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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1008802, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226994

RESUMO

The clinical evaluation of a genetic syndrome relies upon recognition of a characteristic pattern of signs or symptoms to guide targeted genetic testing for confirmation of the diagnosis. However, individuals displaying a single phenotype of a complex syndrome may not meet criteria for clinical diagnosis or genetic testing. Here, we present a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach to systematically explore the phenotypic expressivity of common and rare alleles in genes associated with four well-described syndromic diseases (Alagille (AS), Marfan (MS), DiGeorge (DS), and Noonan (NS) syndromes) in the general population. Using human phenotype ontology (HPO) terms, we systematically mapped 60 phenotypes related to AS, MS, DS and NS in 337,198 unrelated white British from the UK Biobank (UKBB) based on their hospital admission records, self-administrated questionnaires, and physiological measurements. We performed logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, and the first 5 genetic principal components, for each phenotype and each variant in the target genes (JAG1, NOTCH2 FBN1, PTPN1 and RAS-opathy genes, and genes in the 22q11.2 locus) and performed a gene burden test. Overall, we observed multiple phenotype-genotype correlations, such as the association between variation in JAG1, FBN1, PTPN11 and SOS2 with diastolic and systolic blood pressure; and pleiotropy among multiple variants in syndromic genes. For example, rs11066309 in PTPN11 was significantly associated with a lower body mass index, an increased risk of hypothyroidism and a smaller size for gestational age, all in concordance with NS-related phenotypes. Similarly, rs589668 in FBN1 was associated with an increase in body height and blood pressure, and a reduced body fat percentage as observed in Marfan syndrome. Our findings suggest that the spectrum of associations of common and rare variants in genes involved in syndromic diseases can be extended to individual phenotypes within the general population.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201861

RESUMO

Genetic factors undoubtedly affect the development of congenital heart disease (CHD), but still remain ill-defined. We sought to identify genetic risk factors associated with CHD and to accomplish functional analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)-carrying genes. We performed a genome-wide association study of 4,034 Caucasian CHD patients and 8,486 healthy controls. One SNP on chromosome 5q22.2 reached genome-wide significance across all CHD phenotypes and was also indicative for septal defects. One region on chromosome 20p12.1 pointing to the MACROD2 locus identified four highly significant SNPs in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Three highly significant risk variants on chromosome 17q21.32 within the GOSR2 locus were detected in patients with anomalies of thoracic arteries and veins (ATAV). Genetic variants associated with ATAV are suggested to influence expression of WNT3, and variant rs870142 related to septal defects is proposed to influence expression of MSX1. The expression of all four genes was analyzed during cardiac differentiation of human and murine induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and by single-cell RNAseq analyses of developing murine and human hearts. Our data show that MACROD2, GOSR2, WNT3 and MSX1 play an essential functional role in heart development at the embryonic and newborn stage.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125279

RESUMO

Background - The aortic valve is an important determinant of cardiovascular physiology and anatomic location of common human diseases. Methods - From a sample of 34,287 white British-ancestry participants, we estimated functional aortic valve area by planimetry from prospectively obtained cardiac MRI sequences of the aortic valve. Aortic valve area measurements were submitted to genome-wide association testing, followed by polygenic risk scoring and phenome-wide screening to identify genetic comorbidities. Results - A genome-wide association study of aortic valve area in these UK Biobank participants showed three significant associations, indexed by rs71190365 (chr13:50764607, DLEU1, p=1.8×10-9), rs35991305 (chr12:94191968, CRADD, p=3.4×10-8) and chr17:45013271:C:T (GOSR2, p=5.6×10-8). Replication on an independent set of 8,145 unrelated European-ancestry participants showed consistent effect sizes in all three loci, although rs35991305 did not meet nominal significance. We constructed a polygenic risk score for aortic valve area, which in a separate cohort of 311,728 individuals without imaging demonstrated that smaller aortic valve area is predictive of increased risk for aortic valve disease (Odds Ratio 1.14, p=2.3×10-6). After excluding subjects with a medical diagnosis of aortic valve stenosis (remaining n=308,683 individuals), phenome-wide association of >10,000 traits showed multiple links between the polygenic score for aortic valve disease and key health-related comorbidities involving the cardiovascular system and autoimmune disease. Genetic correlation analysis supports a shared genetic etiology with between aortic valve area and birthweight along with other cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions - These results illustrate the use of automated phenotyping of cardiac imaging data from the general population to investigate the genetic etiology of aortic valve disease, perform clinical prediction, and uncover new clinical and genetic correlates of cardiac anatomy.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e015379, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981450

RESUMO

Background Neurocognitive impairment is a common complication of congenital heart disease (CHD) as well as acquired cardiovascular disease. Data are limited on neurocognitive function in adults with CHD (ACHD). Methods and Results A total of 1020 individuals with mild-to-moderate ACHD and 497 987 individuals without ACHD from the volunteer-based UK Biobank study underwent neurocognitive tests for fluid intelligence, reaction time, numeric memory, symbol-digit substitution, and trail making at enrollment and follow-up. Performance scores were compared before and after exclusion of preexisting stroke or coronary artery disease as measures of cerebro- and cardiovascular disease. Individuals with ACHD had significantly poorer performance on alpha-numeric trail making, a measure of visual attention and cognitive flexibility, spending 6.4 seconds longer on alpha-numeric trail making (95% CI, 3.0-9.9 seconds, P=0.002) and 2.5 seconds longer on numeric trail making (95% CI, 0.5-4.6 seconds, P=0.034), a measure of visual attention and processing speed. The ACHD cohort had modestly lower performance on symbol-digit substitution, a measure of processing speed, with 0.9 fewer correct substitutions (95% CI, - 1.5 to - 0.2 substitutions, P=0.021). After excluding preexisting stroke or coronary artery disease, individuals with ACHD continued to show poorer performance in all 6 domains (P=NS). Conclusions Individuals with mild-to-moderate ACHD had poorer neurocognitive performance, most significantly in tests of cognitive flexibility, analogous to deficits in children with CHD. These differences appear to be driven by increased burden of cerebro- and cardiovascular disease among individuals with ACHD.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15818-15826, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541024

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the process underlying heart attack and stroke. Despite decades of research, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Dogma suggests that atherosclerotic plaques expand primarily via the accumulation of cholesterol and inflammatory cells. However, recent evidence suggests that a substantial portion of the plaque may arise from a subset of "dedifferentiated" vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) which proliferate in a clonal fashion. Herein we use multicolor lineage-tracing models to confirm that the mature SMC can give rise to a hyperproliferative cell which appears to promote inflammation via elaboration of complement-dependent anaphylatoxins. Despite being extensively opsonized with prophagocytic complement fragments, we find that this cell also escapes immune surveillance by neighboring macrophages, thereby exacerbating its relative survival advantage. Mechanistic studies indicate this phenomenon results from a generalized opsonin-sensing defect acquired by macrophages during polarization. This defect coincides with the noncanonical up-regulation of so-called don't eat me molecules on inflamed phagocytes, which reduces their capacity for programmed cell removal (PrCR). Knockdown or knockout of the key antiphagocytic molecule CD47 restores the ability of macrophages to sense and clear opsonized targets in vitro, allowing for potent and targeted suppression of clonal SMC expansion in the plaque in vivo. Because integrated clinical and genomic analyses indicate that similar pathways are active in humans with cardiovascular disease, these studies suggest that the clonally expanding SMC may represent a translational target for treating atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Ativação do Complemento , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Animais , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação para Cima
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(8): e011541, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308111

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common anatomical malformation occurring live-born infants and an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality across the lifespan and throughout the world. Population-based observations have long described associations between maternal cardiometabolic disorders and the risk of CHD in the offspring. Here we review the epidemiological evidence and clinical observations relating maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus to the risk of CHD offspring with particular attention to mechanistic models of maternal-fetal risk transmission and first trimester disturbances of fetal cardiac development. A deeper understanding of maternal risk factors holds the potential to improve both prenatal detection of CHD by identifying at-risk pregnancies, along with primary prevention of disease by improving preconception and prenatal treatment of at-risk mothers.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(9): 1265-1273, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327713

RESUMO

Deletion of a non-imprinted 500kb genomic region at chromosome 15q11.2, between breakpoints 1 and 2 of the Prader-Willi/Angelman locus (BP1-BP2 deletion), has been associated in previous studies with phenotypes including congenital cardiovascular malformations (CVM). Previous studies investigating association between BP1-BP2 deletion and CVM have tended to recruit cases with rarer and more severe CVM phenotypes; the impact of CVM on relatively unselected population cohorts, anticipated to contain chiefly less severe but commoner CHD phenotypes, is relatively unexplored. More precisely defining the impact of BP1-BP2 deletion on CVM risk could be useful to guide genetic counselling, since the deletion is frequently identified in the neurodevelopmental clinic. Using the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort of ~500,000 individuals, we identified individuals with CVM and investigated the association with deletions at the BP1-BP2 locus. In addition, we assessed the association of BP1-BP2 deletions with neuropsychiatric diagnoses, cognitive function and academic achievement. Cases of CVM had an increased prevalence of the deletion compared with controls (0.64%; OR = 1.73 [95% CI 1.08-2.75]; p = 0.03), as did those with neuropsychiatric diagnoses (0.68%; OR = 1.84 [95% CI 1.23-2.75]; p = 0.004). We conclude that BP1-BP2 deletion moderately increases the risk of the generally milder, but commoner, CVM phenotypes seen in this unselected population, in addition to its previously demonstrated association in case/control studies ascertained for CVM.

9.
Circ Res ; 126(7): 811-821, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078439

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is one of the most severe types of congenital heart diseases. Understanding the clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of TGA is, therefore, urgently needed for patient management of this severe disease. However, the clinical characteristics and genetic cause underlying TGA remain largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically examine the clinical characteristics and genetic cause for isolated nonsyndromic TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 249 patients with TGA (66 family trios) and performed whole-exome sequencing. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus in dextro-TGA (52.7%) and dextrocardia/mesocardia in congenitally corrected TGA (32.8%) were significantly higher than that in other subtypes. A high prevalence of bicuspid pulmonic valve (9.6%) was observed in patients with TGA. Similar results were observed in a replication group of TGA (n=132). Through a series of bioinformatics filtering steps, we obtained 82 candidate genes harboring potentially damaging de novo, loss of function, compound heterozygous, or X-linked recessive variants. Established congenital heart disease-causing genes, such as FOXH1, were found among the list of candidate genes. A total of 19 ciliary genes harboring rare potentially damaging variants were also found; for example, DYNC2LI1 with a de novo putatively damaging variant. The enrichment of ciliary genes supports the roles of cilia in the pathogenesis of TGA. In total, 33% of the TGA probands had >1 candidate gene hit by putatively deleterious variants, suggesting that a portion of the TGA cases were probably affected by oligogenic or polygenic inheritance. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of clinical characteristic analyses have important implications for TGA patient stratification. The results of genetic analyses highlight the pathogenic role of ciliary genes and a complex genetic architecture underlying TGA.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dineínas do Citoplasma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16515, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712678

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect in newborns and the leading cause of death in infancy, affecting nearly 1% of live births. A locus in chromosome 4p16, adjacent to MSX1 and STX18, has been associated with atrial septal defects (ASD) in multiple European and Chinese cohorts. Here, genotyping data from the UK Biobank was used to test for associations between this locus and congenital heart disease in adult survivors of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (n = 164) and ASD (n = 223), with a control sample of 332,788 individuals, and a meta-analysis of the new and existing ASD data was performed. The results show an association between the previously reported markers at 4p16 and risk for either ASD or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, with effect sizes similar to the published data (OR between 1.27-1.45; all p < 0.05). Differences in allele frequencies remained constant through the studied age range (40-70 years), indicating that the variants themselves do not drive lethal genetic defects. Meta-analysis shows an OR of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.25-1.46; p < 10-4) for the association with ASD. The findings show that the genetic associations with ASD can be generalized to adult survivors of both ASD and left ventricular lesions. Although the 4p16 associations are statistically compelling, the mentioned alleles confer only a small risk for disease and their frequencies in this adult sample are the same as in children, likely limiting their clinical significance. Further epidemiological and functional studies may elicit factors triggering disease in interaction with the risk alleles.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Alelos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Sobreviventes , Reino Unido
11.
Cell Rep ; 28(5): 1346-1361.e4, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365875

RESUMO

Cardiac outflow tract (OFT) is a major hotspot for congenital heart diseases. A thorough understanding of the cellular diversity, transitions, and regulatory networks of normal OFT development is essential to decipher the etiology of OFT malformations. We performed single-cell transcriptomic sequencing of 55,611 mouse OFT cells from three developmental stages that generally correspond to the early, middle, and late stages of OFT remodeling and septation. Known cellular transitions, such as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, have been recapitulated. In particular, we identified convergent development of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) lineage where intermediate cell subpopulations were found to be involved in either myocardial-to-VSMC trans-differentiation or mesenchymal-to-VSMC transition. Finally, we uncovered transcriptional regulators potentially governing cellular transitions. Our study provides a single-cell reference map of cell states for normal OFT development and paves the way for further studies of the etiology of OFT malformations at the single-cell level.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3111, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308376

RESUMO

Biomedical repositories such as the UK Biobank provide increasing access to prospectively collected cardiac imaging, however these data are unlabeled, which creates barriers to their use in supervised machine learning. We develop a weakly supervised deep learning model for classification of aortic valve malformations using up to 4,000 unlabeled cardiac MRI sequences. Instead of requiring highly curated training data, weak supervision relies on noisy heuristics defined by domain experts to programmatically generate large-scale, imperfect training labels. For aortic valve classification, models trained with imperfect labels substantially outperform a supervised model trained on hand-labeled MRIs. In an orthogonal validation experiment using health outcomes data, our model identifies individuals with a 1.8-fold increase in risk of a major adverse cardiac event. This work formalizes a deep learning baseline for aortic valve classification and outlines a general strategy for using weak supervision to train machine learning models using unlabeled medical images at scale.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
13.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(11): 640-648, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect group and a significant contributor to neonatal and infant death. CHD with single ventricle anatomy, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), tricuspid atresia (TA), and various double-inlet ventricle (DIV) malformations, is the most complex with the highest mortality. Prenatal risk factors associated with HLHS have been studied, but such data for DIV are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed DIV cases and nonmalformed controls in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control, multicenter population-based study of birth defects. Random forest analysis identified potential predictor variables for DIV, which were included in multivariable models to estimate effect magnitude and directionality. RESULTS: Random forest analysis identified pre-pregnancy diabetes, history of maternal insulin use, maternal total lipid intake, paternal race, and intake of several foods and nutrients as potential predictors of DIV. Logistic regression confirmed pre-pregnancy diabetes, maternal insulin use, and paternal race as risk factors for having a child with DIV. Additionally, higher maternal total fat intake was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes and history of insulin use were associated with an increased risk of having an infant with DIV, while maternal lipid intake had an inverse association. These novel data provide multiple metabolic pathways for investigation to identify better the developmental etiologies of DIV and suggest that public health interventions targeting diabetes prevention and management in women of childbearing age could reduce CHD risk.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração/anormalidades , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
14.
Circulation ; 139(16): 1889-1899, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lower-complexity cardiac malformations constitute the majority of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), the long-term risks of adverse cardiovascular events and relationship with conventional risk factors in this population are poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with lower-complexity ACHD that is unmeasured by conventional risk factors. METHODS: A multitiered classification algorithm was used to select individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and individuals without ACHD for comparison among >500 000 British adults in the UK Biobank. ACHD diagnoses were subclassified as isolated aortic valve and noncomplex defects. Time-to-event analyses were conducted for the primary end points of fatal or nonfatal acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation and a secondary combined end point for major adverse cardiovascular events. Maximum follow-up time for the study period was 22 years with retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: We identified 2006 individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and 497 983 unexposed individuals in the UK Biobank (median age at enrollment, 58 [interquartile range, 51-63] years). Of the ACHD-exposed group, 59% were male, 51% were current or former smokers, 30% were obese, and 69%, 41%, and 7% were diagnosed or treated for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, respectively. After adjustment for 12 measured cardiovascular risk factors, ACHD remained strongly associated with the primary end points, with hazard ratios ranging from 2.0 (95% CI, 1.5-2.8; P<0.001) for acute coronary syndrome to 13.0 (95% CI, 9.4-18.1; P<0.001) for heart failure. ACHD-exposed individuals with ≤2 cardiovascular risk factors had a 29% age-adjusted incidence rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, in contrast to 13% in individuals without ACHD with ≥5 risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with lower-complexity ACHD had a higher burden of adverse cardiovascular events relative to the general population that was unaccounted for by conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the need for closer surveillance of patients with mild to moderate ACHD and further investigation into management and mechanisms of cardiovascular risk unique to this growing population of high-risk adults.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(2): 215-226, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511478

RESUMO

Loss of function variants in NOTCH1 cause left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects (LVOTO). However, the risk conferred by rare and noncoding variants in NOTCH1 for LVOTO remains largely uncharacterized. In a cohort of 49 families affected by hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a severe form of LVOTO, we discovered predicted loss of function NOTCH1 variants in 6% of individuals. Rare or low-frequency missense variants were found in 16% of families. To make a quantitative estimate of the genetic risk posed by variants in NOTCH1 for LVOTO, we studied associations of 400 coding and noncoding variants in NOTCH1 in 1,085 cases and 332,788 controls from the UK Biobank. Two rare intronic variants in strong linkage disequilibrium displayed significant association with risk for LVOTO amongst European-ancestry individuals. This result was replicated in an independent analysis of 210 cases and 68,762 controls of non-European and mixed ancestry. In conclusion, carrying rare predicted loss of function variants in NOTCH1 confer significant risk for LVOTO. In addition, the two intronic variants seem to be associated with an increased risk for these defects. Our approach demonstrates the utility of population-based data sets in quantifying the specific risk of individual variants for disease-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Circulation ; 138(21): e653-e711, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571578

RESUMO

This review provides an updated summary of the state of our knowledge of the genetic contributions to the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. Since 2007, when the initial American Heart Association scientific statement on the genetic basis of congenital heart disease was published, new genomic techniques have become widely available that have dramatically changed our understanding of the causes of congenital heart disease and, clinically, have allowed more accurate definition of the pathogeneses of congenital heart disease in patients of all ages and even prenatally. Information is presented on new molecular testing techniques and their application to congenital heart disease, both isolated and associated with other congenital anomalies or syndromes. Recent advances in the understanding of copy number variants, syndromes, RASopathies, and heterotaxy/ciliopathies are provided. Insights into new research with congenital heart disease models, including genetically manipulated animals such as mice, chicks, and zebrafish, as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell-based approaches are provided to allow an understanding of how future research breakthroughs for congenital heart disease are likely to happen. It is anticipated that this review will provide a large range of health care-related personnel, including pediatric cardiologists, pediatricians, adult cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, obstetricians, geneticists, genetic counselors, and other related clinicians, timely information on the genetic aspects of congenital heart disease. The objective is to provide a comprehensive basis for interdisciplinary care for those with congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , American Heart Association , Aneuploidia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/genética , Variação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(6): e002054, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birthweight has been associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. The Barker hypothesis posits that intrauterine growth restriction resulting in lower birthweight is causal for these diseases, but causality is difficult to infer from observational studies. METHODS: We performed regression analyses to assess associations of birthweight with cardiovascular disease and T2D in 237 631 individuals from the UK Biobank. Further, we assessed the causal relationship of such associations using Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: In the observational analyses, birthweight showed inverse associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (ß, -0.83 and -0.26; per raw unit in outcomes and SD change in birthweight; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.90 to -0.75 and -0.31 to -0.22, respectively), T2D (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.87), lipid-lowering treatment (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.86), and coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), whereas the associations with adult body mass index and body fat (ß, 0.04 and 0.02; per SD change in outcomes and birthweight; 95% CI, 0.03-0.04 and 0.01-0.02, respectively) were positive. The Mendelian randomization analyses indicated inverse causal associations of birthweight with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 2-hour glucose, coronary artery disease, and T2D and positive causal association with body mass index but no associations with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that lower birthweight, used as a proxy for intrauterine growth retardation, is causally related with increased susceptibility to coronary artery disease and T2D. This causal relationship is not mediated by adult obesity or hypertension.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Pediatr ; 195: 275-278, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254757

RESUMO

In a retrospective study of 19 171 mother-child dyads, elevated random plasma glucose values during early pregnancy were directly correlated with increased risk for congenital heart disease in offspring. Plasma glucose levels proximal to the period of cardiac development may represent a modifiable risk factor for congenital heart disease in expectant mothers without diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 29(5): 513-519, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786837

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome sequencing is now available as a clinical diagnostic test. There is a significant knowledge and translation gap for nongenetic specialists of the processes necessary to generate and interpret clinical genome sequencing. The purpose of this review is to provide a primer on contemporary clinical genome sequencing for nongenetic specialists describing the human genome project, current techniques and applications in genome sequencing, limitations of current technology, and techniques on the horizon. RECENT FINDINGS: As currently implemented, genome sequencing compares short pieces of an individual's genome with a reference sequence developed by the human genome project. Genome sequencing may be used for obtaining timely diagnostic information, cancer pharmacogenomics, or in clinical cases when previous genetic testing has not revealed a clear diagnosis. At present, the implementation of clinical genome sequencing is limited by the availability of clinicians qualified for interpretation, and current techniques in used clinical testing do not detect all types of genetic variation present in a single genome. SUMMARY: Clinicians considering a genetic diagnosis have wide array of testing choices which now includes genome sequencing. Although not a comprehensive test in its current form, genome sequencing offers more information than gene-panel or exome sequencing and has the potential to replace targeted single-gene or gene-panel testing in many clinical scenarios.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Projeto Genoma Humano , Humanos
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