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1.
Hip Int ; : 1120700021990592, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601915

RESUMO

AIM: To assess revision rates and postoperative mortality in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty (HA) for inflammatory arthritis compared to hip osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: The analysis was conducted among cases of HA that were recorded in the National Joint Registry for England and Wales (NJR) between April 2003 and December 2012 and linked to Office for National Statistics mortality records. Procedures were identified where the indication for surgery was listed as seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), other inflammatory arthritis (otherIA), or OA. 5-year revision risk and 90-day postoperative mortality according to indication were compared using Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, year of operation, implant type, and surgical approach. RESULTS: The cohort included 1457 HA procedures conducted for RA, 615 for AS, 1000 for otherIA, and 183,108 for OA. When compared with OA, there was no increased revision risk for any form of inflammatory arthritis (adjusted HRs: RA: 0.93 (0.64-1.35); AS: 1.14 (0.73-1.79); otherIA: 1.08 (0.73-1.59)). Postoperative 90-day mortality was increased for RA when compared with OA (adjusted HR: 2.86 (1.68-4.88)), but not for AS (adjusted HR: 1.56 (0.59-4.18)) or otherIA (adjusted HR: 0.64 (0.16-2.55)). CONCLUSIONS: The revision risk in HA performed for all types of inflammatory arthritis is similar to that for HA performed for OA. The 3-fold increased risk of 90-day mortality in patients with RA compared with OA highlights the need for active management of associated comorbidities in RA patients during the perioperative period.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 777, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536436

RESUMO

The natural history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be fully described. Here, we use patient-level data from the Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) to summarise COVID-19 outcomes in Catalonia, Spain. We included 5,586,521 individuals from the general population. Of these, 102,002 had an outpatient diagnosis of COVID-19, 16,901 were hospitalised with COVID-19, and 5273 died after either being diagnosed or hospitalised with COVID-19 between 1st March and 6th May 2020. Older age, being male, and having comorbidities were all generally associated with worse outcomes. These findings demonstrate the continued need to protect those at high risk of poor outcomes, particularly older people, from COVID-19 and provide appropriate care for those who develop symptomatic disease. While risks of hospitalisation and death were lower for younger populations, there is a need to limit their role in community transmission.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , /transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Better indicators from affordable, sustainable data sources are needed to monitor population burden of musculoskeletal conditions. We propose five indicators of musculoskeletal health and assessed if routinely available primary care electronic health records (EHR) can estimate population levels in musculoskeletal consulters. METHODS: We collected validated patient-reported measures of pain experience, function, health status through a local survey of adults (≧34 years) presenting to English general practices over 12-months for low back pain (LBP), shoulder pain, osteoarthritis and other regional musculoskeletal disorders. Using EHR data we derived and validated models for estimating population-levels of five self-reported indicators: prevalence of high impact chronic pain, overall musculoskeletal health (based on Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire), quality of life (based on EuroQoL health utility measure), and prevalence of moderate-to-severe LBP pain, and moderate-to-severe shoulder pain. We applied models to a national EHR database (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) to obtain national estimates of each indicator for three successive years. RESULTS: The optimal models included recorded demographics, deprivation, consultation frequency, analgesic and antidepressant prescriptions, and multimorbidity. Applying models to national EHR, we estimated that 31.9% of adults (≧34 years) presenting with non-inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders in England in 2016/17 experienced high impact chronic pain. Estimated population health levels were worse in women, older aged, and those in the most deprived neighbourhoods, and changed little over three years. CONCLUSION: National and subnational estimates for a range of subjective indicators of non-inflammatory musculoskeletal health conditions can be obtained using information from routine electronic health records.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the burden of comorbidities in osteoarthritis (OA) and their temporal relationships in the UK. METHODS: The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD was used to identify people with incident OA and age, gender and practice matched non-OA controls from UK primary care. Controls were assigned the same index date as matched cases (date of OA diagnosis). Associations between OA and 49 individual comorbidities and multimorbidity (≥2 comorbidities excluding OA) both before and after OA diagnosis were estimated, adjusting for covariates, using odds ratios (aOR) and hazard ratios (aHR) respectively. RESULTS: During 1997-2017, we identified 221 807 incident OA cases and 221 807 matched controls. Of 49 comorbidities examined, 38 were associated with OA both prior to, and following, the diagnosis of OA, and 2 (dementia and SLE) were associated with OA only following the diagnosis of OA. People with OA had higher risk of developing heart failure (aHR 1.63; 95% CI 1.56-1.71), dementia (aHR 1.62; 95% CI 1.56-1.68), liver diseases (aHR 1.51; 95% CI 1.37-1.67), irritable bowel syndrome (aHR 1.51; 95% CI 1.45-1.58), gastrointestinal bleeding (aHR 1.49; 95% CI 1.39-1.59), 10 musculoskeletal conditions and 25 other conditions following OA diagnosis. The aOR for multimorbidity prior to the index date was 1.71 (95% CI 1.69-1.74), whereas the aHR for multimorbidity after the index date was 1.29 (95% CI 1.28-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: People with OA are more likely to have other chronic conditions both before and after the OA diagnosis. Further study on shared aetiology and causality of these associations is needed.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intra-articular steroid injection is commonly used to treat base of thumb osteoarthritis (BTOA), despite a lack of large scale data on safety and effectiveness. We estimate the incidence of serious complications and further procedures following BTOA injection, including the risk of post-operative serious surgical site infection for subsequent operative intervention. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics data linked to mortality records from 01/04/1998-31/03/2017 were used to identify all BTOA injections undertaken in adults in the National Health Service secondary care in England. Patients were followed up longitudinally until death or 31/03/2017. A multivariable regression with a Fine and Gray model adjusting for the competing risk of mortality in addition to age, sex and socioeconomic deprivation was used to identify factors associated with progression to further procedure. Secondary outcomes included serious complications after injection and subsequent surgical site infection. RESULTS: 19120 primary injections were performed during the 19-year period in 18356 patients. 76.5% were female; mean age 62 years (SD 10.6).50.48% underwent further procedure; 22.40% underwent surgery. Median time to further intervention was 412 days (IQR 110-1945). Female sex was associated with increased risk of proceeding to surgery. Serious complication rate following injection was 0.04% (0.01-0.08) within 90 days. Of those proceeding to surgery, 0.16% (0.06-0.34) presented with a wound infection within 30 days and 90 days, compared with an overall post-operative wound infection rate of 0.03% (0.02-0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Very low rates of serious complications were identified following BTOA injections performed in secondary care; only one in five patients proceeded to subsequent surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03573765.

7.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e98-e114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been postulated to affect susceptibility to COVID-19. Observational studies so far have lacked rigorous ascertainment adjustment and international generalisability. We aimed to determine whether use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this international, open science, cohort analysis, we used electronic health records from Spain (Information Systems for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]) and the USA (Columbia University Irving Medical Center data warehouse [CUIMC] and Department of Veterans Affairs Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership [VA-OMOP]) to identify patients aged 18 years or older with at least one prescription for ACEIs and ARBs (target cohort) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics (THZs; comparator cohort) between Nov 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020. Users were defined separately as receiving either monotherapy with these four drug classes, or monotherapy or combination therapy (combination use) with other antihypertensive medications. We assessed four outcomes: COVID-19 diagnosis; hospital admission with COVID-19; hospital admission with pneumonia; and hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis. We built large-scale propensity score methods derived through a data-driven approach and negative control experiments across ten pairwise comparisons, with results meta-analysed to generate 1280 study effects. For each study effect, we did negative control outcome experiments using a possible 123 controls identified through a data-rich algorithm. This process used a set of predefined baseline patient characteristics to provide the most accurate prediction of treatment and balance among patient cohorts across characteristics. The study is registered with the EU Post-Authorisation Studies register, EUPAS35296. FINDINGS: Among 1 355 349 antihypertensive users (363 785 ACEI or ARB monotherapy users, 248 915 CCB or THZ monotherapy users, 711 799 ACEI or ARB combination users, and 473 076 CCB or THZ combination users) included in analyses, no association was observed between COVID-19 diagnosis and exposure to ACEI or ARB monotherapy versus CCB or THZ monotherapy (calibrated hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·84-1·14) or combination use exposure (1·01, 0·90-1·15). ACEIs alone similarly showed no relative risk difference when compared with CCB or THZ monotherapy (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·68-1·21; with heterogeneity of >40%) or combination use (0·95, 0·83-1·07). Directly comparing ACEIs with ARBs demonstrated a moderately lower risk with ACEIs, which was significant with combination use (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99) and non-significant for monotherapy (0·85, 0·69-1·05). We observed no significant difference between drug classes for risk of hospital admission with COVID-19, hospital admission with pneumonia, or hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis across all comparisons. INTERPRETATION: No clinically significant increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or hospital admission-related outcomes associated with ACEI or ARB use was observed, suggesting users should not discontinue or change their treatment to decrease their risk of COVID-19. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and European Health Data and Evidence Network.

8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269355

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. Design: Multinational network cohort study. Setting: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). Participants: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. Results: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged ≥50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%).Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). Conclusions: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topic: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications.There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. What this study adds: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

9.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269356

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who undergo dialysis, tracheostomy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Design: A network cohort study. Setting: Six databases from the United States containing routinely-collected patient data: HealthVerity, Premier, IQVIA Open Claims, Optum EHR, Optum SES, and VA-OMOP. Patients: Patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis or a positive test result for COVID-19. Interventions: Dialysis, tracheostomy, and ECMO. Measurements and Main Results: 240,392 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were included (22,887 from HealthVerity, 139,971 from IQVIA Open Claims, 29,061 from Optum EHR, 4,336 from OPTUM SES, 36,019 from Premier, and 8,118 from VA-OMOP). Across the six databases, 9,703 (4.04% [95% CI: 3.96% to 4.11%]) patients received dialysis, 1,681 (0.70% [0.67% to 0.73%]) had a tracheostomy, and 398 (0.17% [95% CI: 0.15% to 0.18%]) patients underwent ECMO over the 30 days following hospitalization. Use of ECMO was generally concentrated among patients who were younger, male, and with fewer comorbidities except for obesity. Tracheostomy was used for a similar proportion of patients regardless of age, sex, or comorbidity. While dialysis was used for a similar proportion among younger and older patients, it was more frequent among male patients and among those with chronic kidney disease. Conclusion: Use of dialysis among those hospitalized with COVID-19 is high at around 4%. Although less than one percent of patients undergo tracheostomy and ECMO, the absolute numbers of patients who have undergone these interventions is substantial and can be expected to continue grow given the continuing spread of the COVID-19.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: X-Linked hypophosphataemic rickets (XLH) is a rare multisystemic disease of mineral homeostasis that has a prominent skeletal phenotype. The aim of this study was to describe additional comorbidities in XLH patients compared with general population controls. METHODS: The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD was used to identify a cohort of XLH patients (1995-2016), along with a non-XLH cohort matched (1:4) on age, sex and GP practice. Using the CALIBER portal, phenotyping algorithms were used to identify the first diagnosis (and associated age) of 273 comorbid conditions during patient follow-up. Fifteen major disease categories were used and the proportion of patients having ≥1 diagnosis was compared between cohorts for each category and condition. Main analyses were repeated according to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). RESULTS: There were 64 and 256 patients in the XLH and non-XLH cohorts, respectively. There was increased prevalence of endocrine (OR 3.46 [95% CI: 1.44-8.31]) and neurological (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.41-6.44] disorders among XLH patients. Across all specific comorbidities, four were at least twice as likely to be present in XLH cases, but only depression met the Bonferroni threshold: OR 2.95 [95%CI: 1.47-5.92]. Distribution of IMD among XLH cases indicated greater deprivation than the general population. CONCLUSION: We describe a higher risk of mental illness in XLH patients compared with matched controls, and greater than expected deprivation. These findings may have implications for clinical practice guidelines and decisions around health and social care provision for these patients.

11.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373491

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates are the first-line treatment for preventing fractures in osteoporosis patients. However, their use is contraindicated or to be used with caution in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, primarily because of a lack of information about their safety and effectiveness. We aimed to investigate the safety of oral bisphosphonates in patients with moderate to severe CKD, using primary-care electronic records from two cohorts, CPRD GOLD (1997-2016) and SIDIAP (2007-2015) in the UK and Catalonia, respectively. Both databases were linked to hospital records. SIDIAP was also linked to end-stage renal disease registry data. Patients with CKD stages 3b to 5, based on two or more estimated glomerular filtration rate measurements less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 , aged 40 years or older were identified. New bisphosphonate users were propensity score-matched with up to five non-users to minimize confounding within this population. Our primary outcome was CKD stage worsening (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] decline or renal replacement therapy). Secondary outcomes were acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal bleeding/ulcers, and severe hypocalcemia. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression and Fine and Gray sub-HRs were calculated for competing risks. We matched 2447 bisphosphonate users with 8931 non-users from CPRD and 1399 users with 6547 non-users from SIDIAP. Bisphosphonate use was associated with greater risk of CKD progression in CPRD (sub-HR [95% CI]: 1.14 [1.04, 1.26]) and SIDIAP (sub-HR: 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]). No risk differences were found for acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal bleeding/ulcers, or hypocalcemia. Hence, we can conclude a modest (15%) increased risk of CKD progression was identified in association with bisphosphonate use. No other safety concerns were identified. Our findings should be considered before prescribing bisphosphonates to patients with moderate to severe CKD. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Concern has been raised in the rheumatology community regarding recent regulatory warnings that HCQ used in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic could cause acute psychiatric events. We aimed to study whether there is risk of incident depression, suicidal ideation or psychosis associated with HCQ as used for RA. METHODS: We performed a new-user cohort study using claims and electronic medical records from 10 sources and 3 countries (Germany, UK and USA). RA patients ≥18 years of age and initiating HCQ were compared with those initiating SSZ (active comparator) and followed up in the short (30 days) and long term (on treatment). Study outcomes included depression, suicide/suicidal ideation and hospitalization for psychosis. Propensity score stratification and calibration using negative control outcomes were used to address confounding. Cox models were fitted to estimate database-specific calibrated hazard ratios (HRs), with estimates pooled where I2 <40%. RESULTS: A total of 918 144 and 290 383 users of HCQ and SSZ, respectively, were included. No consistent risk of psychiatric events was observed with short-term HCQ (compared with SSZ) use, with meta-analytic HRs of 0.96 (95% CI 0.79, 1.16) for depression, 0.94 (95% CI 0.49, 1.77) for suicide/suicidal ideation and 1.03 (95% CI 0.66, 1.60) for psychosis. No consistent long-term risk was seen, with meta-analytic HRs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.71, 1.26) for depression, 0.77 (95% CI 0.56, 1.07) for suicide/suicidal ideation and 0.99 (95% CI 0.72, 1.35) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: HCQ as used to treat RA does not appear to increase the risk of depression, suicide/suicidal ideation or psychosis compared with SSZ. No effects were seen in the short or long term. Use at a higher dose or for different indications needs further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with EU PAS (reference no. EUPAS34497; http://www.encepp.eu/encepp/viewResource.htm? id=34498). The full study protocol and analysis source code can be found at https://github.com/ohdsi-studies/Covid19EstimationHydroxychloroquine2.

13.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140074

RESUMO

Objectives To characterize the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, in-hospital treatments, and health outcomes among children/adolescents diagnosed or hospitalized with COVID-19. Secondly, to describe health outcomes amongst children/adolescents diagnosed with previous seasonal influenza. Design International network cohort. Setting Real-world data from European primary care records (France/Germany/Spain), South Korean claims and US claims and hospital databases. Participants Diagnosed and/or hospitalized children/adolescents with COVID-19 at age <18 between January and June 2020; diagnosed with influenza in 2017-2018. Main outcome measures Baseline demographics and comorbidities, symptoms, 30-day in-hospital treatments and outcomes including hospitalization, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and death. Results A total of 55,270 children/adolescents diagnosed and 3,693 hospitalized with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 diagnosed with influenza were studied. Comorbidities including neurodevelopmental disorders, heart disease, and cancer were all more common among those hospitalized vs diagnosed with COVID-19. The most common COVID-19 symptom was fever. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in COVID-19 than influenza. In-hospital treatments for COVID-19 included repurposed medications (<10%), and adjunctive therapies: systemic corticosteroids (6.8% to 37.6%), famotidine (9.0% to 28.1%), and antithrombotics such as aspirin (2.0% to 21.4%), heparin (2.2% to 18.1%), and enoxaparin (2.8% to 14.8%). Hospitalization was observed in 0.3% to 1.3% of the COVID-19 diagnosed cohort, with undetectable (N<5 per database) 30-day fatality. Thirty-day outcomes including pneumonia, ARDS, and MIS-C were more frequent in COVID-19 than influenza. Conclusions Despite negligible fatality, complications including pneumonia, ARDS and MIS-C were more frequent in children/adolescents with COVID-19 than with influenza. Dyspnea, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms could help differential diagnosis. A wide range of medications were used for the inpatient management of pediatric COVID-19.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098421

RESUMO

Controlling the excessive fracture burden in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages G4-G5D remains an impressive challenge. The reasons are 2-fold. First, the pathophysiology of bone fragility in patients with CKD G4-G5D is complex and multifaceted, comprising a mixture of age-related (primary male/postmenopausal), drug-induced and CKD-related bone abnormalities. Second, our current armamentarium of osteoporosis medications has not been developed for, or adequately studied in patients with CKD G4-G5D, partly related to difficulties in diagnosing osteoporosis in this specific setting and fear of complications. Doubts about the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach fuel inertia in daily clinical practice. The scope of the present consensus paper is to review and update the assessment and diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with CKD G4-G5D and to discuss the therapeutic interventions available and the manner in which these can be used to develop management strategies for the prevention of fragility fracture. As such, it aims to stimulate a cohesive approach to the management of osteoporosis in patients with CKD G4-G5D to replace current variations in care and treatment nihilism.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a missing link in the natural history of COVID-19, from first (usually milder) symptoms to hospitalization and/or death. To fill in this gap, we characterized COVID-19 patients at the time at which they were diagnosed in outpatient settings and estimated 30-day hospital admission and fatality rates. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study.  : Data were obtained from Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP)-a primary-care records database covering >6 million people (>80% of the population of Catalonia), linked to COVID-19 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and hospital emergency, inpatient and mortality registers. We included all patients in the database who were ≥15 years old and diagnosed with COVID-19 in outpatient settings between 15 March and 24 April 2020 (10 April for outcome studies). Baseline characteristics included socio-demographics, co-morbidity and previous drug use at the time of diagnosis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and results.  : Study outcomes included 30-day hospitalization for COVID-19 and all-cause fatality. RESULTS: We identified 118 150 and 95 467 COVID-19 patients for characterization and outcome studies, respectively. Most were women (58.7%) and young-to-middle-aged (e.g. 21.1% were 45-54 years old). Of the 44 575 who were tested with PCR, 32 723 (73.4%) tested positive. In the month after diagnosis, 14.8% (14.6-15.0) were hospitalized, with a greater proportion of men and older people, peaking at age 75-84 years. Thirty-day fatality was 3.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.4% to 3.6%), higher in men, increasing with age and highest in those residing in nursing homes [24.5% (23.4% to 25.6%)]. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infections were widespread in the community, including all age-sex strata. However, severe forms of the disease clustered in older men and nursing-home residents. Although initially managed in outpatient settings, 15% of cases required hospitalization and 4% died within a month of first symptoms. These data are instrumental for designing deconfinement strategies and will inform healthcare planning and hospital-bed allocation in current and future COVID-19 outbreaks.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034625

RESUMO

Importance: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented needs for invasive ventilation, with 10% to 15% of intubated patients subsequently requiring tracheotomy. Objective: To assess the complications, safety, and timing of tracheotomy performed for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study assessed consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who had COVID-19 that required tracheotomy. Patients were recruited from March 16 to April 10, 2020, at a tertiary referral center. Exposures: A surgical tracheotomy was performed for all patients following recommended criteria for use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Main Outcomes and Measures: The number of subthyroid operations, the tracheal entrance protocol, and use of PPE. Infections among the surgeons were monitored weekly by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab samples. Short-term complications, weaning, and the association of timing of tracheotomy (early [≤10 days] vs late [>10 days]) with total required days of invasive ventilation were assessed. Results: A total of 50 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.8 [9.2] years; 33 [66%] male) participated in the study. All tracheotomies were performed at the bedside. The median time from intubation to tracheotomy was 9 days (interquartile range, 2-24 days). A subthyroid approach was completed for 46 patients (92%), and the tracheal protocol was adequately achieved for 40 patients (80%). Adequate PPE was used, with no infection among surgeons identified 4 weeks after the last tracheotomy. Postoperative complications were rare, with minor bleeding (in 6 patients [12%]) being the most common complication. The successful weaning rate was higher in the early tracheotomy group than in the late tracheotomy group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.96-6.75), but the difference was not statistically significant. There was less time of invasive mechanical ventilatory support with early tracheotomy compared with late tracheotomy (mean [SD], 18 [5.4] vs 22.3 [5.7] days). The reduction of invasive ventilatory support was achieved at the expense of the pretracheotomy period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, with the use of a standardized protocol aimed at minimizing COVID-19 risks, bedside open tracheotomy was a safe procedure for patients and surgeons, with minimal complications. Timing of tracheotomy may be important in reducing time of invasive mechanical ventilation, with potential implications to intensive care unit availability during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Reumatol Clin ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060030

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the few modifiable risk factors associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most published data are over 10 years old, and none included Mediterranean populations. We therefore took advantage of primary care routinely collected data to study the association between smoking and the development of RA in the general population of Catalonia, Spain. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study including all patients with a new diagnosis of RA registered in the SIDIAP database between 01/01/2008 and 31/12/2018; and matched them to up to 1:5 controls by age, gender and general practitioner. Smoking was classified by primary care staff into never, ex- or current smoking. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between current and ex-smoking (compared to never smoking) and RA were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 13,920 RA cases and 69,535 controls were included. Compared with never smokers, current and ex-smokers were at increased risk of RA, with adjusted OR of 1.28 [95% CI 1.20-1.37] and OR 1.19 [1.12-1.26] respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm an association between smoking and the risk of developing RA. The effect seems to prevail in the long-term and even in ex-smokers for 2 or more years after smoking cessation. More research is needed on the effects of smoking discontinuation on RA prevention and related outcomes.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16520, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020582

RESUMO

Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a common fibro-proliferative disorder of the palm. We estimated the risk of serious local and systemic complications and re-operation after DD surgery. We queried England's Hospital Episode Statistics database and included all adult DD patients who were surgically treated. A longitudinal cohort study and self-controlled case series were conducted. Between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2017, 121,488 adults underwent 158,119 operations for DD. The cumulative incidence of 90-day serious local complications was low at 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.2). However, the amputation rate for re-operation by limited fasciectomy following dermofasciectomy was 8%. 90-day systemic complications were also uncommon at 0.78% (95% CI 0.74-0.83), however operations routinely performed under general or regional anaesthesia carried an increased risk of serious systemic complications such as myocardial infarction. Re-operation was lower than previous reports (33.7% for percutaneous needle fasciotomy, 19.5% for limited fasciectomy, and 18.2% for dermofasciectomy). Overall, DD surgery performed in England was safe; however, re-operation by after dermofasciectomy carries a high risk of amputation. Furthermore, whilst serious systemic complications were unusual, the data suggest that high-risk patients should undergo treatment under local anaesthesia. These data will inform better shared decision-making regarding this common condition.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of primary hip and knee replacement in individuals with osteoarthritis up to 2 years post-surgery, compare costs before and after the surgery, and identify predictors of hospital costs. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or over with primary planned hip or knee replacements and osteoarthritis in England between 2008 and 2016 were identified from the National Joint Registry and linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data containing inpatient episodes. Primary care data linked with hospital outpatient records were also used to identify patients aged 18 years or over with primary hip or knee replacements between 2008 and 2016. All healthcare resource use was valued using 2016/17 costs and non-parametric censoring methods were used to estimate total 1-year and 2-year costs. RESULTS: We identified 854,866 individuals undergoing hip or knee replacement. The mean censor-adjusted 1-year hospitalisation costs for hip and knee replacement were £7,827 (95% CI £7,813 to £7,842) and £7,805 (95% CI £7,790 to £7,818), respectively. Complications and revisions were associated with up to a three-fold increase in 1-year hospitalisation costs. The censor-adjusted 2-year costs were £9,258 (95 % CI £9,233 to £9,280) and £9,452 (95%CI £9,430 to £9,475) for hip and knee replacement. Adding primary and outpatient care, the mean total hip and knee replacement 2-year costs were £11,987 and £12,578, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant costs following joint replacement. Revisions and complications accounted for considerable costs and there is a significant incentive to identify best approaches to reduce these.

20.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036023, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between age, sex, socioeconomic group, weight status and back pain risk in a large general population cohort of children. DESIGN AND SETTING: A dynamic cohort of children aged 4 years in the Information System for Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) electronic primary care records data in Catalonia. Multivariable Cox models were fitted to explore the association between back pain and weight status categories according to the WHO 2007 growth reference groups (body mass index for age z-score). Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status and nationality. PARTICIPANTS: Children seen at age 4 years at paediatric primary care clinics between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013 and followed up until 31 December 2016 or age 15 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident back pain registered by paediatricians at primary care using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Edition code M54. RESULTS: 466 997 children were followed for a median 5.0 years (IQR 5.1). In multivariable models, overweight and obesity increased back pain risk, with adjusted HRs of 1.18 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.27) and 1.34 (95%CI 1.19 to 1.51) for overweight and obesity, respectively. Females were at greater risk of back pain than males with adjusted HR 1.40 (95%CI 1.35 to 1.46). Adjusted HR was 1.43 (95%CI 1.33 to 1.55) for back pain in children from the most deprived socioeconomic groups compared with the least deprived socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining a healthy weight from an early age may reduce the prevalence of back pain in both children and adults. Overweight female children from deprived socioeconomic groups are at greatest risk of back pain and represent a target population for intervention.

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