demonstrated the broad applicability of the LSC17 score in the clinical management of AML by extending its prognostic relevance to pediatric AML.

10.
Haematologica ; 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076173

RESUMO

The randomized, phase 3 ALFA-0701 trial showed that a reduced and fractionated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard front-line chemotherapy significantly improves event-free survival in adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Here we report an independent review of event-free survival, final overall survival, and additional safety results from ALFA-0701. Patients (N=271) aged 50-70 years with de novo acute myeloid leukemia were randomized to receive conventional front-line induction chemotherapy (3+7 daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin 3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, and 7 during induction. Patients in remission following induction therapy received 2 courses of consolidation therapy (daunorubicin+cytarabine) with/without gemtuzumab ozogamicin (3 mg/2;/day on day 1) according to their initial randomization. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed event-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival and safety. A blinded independent review confirmed the investigator-assessed event-free survival results (August 1, 2011; hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.49-0.89]; 2-sided p=0.006), corresponding to a 34% reduction in risk of events in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin versus control arm. Final overall survival (April 30, 2013) favored gemtuzumab ozogamicin but was not significant. No differences were observed between arms in early death rate. The main toxicity associated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin was prolonged thrombocytopenia. Veno-occlusive disease (including after transplant) was observed in 6 patients in the gemtuzumab ozogamicin arm and 2 in the control arm. In conclusion, gemtuzumab ozogamicin added to standard intensive chemotherapy has a favorable benefit/risk ratio. These results expand front-line treatment options for adult patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00927498).

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(9): 1396-1397, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907756

RESUMO

Since the publication of the article, it has been noted that there is an error in Table 2. Where 543€ is listed in the final column of the table, this should have been written as 550€.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 31: 174-181, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728305

RESUMO

Somatic mutations contribute to the heterogeneous prognosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) are active in CMML, but analyses of small series failed to identify mutations predicting response or survival. We analyzed a retrospective multi-center cohort of 174 CMML patients treated with a median of 7 cycles of azacitidine (n = 68) or decitabine (n = 106). Sequencing data before treatment initiation were available for all patients, from Sanger (n = 68) or next generation (n = 106) sequencing. Overall response rate (ORR) was 52%, including complete response (CR) in 28 patients (17%). In multivariate analysis, ASXL1 mutations predicted a lower ORR (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.85, p = 0.037), whereas TET2mut/ASXL1wt genotype predicted a higher CR rate (OR = 1.18, p = 0.011) independently of clinical parameters. With a median follow-up of 36.7 months, overall survival (OS) was 23.0 months. In multivariate analysis, RUNX1mut (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 2.00, p = .011), CBLmut (HR = 1.90, p = 0.03) genotypes and higher WBC (log10(WBC) HR = 2.30, p = .005) independently predicted worse OS while the TET2mut/ASXL1wt predicted better OS (HR = 0.60, p = 0.05). CMML-specific scores CPSS and GFM had limited predictive power. Our results stress the need for robust biomarkers of HMA activity in CMML and for novel treatment strategies in patients with myeloproliferative features and RUNX1 mutations.


Assuntos
Azacitidina/análogos & derivados , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Proteínas Repressoras , Idoso , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Decitabina , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
16.
Haematologica ; 103(8): 1278-1287, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724903

RESUMO

Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations strongly predispose to leukemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, made up of all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and hematologic malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old. Among the 53 probands, 24 had missense mutations including 4 recurrent alleles, 21 had nonsense or frameshift mutations, 4 had a whole-gene deletion, 2 had splice defects, and 2 patients had complex mutations. There were significantly more cases of leukemia in patients with missense mutations (n=14 of 34) than in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations (n=2 of 28). We also identify new features of the disease: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to the JC virus, and immune/inflammatory diseases. A revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score allowed a distinction to be made between a stable disease and hematologic transformation. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy, and has a high toxicity with severe infectious complications. As the mortality rate is high in our cohort (up to 35% at the age of 40), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the best choice of treatment to avoid severe infectious and/or hematologic complications. The timing of HSCT remains difficult to determine, but the earlier it is performed, the better the outcome.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (133)2018 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630051

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous, and if not treated, fatal disease. It is the most common cause of leukemia-associated mortality in adults. Initially, AML is a disease of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) characterized by arrest of differentiation, subsequent accumulation of leukemia blast cells, and reduced production of functional hematopoietic elements. Heterogeneity extends to the presence of leukemia stem cells (LSC), with this dynamic cell compartment evolving to overcome various selection pressures imposed upon during leukemia progression and treatment. To further define the LSC population, the addition of CD90 and CD45RA allows the discrimination of normal HSCs and multipotent progenitors within the CD34+CD38- cell compartment. Here, we outline a protocol to detect simultaneous expression of several putative LSC markers (CD34, CD38, CD45RA, CD90) on primary blast cells of human AML by multiparametric flow cytometry. Furthermore, we show how to quantify three progenitor populations and a putative LSC population with increasing degree of maturation. We confirmed the presence of these populations in corresponding patient-derived-xenografts. This method of detection and quantification of putative LSC may be used for clinical follow-up of chemotherapy response (i.e., minimal residual disease), as residual LSC may cause AML relapse.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia
19.
Blood ; 132(2): 187-196, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692343

RESUMO

Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS signaling pathway genes are frequent in core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), but their prognostic relevance is debated. A subset of CBF AML patients harbors several signaling gene mutations. Genotyping of colonies and of relapse samples indicates that these arise in independent clones, thus defining a process of clonal interference (or parallel evolution). Clonal interference is pervasive in cancers, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, and its prognostic impact remains unknown. We analyzed a cohort of 445 adult and pediatric patients with CBF AML treated with intensive chemotherapy and with deep sequencing of 6 signaling genes (KIT, NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, JAK2, CBL). A total of 152 (34%), 167 (38%), and 126 (28%) patients harbored no, a single, and multiple signaling clones (clonal interference), respectively. Clonal interference of signaling mutations was associated with older age (P = .004) and inv(16) subtype (P = .025) but not with white blood cell count or mutations in chromatin or cohesin genes. The median allele frequency of signaling mutations was 31% in patients with a single clone or clonal interference (P = .14). The repertoire of KIT, FLT3, and NRAS/KRAS variants differed between groups. Clonal interference did not affect complete remission rate or minimal residual disease after 1-2 courses, but it did convey inferior event-free survival (P < 10-4), whereas the presence of a single signaling clone did not (P = .44). This inferior outcome was independent of clinical parameters and of the presence of specific signaling clones. Our results suggest that specific clonal architectures can herald distinct prognoses in AML.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA