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2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the current quality of care for hospice cancer patients and how it varies across hospice programs in the USA. OBJECTIVE: To examine hospice care experiences among decedents with a primary cancer diagnosis and their family caregivers, comparing quality across settings of hospice care. DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Hospice Survey (32% response rate). Top-box outcomes (0-100) were calculated overall and by care setting, adjusting for survey mode and patient case mix. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seventeen thousand five hundred ninety-six caregiver respondents whose family member had a primary cancer diagnosis and died in 2017 or 2018 while receiving hospice care from 2,890 hospices nationwide. MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes (0-100 scale) included 8 National Quality Forum-endorsed quality measures, as well as responses to 4 survey questions assessing whether needs were met for specific symptoms (pain, dyspnea, constipation, anxiety/sadness). KEY RESULTS: Quality measure scores ranged from 74.9 (Getting Hospice Care Training measure) to 89.5 (Treating Family Member with Respect measure). The overall score for Getting Help for Symptoms was 75.1 with item scores within this measure ranging from 60.6 (getting needed help for feelings of anxiety or sadness) to 84.5 (getting needed help for pain). Measure scores varied significantly across settings and differences were large in magnitude, with caregivers of decedents who received care in a nursing home (NH) or assisted living facility (ALF) setting consistently reporting poorer quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: Important opportunities exist to improve hospice care for symptom palliation and providing training for caregivers when their family members are at home or in an ALF setting. Efforts to improve care for cancer patients in the NH and ALF setting are especially needed.

3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 204: 105057, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360282

RESUMO

Peer feedback becomes highly salient during adolescence, especially for girls. The way in which adolescents react to social feedback is associated with psychosocial adjustment and mental health. Consequently, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the physiological and neural underpinnings of adolescent response to feedback by simulating the experience of rejection and acceptance using computer-based paradigms. However, these paradigms typically use nonfamiliar peers and the facade of internet chatrooms or games to present artificial peer feedback. The current study piloted the use of a novel and potentially more ecologically valid peer expressed emotion paradigm in which participants listen to prerecorded clips of ostensible personalized feedback made by their close friend. Physiological data measuring autonomic nervous system response were collected as an index of emotional reactivity/arousal and cognitive-affective processing. Results show promising preliminary evidence validating the task for future use. Participants (N = 18 girls, aged 11-17 years) reported feeling more positive following praise, relative to critical and neutral feedback, and reported feeling more upset following criticism, relative to praise and neutral feedback. Girls exhibited greater pupillary dilation, skin conductance levels (N = 17), and/or heart rate (N = 17) while listening to affectively charged, peer feedback compared with neutral yet personally relevant statements. Girls also exhibited variable physiological response when listening to praising versus critical feedback. Findings from this pilot study validate the use of this novel Peer Expressed Emotion task for the investigation of adolescents' emotional and physiological reactivity in response to real-world peer evaluation. However, it is important to recognize that this study provides only preliminary findings and that future research is needed to replicate the results in larger samples.

4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271040

RESUMO

Implicit self-associations are theorized to be rigidly and excessively negative in affective disorders like depression. Such information processing patterns may be useful as an approach to parsing heterogeneous etiologies, substrates, and treatment outcomes within the broad syndrome of depression. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on the psychometric, neural, and computational substrates of Implicit Association Test (IAT) performance in patient populations. In a treatment-seeking, clinically depressed sample (n = 122), we administered five variants of the IAT-a dominant paradigm used in hundreds of studies of implicit cognition to date-at two repeated sessions (outside and inside a functional MRI scanner). We examined reliability, clinical correlates, and neural and computational substrates of IAT performance. IAT scores showed adequate (.67-.81) split-half reliability and convergent validity with one another and with relevant explicit symptom measures. Test-retest correlations (in vs. outside the functional MRI scanner) were present but modest (.15-.55). In depressed patients, on average, negative implicit self-representations appeared to be weaker or less efficiently processed relative to positive self-representations; elicited greater recruitment of frontoparietal task network regions; and, according to computational modeling of trial-by-trial data, were driven primarily by differential efficiency of information accumulation for negative and positive attributes. Greater degree of discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-worth predicted depression severity. Overall, these IATs show potential utility in understanding heterogeneous substrates of depression but leave substantial room for improvement. The observed clinical, neural, and computational correlates of implicit self-associations offer novel insights into a simple computer-administered task in a clinical population and point toward heterogeneous depression mechanisms and treatment targets. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326317

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about end-of-life care experiences of Asian Americans and gaps in end-of-life care quality between Asians and non-Hispanic whites. Objective: Compare the perceptions of next-of-kin of Asian and non-Hispanic white decedents on end-of-life care quality. Design: Mortality follow-back survey. Setting/Subjects: Population-based sample of 108 Asian and 414 non-Hispanic white bereaved family members or close friends of adult, nontraumatic deaths in the San Francisco Bay area in 2018. Measurements: Survey items examined whether health care professionals treated the dying person with respect and dignity, respected their cultural traditions, respected their religious or spiritual beliefs, provided enough information about what to expect during the last month of life, provided emotional support to the family after the patient's death, and whether the dying person and the family received the needed help after work hours. Results: Of the 623 surveys (weighted n = 6513), 108 (weighted percentage = 17.6%) were from caregivers of Asian decedents. Almost half of these respondents indicated that they did not always experience respect for their cultural traditions (45.9% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.00) or respect for their religious and spiritual beliefs (42.2% vs. 24.5%, p = 0.01). With the exception of two outcomes, worse caregiver-reported care quality for Asian decedents persisted after adjustment for cause of death, site of death, type of health insurance, respondent's relationship to decedent, decedent age, and respondent education. Conclusions: Compared with caregivers of non-Hispanic whites, caregivers of Asian decedents reported unmet needs for caregiver support and lack of respect for cultural traditions and religious/spiritual beliefs.

6.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337285

RESUMO

Background: An often-stated concern is that dying persons receive too much aggressive medical care. Objective: Examine next-of-kin perceptions of the amount of medical care received in the last month of life. Design: Mixed-methods study with 623 survey responses and in-depth interviews with a subsample of 17 respondents. Subjects: Nontraumatic deaths 18 years and older in San Francisco Bay area. Measure: The survey asked: "During the last month of your family member's life, did he or she receive too little, the right amount, or too much medical care?" Additionally, surveys examined 18 measures of quality of care in the last month of life, reporting concerns or unmet needs with staff communication, symptom management, emotional support, physician communication, treating the patient with dignity, respecting a person's culture, spiritual support, and providing timely help after hours. Results: Of the 623 survey respondents, 16.9% reported their loved one received "too little" care while only 1.4% reported "too much." Likelihood of reporting too little medical care did not differ by age, gender, or being insured by Medicaid only. Respondents who reported "too little" compared with those that stated the "right amount" reported higher unmet needs for symptom palliation, physician communication concerns, with other important opportunities to improve the quality of care. Among the 17 in-depth interviews of those indicating "too little" care on the structured survey, the predominant concern (n = 10) was inadequate symptom management. Conclusion: While the majority of respondents indicated their loved one received the right amount of medical care at the end of life, a notable minority (one in six) indicated that their loved one received too little care.

7.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021460

RESUMO

Background: A major goal of hospice care is to provide individually tailored emotional and spiritual support to caregivers of hospice patients. Objectives: Examine the association between reported emotional support and caregivers' overall rating of hospice care, overall and by race/ethnicity/language. Subjects: We analyzed survey data corresponding to 657,805 decedents/caregivers who received care from 3160 hospice programs during January 2017-December 2018. Measurements: Linear regression models examined the association between caregiver-reported receipt of emotional and spiritual support ("too little" vs. "right amount" vs. "too much") and overall rating of the hospice (0 vs. 100 rating). Interaction terms assessed variation in this association by race/ethnicity/language. Results: "Too much" emotional support was less common than "too little," except for caregivers of Hispanic decedents responding in Spanish. "Too little" support was strongly associated with lower hospice ratings for all groups (compared to "right amount" of support, p < 0.001). In contrast, the negative association between "too much" support and hospice rating was much smaller (p < 0.001) among caregivers of white and black decedents. "Too much" support was associated with more positive ratings among caregivers of Hispanic decedents (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Receipt of "too much" support is a less common and much weaker driver of poor hospice ratings than receipt of "too little" support for all groups, and is not always viewed negatively. This suggests that for hospice evaluation, "too much" support should not be scored equivalently to "too little" support and that providing enough support should be a hospice priority.

8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with low-grade elevation of plasma cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα) in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in adults. Preclinical and clinical studies also suggest that IL-6 and TNFα elevation are associated with anhedonia. However, few studies have examined longitudinal relationships between cytokines and depression/anhedonia in clinically depressed samples, particularly adolescents. METHODS: Thirty-six adolescents with a depressive disorder receiving standard-of-care community treatment were assessed at a baseline and a follow-up timepoint. Self-report and clinical measures of depression and anhedonia, along with plasma IL-6 and TNFα levels, were obtained at both timepoints. Baseline cytokine measures were examined in association with baseline and follow-up clinical measures. On an exploratory basis, change in clinical measures over time was examined in relation to change in cytokine levels over time. RESULTS: Higher baseline TNFα levels predicted higher follow-up depression severity after approximately four months (controlling for baseline depression). Higher baseline TNFα levels also associated positively with baseline anhedonia and predicted higher anhedonia at follow-up (controlling for baseline anhedonia). No association was found between change in clinical measures and change in cytokine levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents receiving standard-of-care community treatment for depression, higher levels of TNFα predicted greater depressive symptoms at 4-month follow-up, suggesting this cytokine may be used to help identify patients in need of more intensive treatment. Elevated TNFα levels were also associated with concurrent and future anhedonia symptoms, suggesting a specific mechanism in which TNFα affects depression trajectories. Future studies should examine the relationships between cytokine levels and depression/anhedonia symptoms at multiple timepoints in larger cohorts of depressed adolescents.

9.
Dev Psychobiol ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767376

RESUMO

Attention to socio-emotional stimuli (i.e., affect-biased attention) is an integral component of emotion regulation and human communication. Given the strong link between maternal affect and adolescent behavior, maternal affect may be a critical influence on adolescent affect-biased attention during mother-child interaction. However, prior methodological constraints have precluded fine-grained examinations of factors such as maternal affect on adolescent attention during real-world social interaction. Therefore, this pilot study capitalized on previously validated technological advances by using mobile eye-tracking and facial affect coding software to quantify the influence of maternal affect on adolescents' attention to the mother during a conflict discussion. Results from 7,500 to 9,000 time points sampled for each mother-daughter dyad (n = 28) indicated that both negative and positive maternal affect, relative to neutral, elicited more adolescent attentional avoidance of the mother (ORs = 2.68-9.20), suggesting that typically developing adolescents may seek to avoid focusing on maternal affect of either valence during a conflict discussion. By examining the moment-to-moment association between in vivo displays of maternal affect and subsequent adolescent attention toward the mother's face, these results provide preliminary evidence that maternal affect moderates adolescent attention. Our findings are consistent with cross-species approach-avoidance models suggesting that offspring respond to affectively charged conversations with greater behavioral avoidance or deference.

10.
Brain Behav ; 10(8): e01664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Altered attention to threatening stimuli at initial and sustained stages of processing may be dissociable dimensions that influence the development and maintenance of transdiagnostic symptoms of anxiety, such as vigilance, and possibly require distinct intervention. Attention bias modification (ABM) interventions were created to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli and have shown efficacy in treating anxiety. ABM alters neurocognitive functioning during initial stages of threat processing, but less is known regarding effects of ABM on neural indices of threat processing at sustained (i.e., intermediate and late) stages, or if ABM-related neural changes relate to symptom response. The current study utilized pupillary response as a temporally sensitive and cost-effective peripheral marker of neurocognitive response to ABM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 79 patients with transdiagnostic anxiety provided baseline data, 70 were randomized to receive eight sessions of twice-weekly ABM (n = 49) or sham training (n = 21), and 65 completed their assigned treatment condition and returned for post-training assessment. RESULTS: Among ABM, but not sham, patients, pupillary response to threat words during initial and intermediate stages decreased from pre- to post-training. Pre- to post-training reductions in intermediate and late pupillary response to threat were positively correlated with reductions in patient-reported vigilance among ABM, but not sham, patients. CONCLUSIONS: All measured stages of threat processing had relevance in understanding the neural mechanisms of ABM, with overlapping yet dissociable roles exhibited within a single neurophysiological marker across an initial-intermediate-late time continuum. Pupillometry may be well suited to measure both target engagement and treatment outcome following ABM.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Computational models show great promise in mapping latent decision-making processes onto dissociable neural substrates and clinical phenotypes. One prominent example in reinforcement learning is model-based planning, which specifically relates to transdiagnostic compulsivity. However, the reliability of computational model-derived measures such as model-based planning is unclear. Establishing reliability is necessary to ensure that such models measure stable, traitlike processes, as assumed in computational psychiatry. Although analysis approaches affect validity of reinforcement learning models and reliability of other task-based measures, their effect on reliability of reinforcement learning models of empirical data has not been systematically studied. METHODS: We first assessed within- and across-session reliability and effects of analysis approaches (model estimation, parameterization, and data cleaning) of measures of model-based planning in patients with compulsive disorders (n = 38). The analysis approaches affecting test-retest reliability were tested in 3 large generalization samples (healthy participants: n = 541 and 111; people with a range of compulsivity: n = 1413). RESULTS: Analysis approaches greatly influenced reliability: reliability of model-based planning measures ranged from 0 (no concordance) to above 0.9 (acceptable for clinical applications). The largest influence on reliability was whether model-estimation approaches were robust and accounted for the hierarchical structure of estimated parameters. Improvements in reliability generalized to other datasets and greatly reduced the sample size needed to find a relationship between model-based planning and compulsivity in an independent dataset. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that computational psychiatry measures such as model-based planning can reliably measure latent decision-making processes, but when doing so must assess the ability of methods to estimate complex models from limited data.

13.
J Palliat Med ; 23(12): 1639-1643, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155376

RESUMO

Background: The hospice market has changed substantially, shifting from predominately not-for-profit independent entities to for-profit national chains. Little is known about how hospice organizational characteristics are associated with quality of hospice care. Objective: To examine the association between hospice characteristics and care processes and performance on measures of hospice care quality. Design: Logistic regression models assessed the association between hospice characteristics and processes and hospices being in the top quartile of quality measure performance. Setting/Subjects: U.S. hospices with publicly reported measure scores in 2015-2017. Measurements: Summaries of hospice-level performance on Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Hospice Survey measures (including communication, timely care, symptom management, emotional and spiritual support, respect, training families, overall rating, and willingness to recommend) and Hospice Item Set (HIS) measures (including pain screening and assessment, dyspnea screening and treatment, bowel regimen for patients on opioids, discussion of treatment preferences, and beliefs/values addressed). Results: Of the 2746 hospices that met public reporting requirements, 5.6% were in the top quartile of both CAHPS and HIS performance. Characteristics associated with being in the top quartile for CAHPS included being a nonprofit and nonchain or government hospice, smaller size (<200 patients per year), and serving a rural area. Characteristics associated with being in the top quartile for HIS included being in a for-profit chain, larger size (91+ patients per year), and having <40% of patients in a nursing home. Providing professional staff visits in the last two days of life to a higher proportion of patients was associated with hospices being in the top quartile of HIS and in the top quartile of CAHPS. Conclusions: Hospice characteristics associated with strong performance on HIS measures differ from those associated with strong performance on CAHPS measures. Providing professional staff visits in the last two days of life is associated with high performance on both quality domains.

15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(6): 1218-1225, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine variation in reported experiences with hospice care by setting. DESIGN: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Hospice (CAHPS®) Survey data from 2016 were analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine differences in measure scores by setting of care (home, nursing home [NH], hospital, freestanding hospice inpatient unit [IPU], and assisted living facility [ALF]). SETTING: A total of 2636 US hospices. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 311 635 primary caregivers of patients who died in hospice. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes were seven hospice quality measures, including five composite measures that assess aspects of hospice care important to patients and families, including hospice team communication, timeliness of care, treating family member with respect, symptom management, and emotional and spiritual support, and two global measures of the overall rating of the hospice and willingness to recommend it to friends and family. Analyses were adjusted for mode of survey administration and differences in case-mix between hospices. RESULTS: Caregivers of decedents who received hospice care in a NH reported significantly worse experiences than caregivers of those in the home for all measures. ALF scores were also significantly lower than home for all measures, except providing emotional and spiritual support. Differences in NH and ALF settings compared to home were particularly large for hospice team communication (ranging from -11 to -12 on a 0-100 scale) and getting help for symptoms (ranging from -7 to -10). Consistently across all care settings, hospice team communication, treating family member with respect, and providing emotional and spiritual support were most strongly associated with overall rating of care. CONCLUSIONS: Important opportunities exist to improve quality of hospice care in NHs and ALFs. Quality improvement and regulatory interventions targeting the NH and ALF settings are needed to ensure that all hospice decedents and their family receive high-quality, patient- and family-centered hospice care. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1218-1225, 2020.

16.
J Palliat Med ; 23(1): 13-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721629

RESUMO

Background: Communication between clinicians and patients fundamentally shapes the experience of serious illness. There is increasing recognition that health systems should routinely implement structures and processes to assure high-quality serious illness communication (SIC) and measure the effectiveness of their efforts on key outcomes. The absence, underdevelopment, or limited applicability of quality measures related specifically to SIC, and their limited application only to those seen by specialist palliative and hospice care teams, hinder efforts to improve care planning, service delivery, and health outcomes for all seriously ill patients. Objective: We convened an expert stakeholder symposium and subsequently surveyed participants to consider challenges, opportunities, priorities, and strategies to improve quality measurement specific to SIC. Results: We identified several barriers and opportunities to improving quality measurement of SIC. These include issues related to the definition of SIC, methodological challenges related to measuring SIC and related outcomes, underutilization of technologies that can facilitate measurement, and measurement development, and dissemination. Conclusions: Patients, clinicians, and health systems increasingly align around the importance of high-quality communication in serious illness. We offer recommendations for various stakeholder groups to advance SIC quality measurement. Enthusiasm and a sense of urgency among health systems to drive and measure communication improvements inform our proposal for a set of example measures for implementation now.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(3): 530-543, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801966

RESUMO

Chronic stress and depressive-like behaviors in basic neuroscience research have been associated with impairments of neuroplasticity, such as neuronal atrophy and synaptic loss in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. The current review presents a novel integrative model of neuroplasticity as a multi-domain neurobiological, cognitive, and psychological construct relevant in depression and other related disorders of negative affect (e.g., anxiety). We delineate a working conceptual model in which synaptic plasticity deficits described in animal models are integrated and conceptually linked with human patient findings from cognitive science and clinical psychology. We review relevant reports including neuroimaging findings (e.g., decreased functional connectivity in prefrontal-limbic circuits), cognitive deficits (e.g., executive function and memory impairments), affective information processing patterns (e.g., rigid, negative biases in attention, memory, interpretations, and self-associations), and patient-reported symptoms (perseverative, inflexible thought patterns; inflexible and maladaptive behaviors). Finally, we incorporate discussion of integrative research methods capable of building additional direct empirical support, including using rapid-acting treatments (e.g., ketamine) as a means to test this integrative model by attempting to simultaneously reverse these deficits across levels of analysis.

18.
Emerg Nurse ; 27(4): 17-19, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468846

RESUMO

This article describes the case of a 33-year-old man with cerebral palsy who sustained a full-thickness burn to his thorax as a result of lying in gastric acid that had leaked from a damaged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube. The patient required referral to a tertiary burns centre for specialist management. The article highlights the potential harm caused by gastric acid and why some patients may be particularly vulnerable to such injuries.


Assuntos
Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Torácicos/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Queimaduras Químicas/terapia , Paralisia Cerebral , Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia
19.
J Anxiety Disord ; 64: 79-89, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051420

RESUMO

Enduring cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative biases in information processing are implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of anxiety disorders in youth and adults. Specifically, the vigilance-avoidance model of attention is an influential hypothesis proposed to explain anxious individuals' attentional patterns. The vigilance-avoidance model posits that anxious individuals, relative to nonanxious individuals, initially orient more quickly to threatening stimuli and then later avoid threatening stimuli. However, a large body of empirical research examining attentional mechanisms in anxious individuals uses paradigms that do not allow the measurement of the time course of attention. Furthermore, existing reviews that examine the time course of attention only include studies with adults. We systematically review in depth the literature that compares anxious and non-anxious children that takes advantage of research designs that allow the examination of the time course of attention. Across studies, there is not robust support for the vigilance-avoidance model in samples of anxious youth. Future research examining attention biases across time should employ tasks that more directly measure multiple stages of attention, in order to assess if vigilance-avoidance patterns emerge based on sample characteristics or task variables, and to inform intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Ansiedade/psicologia , Viés de Atenção , Criança , Humanos
20.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 50(6): 894-906, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028507

RESUMO

During adolescence, youth may experience heightened attention bias to socially relevant stimuli; however, it is unclear if attention bias toward social threat may be exacerbated for adolescents with a history of anxiety. This study evaluated attentional bias during the Chatroom-Interact task with 25 adolescents with a history of anxiety (18F, Mage = 13.6) and 22 healthy adolescents (13F, Mage = 13.8). In this task, participants received feedback from fictional, virtual peers who either chose them (acceptance) or rejected them (rejection). Overall, participants were faster to orient toward and spent longer time dwelling on their own picture after both rejection and acceptance compared to non-feedback cues. Social feedback was associated with greater pupillary reactivity, an index of cognitive and emotional neural processing, compared to non-feedback cues. During acceptance feedback (but not during rejection feedback), anxious youth displayed greater pupil response compared to healthy youth, suggesting that positive feedback from peers may differentially influence youth with a history of an anxiety disorder.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Pupila/fisiologia , Adolescente , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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