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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.

3.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376796

RESUMO

Despite the dramatic underrepresentation of non-European populations in human genetics studies, researchers continue to exclude participants of non-European ancestry, as well as variants rare in European populations, even when these data are available. This practice perpetuates existing research disparities and can lead to important and large effect size associations being missed. Here, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 31 serum and urine biomarker quantitative traits in African (n = 9354), East Asian (n = 2559), and South Asian (n = 9823) ancestry UK Biobank (UKBB) participants. We adjusted for all known GWAS catalog variants for each trait, as well as novel signals identified in a recent European ancestry-focused analysis of UKBB participants. We identify 7 novel signals in African ancestry and 2 novel signals in South Asian ancestry participants (p < 1.61E-10). Many of these signals are highly plausible, including a cis pQTL for the gene encoding gamma-glutamyl transferase and PIEZO1 and G6PD variants with impacts on HbA1c through likely erythrocytic mechanisms. This work illustrates the importance of using the genetic data we already have in diverse populations, with novel discoveries possible in even modest sample sizes.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 874-893, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887194

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 194-201, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357513

RESUMO

Given the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations into host susceptibility to infectious diseases and downstream sequelae have never been more relevant. Pneumonia is a lung disease that can cause respiratory failure and hypoxia and is a common complication of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Few genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of host susceptibility and severity of pneumonia have been conducted. We performed GWASs of pneumonia susceptibility and severity in the Vanderbilt University biobank (BioVU) with linked electronic health records (EHRs), including Illumina Expanded Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGAEX)-genotyped European ancestry (EA, n= 69,819) and African ancestry (AA, n = 15,603) individuals. Two regions of large effect were identified: the CFTR locus in EA (rs113827944; OR = 1.84, p value = 1.2 × 10-36) and HBB in AA (rs334 [p.Glu7Val]; OR = 1.63, p value = 3.5 × 10-13). Mutations in these genes cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell disease (SCD), respectively. After removing individuals diagnosed with CF and SCD, we assessed heterozygosity effects at our lead variants. Further GWASs after removing individuals with CF uncovered an additional association in R3HCC1L (rs10786398; OR = 1.22, p value = 3.5 × 10-8), which was replicated in two independent datasets: UK Biobank (n = 459,741) and 7,985 non-overlapping BioVU subjects, who are genotyped on arrays other than MEGAEX. This variant was also validated in GWASs of COVID-19 hospitalization and lung function. Our results highlight the importance of the host genome in infectious disease susceptibility and severity and offer crucial insight into genetic effects that could potentially influence severity of COVID-19 sequelae.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Bronquite/genética , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
7.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2806-2818, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917775

RESUMO

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare LEP mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in LEP, ZNF800, KLHL31, and ACTL9, and one intergenic variant near KLF14. The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in LEP was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry (P = 2 × 10-16, n = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , /genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/química , Leptina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
9.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.


Assuntos
/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Saúde da Mulher , Estatura/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genética Médica/métodos , Equidade em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipídeos/análise , Obesidade/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(3): 515-523, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307499

RESUMO

E-selectin mediates the rolling of circulating leukocytes during inflammatory processes. Previous genome-wide association studies in European and Asian individuals have identified the ABO locus associated with E-selectin levels. Using Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine whole genome sequencing data in 2249 African Americans (AAs) from the Jackson Heart Study, we examined genome-wide associations with soluble E-selectin levels. In addition to replicating known signals at ABO, we identified a novel association of a common loss-of-function, missense variant in Fucosyltransferase 6 (FUT6; rs17855739,p.Glu274Lys, P = 9.02 × 10-24) with higher soluble E-selectin levels. This variant is considerably more common in populations of African ancestry compared to non-African ancestry populations. We replicated the association of FUT6 p.Glu274Lys with higher soluble E-selectin in an independent population of 748 AAs from the Women's Health Initiative and identified an additional pleiotropic association with vitamin B12 levels. Despite the broad role of both selectins and fucosyltransferases in various inflammatory, immune and cancer-related processes, we were unable to identify any additional disease associations of the FUT6 p.Glu274Lys variant in an electronic medical record-based phenome-wide association scan of over 9000 AAs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Selectina E/genética , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
12.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , /genética
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 103-115, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290336

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure, and premature death. The pathogenesis of AF remains poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective treatments. To understand the genetic variation and biology underlying AF, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,337 AF individuals and 61,607 AF-free individuals from Norway, including replication in an additional 30,679 AF individuals and 278,895 AF-free individuals. Through genotyping and dense imputation mapping from whole-genome sequencing, we tested almost nine million genetic variants across the genome and identified seven risk loci, including two novel loci. One novel locus (lead single-nucleotide variant [SNV] rs12614435; p = 6.76 × 10-18) comprised intronic and several highly correlated missense variants situated in the I-, A-, and M-bands of titin, which is the largest protein in humans and responsible for the passive elasticity of heart and skeletal muscle. The other novel locus (lead SNV rs56202902; p = 1.54 × 10-11) covered a large, gene-dense chromosome 1 region that has previously been linked to cardiac conduction. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses suggested that many AF-associated genetic variants act through a mechanism of impaired muscle cell differentiation and tissue formation during fetal heart development.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/embriologia , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
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