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1.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The quick spread of COVID-19 has caused part of the world's population to adopt quarantine protocols that have limited professional activities, including dental training programmes. This study aimed to explore the experiences of students and personnel at a Chilean dental school during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phenomenological descriptive qualitative study reported staff and students' experiences during the pandemic through in-depth, semi-structured interviews. These were recorded on audio and video with a digital platform. Three researchers then transcribed and analyzed the recordings and codified the answers into categories to determine the emerging topics until a saturation point was reached. RESULTS: The core emerging themes among the staff group were (1) change in the personal/professional life balance, (2) online learning through digital platforms, (3) staff perceptions of students' learning experiences, and (4) concerns about the future. For students, the themes were (1) changes in the learning process, (2) online learning through digital platforms, (3) interpersonal relationships, and (4) concerns about the future. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a period of learning for our dental school staff and students. Even though online learning has been a useful tool for delivering didactic (theoretical) concepts, it has been unable to replace conventional education, including skills training. Students and teachers reported being overwhelmed at the beginning of the pandemic, but they have shown remarkable adaptability and resilience during this period.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12517, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719498

RESUMO

Satellite precipitation products have been largely improved in the recent years particularly with the launch of the global precipitation measurement (GPM) core satellite. Moreover, the development of techniques for exploiting the information provided by satellite soil moisture to complement/enhance precipitation products have improved the accuracy of accumulated rainfall estimates over land. Such satellite enhanced precipitation products, available with a short latency (< 1 day), represent an important and new source of information for river flow prediction and water resources management, particularly in developing countries in which ground observations are scarcely available and the access to such data is not always ensured. In this study, three recently developed rainfall products obtained from the integration of GPM rainfall and satellite soil moisture products have been used; namely GPM+SM2RAIN, PRISM-SMOS, and PRISM-SMAP. The prediction of observed daily river discharge at 10 basins located in Europe (4), West Africa (3) and South Africa (3) is carried out. For comparison, we have also considered three rainfall products based on: (1) GPM only, i.e., the Early Run version of the Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for GPM (GPM-ER), (2) rain gauges, i.e., the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, and (3) the latest European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis, ERA5. Three different conceptual and lumped rainfall-runoff models are employed to obtain robust and reliable results over the 3-year data period 2015-2017. Results indicate that, particularly over scarcely gauged areas (West Africa), the integrated products outperform both ground- and reanalysis-based rainfall estimates. For all basins, the GPM+SM2RAIN product is performing the best among the short latency products with mean Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) equal to 0.87, and significantly better than GPM-ER (mean KGE = 0.77). The integrated products are found to reproduce particularly well the high flows. These results highlight the strong need to disseminate such integrated satellite rainfall products for hydrological (and agricultural) applications in poorly gauged areas such as Africa and South America.

3.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 20(18): 1917-1928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651967

RESUMO

The Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a major public health concern in Brazil and worldwide, being a rapidly spreading disease with possible severe complications for pregnant women and neonates. There is currently no preventative therapy or specific treatment available. Within this context, drug repositioning is a very promising approach for the discovery of new treatment compounds, since old drugs may become new ones. Therefore, this paper aims to perform a literature mini-review to identify promising compounds to combat this virus. The mechanism of action at the molecular level and the structure-activity relationship of prototypes are discussed. Among the candidates identified, we highlight sofosbuvir, chloroquine and suramin, which present a greater quantity of experimental data to draw on for our discussion. The current treatment is palliative; therefore, this study is of paramount importance in identifying drug candidates useful for combating ZIKV.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235625

RESUMO

This review is focused on the biogeochemistry of arsenic in freshwaters and, especially, on the key role that benthic microalgae and prokaryotic communities from biofilms play together in through speciation, distribution, and cycling. These microorganisms incorporate the dominant iAs (inorganic arsenic) form and may transform it to other arsenic forms through metabolic or detoxifying processes. These transformations have a big impact on the environmental behavior of arsenic because different chemical forms exhibit differences in mobility and toxicity. Moreover, exposure to toxicants may alter the physiology and structure of biofilms, leading to changes in ecosystem function and trophic relations. In this review we also explain how microorganisms (i.e., biofilms) can influence the effects of arsenic exposure on other key constituents of aquatic ecosystems such as fish. At the end, we present two real cases of fluvial systems with different origins of arsenic exposure (natural vs. anthropogenic) that have improved our comprehension of arsenic biogeochemistry and toxicity in freshwaters, the Pampean streams (Argentina) and the Anllóns River (Galicia, Spain). We finish with a briefly discussion of what we consider as future research needs on this topic. This work especially contributes to the general understanding of biofilms influencing arsenic biogeochemistry and highlights the strong impact of nutrient availability on arsenic toxicity for freshwater (micro) organisms.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Argentina , Arsênico/toxicidade , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(1): 19-24, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124065

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: approximately 50% of the annual health care expenditure of patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis is related to hospitalizations. Infections represent the second reason for consultation, with a high morbidity and mortality. There are no studies comparing hospitalization time due to infectious causes between the different dialysis options. Objective: to determine the difference in hospitalization time for treatment of infectious diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis, comparing patients on hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis. Materials and methods: a retrospective, dynamic cohort study of patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis who were admitted to the emergency department at the Hospital Universitario Mayor due to infectious diseases. The study patients were included using nonprobabilistic methods. The sample size was calculated by comparison of means. A total of 172 hemodialysis patients and 85 peritoneal dialysis patients were included for statistical analysis. Results: hospitalization time is greater in patients on hemodialysis than in patients on peritoneal dialysis; 12 (IQR 8-21) vs. 10 (IQR 6.5-13) days, respectively, p= 0.004. Conclusions: hospitalization time due to infectious causes is greater in patients on hemodialysis than in patients on peritoneal dialysis. In addition, the incidence of treatment-related infections in our population is lower than the globally reported incidence.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1222).


Resumen Introducción: aproximadamente el 50% del gasto anual en salud de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en diálisis está relacionada con hospitalizaciones; las causas infecciosas representan la segunda causa de consulta con una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. No existen estudios donde se compare el tiempo de hospitalización por causas infecciosas entre las diferentes opciones de diálisis. Objetivo: determinar las diferencias en tiempos de hospitalización que se deriva del manejo de patologías infecciosas en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en diálisis, comparando los pacientes que se encuentran en hemodiálisis vs diálisis peritoneal. Material y métodos: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, dinámica, de pacientes en hemodiálisis y diálisis peritoneal que ingresan al servicio de urgencias del Hospital Universitario Mayor por patologías infecciosas. Los pacientes que ingresaron al estudio se incluyeron por métodos no probabilísticos. El cálculo de tamaño de muestra se realizó por comparación de medias. Para el análisis estadístico se incluyeron 172 pacientes en hemodiálisis y 85 en diálisis peritoneal. Resultados: el tiempo de hospitalización es mayor en pacientes con hemodiálisis en comparación con los pacientes en diálisis peritoneal, 12 (RIC 8-21) vs 10 (RIC 6.5-13) días respectivamente, p= 0.004. Conclusiones: el tiempo de hospitalización por causas infecciosas es mayor en los pacientes con hemodiálisis que los de diálisis peritoneal, adicionalmente la incidencia de infecciones asociadas a la terapia en nuestra población es menor que lo reportado a nivel mundial.(Acta Med Colomb 2020; 45. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2020.1222).

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 10(4)2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413047

RESUMO

The design of compounds with directed action to a defined organ or tissue is a very promising approach, since it can decrease considerably the toxicity of the drug/bioactive compound. For this reason, this kind of strategy has been greatly important in the scientific community. Dendrimers, on the other hand, comprise extremely organized macromolecules with many peripheral functionalities, stepwise controlled synthesis, and defined size. These nanocomposites present several biological applications, demonstrating their efficiency to act in the pharmaceutical field. Considering that, the main purpose of this review was describing the potential of dendrons and dendrimers as drug targeting, applying different targeting groups. This application has been demonstrated through interesting examples from the literature considering the last ten years of publications.

7.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(9): 1098-1106, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024030

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the impact of two non-surgical periodontal treatment modalities on metabolic and periodontal clinical parameters in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and poor glycaemic control and chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three T2DM subjects with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) > 7% were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving scaling with root planing in multiple sessions quadrant-by-quadrant (Q by Q) or within 24 hr (one stage). Periodontal parameters, HbA1c, glycaemia blood levels (FPG) and C-reactive protein (CRP) values were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-therapy. RESULTS: At 6 months, HbA1c had decreased by 0.48% in the Q by Q group and by 0.18% in the one-stage group (p = 0.455). After therapy, subjects with an initial HbA1c < 9% showed an increase of 0.31% (p = 0.145), compared with a decrease of 0.88% (p = 0.006) in those with an initial HbA1c ≥ 9%. Periodontal parameters improved significantly (p < 0.0001) post-therapy, with similar results for both treatment modalities. CONCLUSION: Periodontal therapy had the greatest impact on HbA1c reduction on patients with an HbA1c > 9% regardless of treatment modality. Both modalities resulted in significant improvements in periodontal parameters.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Raspagem Dentária , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Aplainamento Radicular
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 636: 985-998, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729516

RESUMO

Gold mining activities in fluvial systems may cause arsenic (As) pollution, as is the case at the Anllóns River (Galicia, NW Spain), where high concentrations of arsenate (AsV) in surface sediments (up to 270 mg kg-1) were found. A 51 day-long biofilm-translocation experiment was performed in this river, moving some biofilm-colonized substrata from upstream (less As-polluted) to downstream the mine area (more As-polluted site), to explore the effect of As on benthic biofilms, as well as their role on As retention and speciation in the water-sediment interface. Eutrophic conditions (range: 0.07-0.38 mg L-1 total phosphorus, TP) were detected in water in both sites, while sediments were not considered P-polluted (below 600 mg kg-1). Dimethylarsenate (DMAV) was found intracellularly and in the river water, suggesting a detoxification process by biofilms. Since most As in sediments and water was AsV, the high amount of arsenite (AsIII) detected extracellularly may also confirm AsV reduction by biofilms. Furthermore, translocated biofilms accumulated more As and showed higher potential toxicity (higher As/P ratio). In concordance, their growth was reduced to half that observed in those non-translocated, became less nutritive (less nitrogen content), and with higher bacterial and dead diatom densities. Besides the high As exposure, other environmental conditions such as the higher riparian cover at the more As-polluted site could contribute to those effects. Our study provides new arguments to understand the contribution of microorganisms to the As biogeochemistry in freshwater environments.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Biofilmes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Mineração , Espanha
9.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(1): 10-12, ene.-feb. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-777021

RESUMO

Objetivo Este estudio busca describir conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre disposición de medicamentos sobrantes (MS) y vencidos (MV). Métodos Estudio descriptivo en 392 pacientes en un Hospital de Bogotá. Resultados La edad fue de 17-86 años. 66,1 % tenía MS, de los cuales 31,4 % pertenece al sistema nervioso (clasificación Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical de la OMS). El 25,8 % dispone los MS en la Basura Corriente (BC) y 64,0 % disponen los MV en la BC. El 17,4 % cree que los MS y el 62,5 % que los MV deben botarse a la BC. El 4,9 % cree que los MS y el 6,6 % que los MV deben entregarse en sitios especializados. El 92,4 % no conoce los PDM y el 86,7 % los Puntos Azules; al 94,6 % le gustaría recibir información. El 79,1 % cree que los medicamentos desechados pueden afectar la salud y 88,8 % el ambiente. Conclusiones La mayoría de encuestados dispone inadecuadamente los medicamentos, cree que no está bien hacerlo así y que esto puede afectar negativamente el ambiente y la salud. Se observa interés por informarse, esto demuestra que hay un campo con posibilidades de sensibilización, información y educación desde la farmacovigilancia en beneficio de la población.(AU)


Objective To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices about remaining drugs (RD) and expired drugs (ED) disposal. Method Descriptive study in 392 patients at a hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Results Participants were 17 to 86 years old. 66.1% of them had RD, 31.4 % were nervous system drugs (according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification of WHO). 25.8 % of people dispose of RD in common waste (CW) and 64.0 % dispose of ED in CW. 17.4 % think RD, and 62.5 % think ED should be thrown away like CW. 4.9% of people think RD, and 6.6 % think ED should be thrown away in specialized places. 92.4 % people don't know about DRP nor 86.7 % about "Puntos Azules"; 94.6 % would like more information. 79.1 % think that throwing away drugs can affect health and, 88.8 %, the environment. Conclusions Most participants dispose of drugs inappropriately. They think that it is wrong and this can damage the environment and health. There is an interest in being informed. This reveals an area of possible work in awareness, information and education from pharmacovigilance about this subject for the benefit of the population.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Resíduos de Drogas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uso de Medicamentos , Farmacovigilância , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Colômbia
10.
Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) ; 18(1): 61-71, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453154

RESUMO

Objective To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices about remaining drugs (RD) and expired drugs (ED) disposal. Method Descriptive study in 392 patients at a hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Results Participants were 17 to 86 years old. 66.1% of them had RD, 31.4 % were nervous system drugs (according to Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification of WHO). 25.8 % of people dispose of RD in common waste (CW) and 64.0 % dispose of ED in CW. 17.4 % think RD, and 62.5 % think ED should be thrown away like CW. 4.9% of people think RD, and 6.6 % think ED should be thrown away in specialized places. 92.4 % people don't know about DRP nor 86.7 % about "Puntos Azules"; 94.6 % would like more information. 79.1 % think that throwing away drugs can affect health and, 88.8 %, the environment. Conclusions Most participants dispose of drugs inappropriately. They think that it is wrong and this can damage the environment and health. There is an interest in being informed. This reveals an area of possible work in awareness, information and education from pharmacovigilance about this subject for the benefit of the population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacovigilância
11.
Talanta ; 134: 173-182, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25618655

RESUMO

In this work, a fluorometric approach for the selective determination of calcium by using CdTe nanocrystals as chemosensors, was developed. The quantum dots interacted not with the metal, but with a ligand that also bonded the metal. The fluorescence response was modulated by the extension of the competitive metal-ligand binding, and therefore the amount of free ligand. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different capping layers were evaluated, as the QDs surface chemistry and capping nature affected recognition, thus the magnitude of the ensuing fluorescence quenching. The developed procedure was automated by using a multipumping flow system. Upon optimization, thioglycolic acid (TGA) and EDTA were selected as capping and ligand, respectively, providing a linear working range for calcium concentrations between 0.80-3.20 mg L(-1), and a detection limit of 0.66 mg L(-1). A quenching mechanism relying on nanocrystal destabilization upon detachment of surface Cd by the ligand was proposed.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Cálcio/análise , Água Potável/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Telúrio/química , Ligação Competitiva , Cátions Bivalentes , Ácido Edético/química , Fluorescência , Fluorometria , Humanos , Ligantes , Limite de Detecção , Tioglicolatos/química
12.
Zootaxa ; 3900(2): 223-42, 2014 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25543734

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades. 


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/genética , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Equador , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
13.
J Environ Manage ; 90(7): 2154-69, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18640766

RESUMO

The overall objective of the Ramsar Convention, signed in 1971, is the conservation and wise use of wetlands by national action and international cooperation as a means to achieving sustainable development. This complex and challenging task requires national, local and international bodies involved in the implementation of the convention to rely on suitable geo-information to better understand wetland areas, complete national inventories, perform monitoring activities, carry out assessments and put in practice suitable management plans based on updated and reliable information. In the last years, Earth Observation (EO) technology has been revealed as a key tool and unique information source to support the environmental community in different application domains, including wetlands' conservation and management. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Ramsar Secretariat launched in 2003 the "GlobWetland" project in order to demonstrate the current capabilities of Earth Observation technology to support inventorying, monitoring, and assessment of wetland ecosystems. This paper collects the main results and findings of the "GlobWetland" project, providing an overview of the current capabilities and limits of EO technology as a tool to support the implementation of the Ramsar Convention. The project was carried out in collaboration with several regional, national and local conservation authorities and wetland managers, involving 50 different wetlands across 21 countries on four continents. This large range of users provided an excellent test bed to assess the potential of this technology to be applied in different technical, economic and social conditions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Áreas Alagadas
14.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 11(4): 452-66, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18244646

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel automatic approach to the unsupervised identification of changes in multitemporal remote-sensing images is proposed. This approach, unlike classical ones, is based on the formulation of the unsupervised change-detection problem in terms of the Bayesian decision theory. In this context, an adaptive semiparametric technique for the unsupervised estimation of the statistical terms associated with the gray levels of changed and unchanged pixels in a difference image is presented. Such a technique exploits the effectivenesses of two theoretically well-founded estimation procedures: the reduced Parzen estimate (RPE) procedure and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Then, thanks to the resulting estimates and to a Markov random field (MRF) approach used to model the spatial-contextual information contained in the multitemporal images considered, a change detection map is generated. The adaptive semiparametric nature of the proposed technique allows its application to different kinds of remote-sensing images. Experimental results, obtained on two sets of multitemporal remote-sensing images acquired by two different sensors, confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

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