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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(8): 083306, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472612

RESUMO

The performance of a newly built omega type electrostatic analyzer designed to act as an in-line charge-state purification system for ions in the kiloelectronvolt energy range is reported. The analyzer consists of a set of four consecutive electrostatic 140° concentric cylindrical electrodes enclosed by Matsuda electrodes. This setup was recently tested and validated using O5+, Ar9+, and Xe20+ ion beams at an energy of 14 qkeV at the ARIBE facility. A resolving power of 10.5 and a transmission of 100% of the desired charge state are measured allowing a good purification of incoming ion beams with charge states up to 10+ and a fairly good purification for charge states at least up to 20+. In comparison with other in-line solutions such as the Wien filter, our system has the advantage of being purely electrostatic and therefore lacking common drawbacks as, for example, hysteresis.

2.
Langmuir ; 35(36): 11859-11871, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453695

RESUMO

The surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles produced by the pulsed laser ablation in liquids method is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The presence of surface oxide expected on these systems is investigated using synchrotron radiation in conditions close to their original state in solvent but free from substrate or solvent effects which could affect the interpretation of spectroscopic observations. For that purpose we performed the experiment on a controlled free-standing nanoparticle beam produced by combination of an atomizer and an aerodynamic lens system. These results are compared with those obtained by the standard situation of deposited nanoparticles on silicon substrate. An accurate analysis based on Bayesian statistics concludes that the existence of oxide in the free-standing conditions cannot be solely confirmed by the recorded core-level 4f spectra. If present, our data indicate an upper limit of 2.15 ± 0.68% of oxide. However, a higher credence to the hypothesis of its existence is brought by the structureless valence profile of the free-standing beam. Moreover, the cross-comparison with the deposited nanoparticles case clearly evidences an important misleading substrate effect. Experiment with free-standing nanoparticles is then demonstrated to be the right way to further investigate oxidation states on Au nanoparticles.

3.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 80(2): 023103, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19256636

RESUMO

Although reliable models may predict the detection efficiency of semiconductor detectors, measurements are needed to check the parameters supplied by the manufacturers, namely, the thicknesses of dead layer, beryllium window, and crystal active area. The efficiency of three silicon detectors has been precisely investigated in their entire photon energy range of detection. In the zero to a few keV range, we developed a new method based on the detection of the 2E1 decay of the metastable Ar(17+) 2s-->1s transition. Very good theoretical knowledge of the energetic distribution of the 2E1 decay mode enables precise characterization of the absorbing layers in front of the detectors. In the high-energy range (>10 keV), the detector crystal thickness plays a major role in the detection efficiency and has been determined using a (241)Am source.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 96(1): 013203, 2006 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16486452

RESUMO

We investigate the heating of the quasifree electrons in large rare-gas clusters (N exceeding 10(5) atoms) by short laser pulses at moderate intensities (I approximately = 10(15) W cm(-2)). We identify elastic large-angle backscattering of electrons at ionic cores in the presence of a laser field as an efficient heating mechanism. Its efficiency as well as the effect of collective electron motion, electron-impact ionization, and cluster charging are studied employing a mean-field classical transport simulation. Results for the absolute x-ray yields are in surprisingly good quantitative agreement with recent experimental results.

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