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1.
Chest ; 157(1): 89-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), often disproportionate to the severity of the ILD. The right ventricular to left ventricular diameter (RV:LV) ratio measured at CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) has been shown to provide valuable information in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and to predict death or deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Demographic characteristics, ILD subtype, echocardiography, and detailed CTPA measurements were collected in consecutive patients undergoing both CTPA and right heart catheterization at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2005 and 2015. Fibrosis severity was formally scored according to CT criteria. The RV:LV ratio at CTPA was evaluated by using three different methods. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relation of CTPA-derived parameters to predict death or lung transplantation. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included (64% male; mean age 65 ± 11 years) with an FVC 57 ± 20% predicted, corrected transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide 22 ± 8% predicted, and corrected transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide 51 ± 17% predicted. PH was confirmed at right heart catheterization in 78%. Of all the CTPA-derived measures, an RV:LV ratio ≥ 1.0 strongly predicted mortality or transplantation at univariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.49-7.13; P = .003), whereas invasive hemodynamic data did not. The RV:LV ratio remained an independent predictor at multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.44-7.10; P = .004), adjusting for an ILD diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and CT imaging-derived ILD severity. CONCLUSIONS: An increased RV:LV ratio measured at CTPA provides a simple, noninvasive method of risk stratification in patients with suspected ILD-PH. This should prompt closer follow-up, more aggressive treatment, and consideration of lung transplantation.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 299: 131-135, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), is a rare and progressive disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Prostanoid pulmonary vasodilators are the most effective treatment for idiopathic and connective tissue associated PAH. Nonetheless, data examining their safety and efficacy in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome the most severe form of PAH, that is, related to cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH) remains limited. AIM: To evaluate safety and the clinical efficacy of nebulised iloprost in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome who are on maximum background oral PAH therapy. METHODS: This pilot study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomised to receive nebulised placebo or iloprost for 12 weeks and were then crossed over, with a 7-14-day washout. The primary endpoint was a change in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (11 females, aged 47.3 ±â€¯9.8 year) were recruited, twelve completed the study. All were in WHO-FC III, with a resting oxygen saturation of 84 [81-87] % and a median 6MWD of 290 [260-300] m. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint between nebulised iloprost (0[-4-9]m) and placebo (10 [-15-51]m), p = 0.58. There were no safety concerns with nebulised iloprost. CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot study provides preliminary evidence that the addition of nebulised iloprost to maximum oral PAH therapy did not improve the primary endpoint of 6MWD. Nebulised iloprost was well tolerated with no significant safety concerns in CHD-PAH.

4.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019859474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246163

RESUMO

A 36-year-old woman presented with recurrent pulmonary emboli (PE) despite oral anticoagulation. She was a type I diabetic with severe gastroparesis requiring insertion of multiple long-term peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) over a 10-year period. Imaging at presentation demonstrated a PICC-associated mobile mass in the right atrium and signs of pulmonary hypertension (PH). She was thrombolyzed and fully anticoagulated, and diabetic management without PICC strongly recommended. PH persisted, however, and she developed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), for which successful pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery led to symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement. This was the first case of CTEPH reported related to long-term PICC use outside the setting of malignant disease, and a novel observation that the PEA specimen contained multiple plastic fragments. Long-term PICC placement increases the risk of CTEPH, a life-threatening, albeit treatable, complication.

6.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019845615, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945593

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is diagnostically challenging given the extent of pulmonary vascular remodeling required to bring about clinical signs and symptoms. Exercise testing can be invaluable in this setting, as stressing the cardiopulmonary system may unmask early disease. This report describes a young patient with a positive family history of PAH in whom contemporaneous invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing and surgical lung biopsy reveal the novel association between exercise pulmonary hypertension (ePH) and early histological changes of PAH. Exercise PH currently carries no pathological correlates which means the hemodynamic effects of early pulmonary vascular remodeling remain unknown. Following the recent proceedings from the World Symposium in Pulmonary Hypertension 2018, which broaden the hemodynamic definition of PAH, this report suggests an important association between ePH and early pulmonary vascular remodeling supporting a role for exercise hemodynamic evaluation in patients at increased familial risk of PAH.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 53(5)2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923185

RESUMO

While traffic and air pollution exposure is associated with increased mortality in numerous diseases, its association with disease severity and outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unknown.Exposure to particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and indirect measures of traffic-related air pollution (distance to main road and length of roads within buffer zones surrounding residential addresses) were estimated for 301 patients with idiopathic/heritable PAH recruited in the UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH. Associations with transplant-free survival and pulmonary haemodynamic severity at baseline were assessed, adjusting for confounding variables defined a prioriHigher estimated exposure to PM2.5 was associated with higher risk of death or lung transplant (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.68 (95% CI 1.11-6.47) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.028). This association remained similar when adjusted for potential confounding variables (HR 4.38 (95% CI 1.44-13.36) per 3 µg·m-3; p=0.009). No associations were found between NO2 exposure or other traffic pollution indicators and transplant-free survival. Conversely, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution within the 500-1000 m buffer zones correlated with the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society risk categories as well as pulmonary haemodynamics at baseline. This association was strongest for pulmonary vascular resistance.In idiopathic/heritable PAH, indirect measures of exposure to traffic-related air pollution were associated with disease severity at baseline, whereas higher PM2.5 exposure may independently predict shorter transplant-free survival.

8.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(151)2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728162

RESUMO

Tumoral pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a variety of subtypes in patients with a current or previous malignancy. Tumoral PH principally includes the tumour-related pulmonary microvascular conditions pulmonary tumour microembolism and pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy. These inter-related conditions are frequently found in post mortem specimens but are notoriously difficult to diagnose ante mortem The outlook for patients remains extremely poor although there is some emerging evidence that pulmonary vasodilators and anti-inflammatory approaches may improve survival. Tumoral PH also includes pulmonary macroembolism and tumours that involve the proximal pulmonary vasculature, such as angiosarcoma; both may mimic pulmonary embolism and chronic thromboembolic PH. Finally, tumoral PH may develop in response to treatments of an underlying malignancy. There is increasing interest in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as dasatanib. In addition, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents such as mitomycin-C can cause pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Tumoral PH should be considered in any patient presenting with unexplained PH, especially if it is poorly responsive to standard approaches or there is a history of malignancy. This article will describe subtypes of tumoral PH, their pathophysiology, investigation and management options in turn.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Prognóstico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 277: 229-234, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvements in availability and accuracy of diagnostic testing in pulmonary embolism (PE) in the last 20 years have more recently been paralleled by the introduction of additional anticoagulation agents and treatment strategies. These developments are likely to shape potentially important changes in PE incidence, associated mortality and treatment complications. METHODS: We investigated trends in PE incidence, PE-related mortality and bleeding risk by analysing Hospital Episodes Statistics for England. RESULTS: Between 1997 and 2015, 464,046 patients (53.9% female) were hospitalized with PE in England. The annual number of hospitalizations with an associated diagnosis of PE more than doubled over this period (24,366 in 1998 vs. 53,108 in 2014), with a corresponding increase in PE hospitalization rate (50.2 to 97.8 per 100,000 population/year), evident in all age categories. Mortality at 1 and 3 months decreased over the study period and was significantly associated with age, treatment era and comorbidities. The risk of bleeding resulting in hospitalization or death within 3 and 12 months after the index PE admission increased over the study period (4.3%/5.1% for 1998-2004 versus 6.1%/7.2% for 2010-2014, p < 0.001 for both comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PE doubled in England between 1997 and 2015, likely attributable to raised awareness and ability to diagnose less severe cases. While PE-associated mortality decreased, there was an increase in bleeding risk. Renewed efforts directed at reducing the incidence of bleeding, including consideration of anticoagulation regimens and investigation of anticoagulation requirement in patients with low-risk features, are needed.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Heart ; 104(23): 1963-1969, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Approximately 5%-10% of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which affects life expectancy and quality of life. Arrhythmias are common among these patients, but their incidence and impact on outcome remains uncertain. METHODS: All adult patients with PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD) seen in a tertiary centre between 2007 and 2015 were followed for new-onset atrial or ventricular arrhythmia. Clinical variables associated with arrhythmia and their relation to mortality were assessed using Cox analysis. RESULTS: A total of 310 patients (mean age 34.9±12.3 years, 36.8% male) were enrolled. The majority had Eisenmenger syndrome (58.4%), 15.2% had a prior defect repair and a third had Down syndrome. At baseline, 14.2% had a prior history of arrhythmia, mostly supraventricular arrhythmia (86.4%). During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 64 patients developed at least one new arrhythmic episode (incidence 3.47% per year), mostly supraventricular tachycardia or atrial fibrillation (78.1% of patients). Arrhythmia was associated with symptoms in 75.0% of cases. The type of PAH-CHD, markers of disease severity and prior arrhythmia were associated with arrhythmia during follow-up. Arrhythmia was a strong predictor of death, even after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables (HR 3.41, 95% CI 2.10 to 5.53, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Arrhythmia is common in PAH-CHD and is associated with an adverse long-term outcome, even when managed in a specialist centre.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas/classificação , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Incidência , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(2)2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750141

RESUMO

European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines recommend the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), as defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥35 mmHg at right heart catheterisation (RHC). We developed and validated a stepwise echocardiographic score to detect severe PH using the tricuspid regurgitant velocity and right atrial pressure (right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)) and additional echocardiographic signs. Consecutive ILD patients with suspected PH underwent RHC between 2005 and 2015. Receiver operating curve analysis tested the ability of components of the score to predict mPAP ≥35 mmHg, and a score devised using a stepwise approach. The score was tested in a contemporaneous validation cohort. The score used "additional PH signs" where RVSP was unavailable, using a bootstrapping technique. Within the derivation cohort (n=210), a score ≥7 predicted severe PH with 89% sensitivity, 71% specificity, positive predictive value 68% and negative predictive value 90%, with similar performance in the validation cohort (n=61) (area under the curve (AUC) 84.8% versus 83.1%, p=0.8). Although RVSP could be estimated in 92% of studies, reducing this to 60% maintained a fair accuracy (AUC 74.4%). This simple stepwise echocardiographic PH score can predict severe PH in patients with ILD.

14.
Heart ; 104(1): 45-50, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although a significant proportion of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease are thrombocytopaenic, its prevalence and clinical significance in adults with Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is not well studied. Accordingly, we examined the relationship of thrombocytopaenia and mean platelet volume (MPV) to bleeding or thrombotic complications and survival in a contemporary cohort of patients with ES, including patients with Down syndrome. METHODS: Demographics, laboratory and clinical data were analysed from 226 patients with ES under active follow-up over 11 years. RESULTS: Age at baseline was 34.6±11.4 years and 34.1% were men. Mean platelet count and MPV were 152.6±73.3×109/L and 9.6±1.2 fL, respectively. A strong inverse correlation was found between platelet count and haemoglobin concentration and MPV. During the study, there were 39 deaths, and 21 thrombotic and 43 bleeding events. On univariate Cox regression analysis, patients with a platelet count <100×109/L had a twofold increased mortality (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.01, p=0.024). Platelet count was not associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. However, there was a threefold increased thrombotic risk with MPV >9.5 fL (HR 3.50, 95% CI 1.28 to 9.54, p=0.015). Patients with either severe secondary erythrocytosis (>220g/L) or anaemia (<130g/L) were at higher risk of thrombotic events (HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.60 to 9.67, p=0.003; and HR 4.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 21.84, p=0.045, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopaenia significantly increased the risk of mortality in ES. Furthermore, raised MPV, severe secondary erythrocytosis and anaemia, but not platelet count, were associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events in our adult cohort.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Complexo de Eisenmenger/sangue , Previsões , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Adulto , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Complexo de Eisenmenger/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Thorax ; 72(11): 1035-1045, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904006

RESUMO

Treatment of acute emergencies in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be challenging. In the UK and Ireland, management of adult patients with PAH is centred in eight nationally designated pulmonary hypertension (PH) centres. However, many patients live far from these centres and physicians in local hospitals are often required to manage PAH emergencies. A committee of physicians from nationally designated PH centres identified the 'most common' emergency clinical scenarios encountered in patients with PAH. Thereafter, a review of the literature was performed centred on these specified topics and a management approach was developed based on best available evidence and expert consensus. Management protocols were developed on the following PAH emergencies: chest pain (including myocardial ischaemia), right ventricular failure, arrhythmias, sepsis, haemoptysis ('CRASH'), as well as considerations relevant to surgery, anaesthesia and pregnancy. Emergencies are not uncommon in PAH. While expertise in PAH management is essential, all physicians involved in acute care should be aware of the principles of acute management of PAH emergencies. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary, with physicians from tertiary PH centres supporting care locally and planning safe transfer of patients to PH centres when appropriate.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Papel do Médico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hemoptise/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Irlanda , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia
17.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 22(5): 421-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387102

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) describes tumour cell microemboli with occlusive fibrointimal remodelling in small pulmonary arteries, veins and lymphatics. Progressive vessel occlusion ultimately results in pulmonary hypertension, which is often severe and rapid in onset. PTTM is associated with carcinomas, notably gastric carcinoma, with vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling implicated in driving the intimal remodelling. PTTM is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension, but given that up to a quarter of autopsy specimens from patients dying of carcinoma show evidence for PTTM, it is probably underdiagnosed. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, prognosis in PTTM was universally abysmal from weeks to a few months. Diagnostic utilities include aspiration of tumour cells at wedged right heart catheterization, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings and computed tomography-positron emission tomography (CT-PET), although definitive diagnosis requires histological analysis. Reports of PTTM treated with a combination of targeted pulmonary vasodilator therapies, anticoagulation, specific chemotherapy and PDGF inhibition, for example using imatinib, suggest that these approaches can prolong survival. SUMMARY: PTTM is increasingly recognized as an important cause of pulmonary hypertension, often in patients presenting with new-onset pulmonary hypertension and as yet undiagnosed malignancy. Prospects of survival are improving with targeted combination therapy, and early recognition and diagnosis are likely to be the key factors to improve outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico , Remodelação Vascular , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/fisiopatologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/terapia
20.
Respir Res ; 16: 114, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26382031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone suppressed inflammation and haemodynamic changes in an animal model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A major target for dexamethasone actions is NF-κB, which is activated in pulmonary vascular cells and perivascular inflammatory cells in PAH. Reverse remodelling is an important concept in PAH disease therapy, and further to its anti-proliferative effects, we sought to explore whether dexamethasone augments pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis. METHODS: Analysis of apoptosis markers (caspase 3, in-situ DNA fragmentation) and NF-κB (p65 and phospho-IKK-α/ß) activation was performed on lung tissue from rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH), before and after day 14-28 treatment with dexamethasone (5 mg/kg/day). PASMC were cultured from this rat PH model and from normal human lung following lung cancer surgery. Following stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml), the effects of dexamethasone (10(-8)-10(-6) M) and IKK2 (NF-κB) inhibition (AS602868, 0-3 µM (0-3×10(-6) M) on IL-6 and CXCL8 release and apoptosis was determined by ELISA and by Hoechst staining. NF-κB activation was measured by TransAm assay. RESULTS: Dexamethasone treatment of rats with MCT-induced PH in vivo led to PASMC apoptosis as displayed by increased caspase 3 expression and DNA fragmentation. A similar effect was seen in vitro using TNF-α-simulated human and rat PASMC following both dexamethasone and IKK2 inhibition. Increased apoptosis was associated with a reduction in NF-κB activation and in IL-6 and CXCL8 release from PASMC. CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone exerted reverse-remodelling effects by augmenting apoptosis and reversing inflammation in PASMC possibly via inhibition of NF-κB. Future PAH therapies may involve targeting these important inflammatory pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Monocrotalina , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fosforilação , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
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