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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4130, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511532

RESUMO

Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 357, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664637

RESUMO

Cranial growth and development is a complex process which affects the closely related traits of head circumference (HC) and intracranial volume (ICV). The underlying genetic influences shaping these traits during the transition from childhood to adulthood are little understood, but might include both age-specific genetic factors and low-frequency genetic variation. Here, we model the developmental genetic architecture of HC, showing this is genetically stable and correlated with genetic determinants of ICV. Investigating up to 46,000 children and adults of European descent, we identify association with final HC and/or final ICV + HC at 9 novel common and low-frequency loci, illustrating that genetic variation from a wide allele frequency spectrum contributes to cranial growth. The largest effects are reported for low-frequency variants within TP53, with 0.5 cm wider heads in increaser-allele carriers versus non-carriers during mid-childhood, suggesting a previously unrecognized role of TP53 transcripts in human cranial development.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Crânio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cefalometria , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 252, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470734

RESUMO

The epidemiologic link between schizophrenia (SCZ) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the presence and extent of a shared genetic background between SCZ and T2D using genome-wide approaches. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and polygenic risk score analysis in a Greek sample collection (GOMAP) comprising three patient groups: SCZ only (n = 924), T2D only (n = 822), comorbid SCZ and T2D (n = 505); samples from two separate Greek cohorts were used as population-based controls (n = 1,125). We used genome-wide summary statistics from two large-scale GWAS of SCZ and T2D from the PGC and DIAGRAM consortia, respectively, to perform genetic overlap analyses, including a regional colocalisation test. We show for the first time that patients with comorbid SCZ and T2D have a higher genetic predisposition to both disorders compared to controls. We identify five genomic regions with evidence of colocalising SCZ and T2D signals, three of which contain known loci for both diseases. We also observe a significant excess of shared association signals between SCZ and T2D at nine out of ten investigated p value thresholds. Finally, we identify 29 genes associated with both T2D and SCZ, several of which have been implicated in biological processes relevant to these disorders. Together our results demonstrate that the observed comorbidity between SCZ and T2D is at least in part due to shared genetic mechanisms.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

9.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175238

RESUMO

Background: Over 90 regions of the genome have been associated with lung function to date, many of which have also been implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: We carried out meta-analyses of exome array data and three lung function measures: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC (FEV 1/FVC). These analyses by the SpiroMeta and CHARGE consortia included 60,749 individuals of European ancestry from 23 studies, and 7,721 individuals of African Ancestry from 5 studies in the discovery stage, with follow-up in up to 111,556 independent individuals. Results: We identified significant (P<2·8x10 -7) associations with six SNPs: a nonsynonymous variant in RPAP1, which is predicted to be damaging, three intronic SNPs ( SEC24C, CASC17 and UQCC1) and two intergenic SNPs near to LY86 and FGF10. Expression quantitative trait loci analyses found evidence for regulation of gene expression at three signals and implicated several genes, including TYRO3 and PLAU. Conclusions: Further interrogation of these loci could provide greater understanding of the determinants of lung function and pulmonary disease.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 249, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The potential diabetogenic effect of concomitant application of psychotropic treatment classes in patients with SCZ has not yet been evaluated. The overarching goal of the Genetic Overlap between Metabolic and Psychiatric disease (GOMAP) study is to assess the effect of pharmacological, anthropometric, lifestyle and clinical measurements, helping elucidate the mechanisms underlying the aetiology of T2D. METHODS: The GOMAP case-control study (Genetic Overlap between Metabolic and Psychiatric disease) includes hospitalized patients with SCZ, some of whom have T2D. We enrolled 1653 patients with SCZ; 611 with T2D and 1042 patients without T2D. This is the first study of SCZ and T2D comorbidity at this scale in the Greek population. We retrieved detailed information on first- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGA, SGA), antidepressants and mood stabilizers, applied as monotherapy, 2-drug combination, or as 3- or more drug combination. We assessed the effects of psychotropic medication, body mass index, duration of schizophrenia, number of hospitalizations and physical activity on risk of T2D. Using logistic regression, we calculated crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) to identify associations between demographic factors and the psychiatric medications. RESULTS: Patients with SCZ on a combination of at least three different classes of psychiatric drugs had a higher risk of T2D [OR 1.81 (95% CI 1.22-2.69); p = 0.003] compared to FGA alone therapy, after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, duration of SCZ and number of hospitalizations. We did not find evidence for an association of SGA use or the combination of drugs belonging to two different classes of psychiatric medications with increased risk of T2D [1.27 (0.84-1.93), p = 0.259 and 0.98 (0.71-1.35), p = 0.885, respectively] compared to FGA use. CONCLUSIONS: We find an increased risk of T2D in patients with SCZ who take a combination of at least three different psychotropic medication classes compared to patients whose medication consists only of one or two classes of drugs.

12.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 87, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies conducted on QRS duration, an electrocardiographic measurement associated with heart failure and sudden cardiac death, have led to novel biological insights into cardiac function. However, the variants identified fall predominantly in non-coding regions and their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identify putative functional coding variation associated with changes in the QRS interval duration by combining Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotype data from 77,898 participants of European ancestry and 7695 of African descent in our discovery cohort, followed by replication in 111,874 individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank and deCODE cohorts. We identify ten novel loci, seven within coding regions, including ADAMTS6, significantly associated with QRS duration in gene-based analyses. ADAMTS6 encodes a secreted metalloprotease of currently unknown function. In vitro validation analysis shows that the QRS-associated variants lead to impaired ADAMTS6 secretion and loss-of function analysis in mice demonstrates a previously unappreciated role for ADAMTS6 in connexin 43 gap junction expression, which is essential for myocardial conduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identifies novel coding and non-coding variants underlying ventricular depolarization and provides a possible mechanism for the ADAMTS6-associated conduction changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Conexina 43/genética , Exoma , Loci Gênicos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(1): e001758, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: QT interval, measured through a standard ECG, captures the time it takes for the cardiac ventricles to depolarize and repolarize. JT interval is the component of the QT interval that reflects ventricular repolarization alone. Prolonged QT interval has been linked to higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an ExomeChip-wide analysis for both QT and JT intervals, including 209 449 variants, both common and rare, in 17 341 genes from the Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. We identified 10 loci that modulate QT and JT interval duration that have not been previously reported in the literature using single-variant statistical models in a meta-analysis of 95 626 individuals from 23 cohorts (comprised 83 884 European ancestry individuals, 9610 blacks, 1382 Hispanics, and 750 Asians). This brings the total number of ventricular repolarization associated loci to 45. In addition, our approach of using coding variants has highlighted the role of 17 specific genes for involvement in ventricular repolarization, 7 of which are in novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses show a role for myocyte internal structure and interconnections in modulating QT interval duration, adding to previous known roles of potassium, sodium, and calcium ion regulation, as well as autonomic control. We anticipate that these discoveries will open new paths to the goal of making novel remedies for the prevention of lethal ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest.

14.
Nature ; 558(7708): 73-79, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875488

RESUMO

Although plasma proteins have important roles in biological processes and are the direct targets of many drugs, the genetic factors that control inter-individual variation in plasma protein levels are not well understood. Here we characterize the genetic architecture of the human plasma proteome in healthy blood donors from the INTERVAL study. We identify 1,927 genetic associations with 1,478 proteins, a fourfold increase on existing knowledge, including trans associations for 1,104 proteins. To understand the consequences of perturbations in plasma protein levels, we apply an integrated approach that links genetic variation with biological pathway, disease, and drug databases. We show that protein quantitative trait loci overlap with gene expression quantitative trait loci, as well as with disease-associated loci, and find evidence that protein biomarkers have causal roles in disease using Mendelian randomization analysis. By linking genetic factors to diseases via specific proteins, our analyses highlight potential therapeutic targets, opportunities for matching existing drugs with new disease indications, and potential safety concerns for drugs under development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Genômica , Proteoma/genética , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mieloblastina/genética , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Vasculite/genética , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(5): e002037, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical conduction from the cardiac sinoatrial node to the ventricles is critical for normal heart function. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than a dozen common genetic loci that are associated with PR interval. However, it is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants also contribute to PR interval heritability. METHODS: We performed large-scale meta-analyses of the PR interval that included 83 367 participants of European ancestry and 9436 of African ancestry. We examined both common and rare variants associated with the PR interval. RESULTS: We identified 31 genetic loci that were significantly associated with PR interval after Bonferroni correction (P<1.2×10-6), including 11 novel loci that have not been reported previously. Many of these loci are involved in heart morphogenesis. In gene-based analysis, we found that multiple rare variants at MYH6 (P=5.9×10-11) and SCN5A (P=1.1×10-7) were associated with PR interval. SCN5A locus also was implicated in the common variant analysis, whereas MYH6 was a novel locus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified common variants at 11 novel loci and rare variants within 2 gene regions that were significantly associated with PR interval. Our findings provide novel insights to the current understanding of atrioventricular conduction, which is critical for cardiac activity and an important determinant of health.

16.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 559-571, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632382

RESUMO

We aggregated coding variant data for 81,412 type 2 diabetes cases and 370,832 controls of diverse ancestry, identifying 40 coding variant association signals (P < 2.2 × 10-7); of these, 16 map outside known risk-associated loci. We make two important observations. First, only five of these signals are driven by low-frequency variants: even for these, effect sizes are modest (odds ratio ≤1.29). Second, when we used large-scale genome-wide association data to fine-map the associated variants in their regional context, accounting for the global enrichment of complex trait associations in coding sequence, compelling evidence for coding variant causality was obtained for only 16 signals. At 13 others, the associated coding variants clearly represent 'false leads' with potential to generate erroneous mechanistic inference. Coding variant associations offer a direct route to biological insight for complex diseases and identification of validated therapeutic targets; however, appropriate mechanistic inference requires careful specification of their causal contribution to disease predisposition.

17.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(2): 89-100, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506594

RESUMO

Blood eosinophil count is associated with a variety of common complex outcomes in epidemiological observation. The aim of this study was to explore the causal association between determined blood eosinophil count and 20 common complex outcomes (10 metabolic, 6 cardiac, and 4 pulmonary). Through Mendelian randomization, we investigated genetic evidence for the genetically determined eosinophil in association with each outcomes using individual-level LifeLines cohort data (n = 13,301), where a weighted eosinophil genetic risk score comprising five eosinophil associated variants was created. We further examined the associations of the genetically determined eosinophil with those outcomes using summary statistics obtained from genome-wide association study consortia (6 consortia and 14 outcomes). Blood eosinophil count, by a 1-SD genetically increased, was not statistically associated with common complex outcomes in the LifeLines. Using the summary statistics, we showed that a higher genetically determined eosinophil count had a significant association with lower odds of obesity (odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.74, 0.89]) but not with the other traits and diseases. To conclude, an elevated eosinophil count is unlikely to be causally associated to higher risk of metabolic, cardiac, and pulmonary outcomes. Further studies with a stronger genetic risk score for eosinophil count may support these results.

18.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186669, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125842

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose levels. We tested the hypothesis here whether the cumulative effect of glucose raising SNPs, assessed via a score, is associated with glucose levels. A total of 1,434 participants of Greek descent from the THISEAS study and 1,160 participants form the GOMAP study were included in this analysis. We developed a genetic risk score (GRS), based on the known glucose-raising loci, in order to investigate the cumulative effect of known glucose loci on glucose levels. In the THISEAS study, the GRS score was significantly associated with increased glucose levels (mmol/L) (ß ± SE: 0.024 ± 0.004, P = 8.27e-07). The effect of the genetic risk score was also significant in the GOMAP study (ß ± SE: 0.011 ± 0.005, P = 0.031). In the meta-analysis of the two studies both scores were significantly associated with higher glucose levels GRS: ß ± SE: 0.019 ± 0.003, P = 1.41e-09. Also, variants at the SLC30A8, PROX1, MTNR1B, ADRA2A, G6PC2, LPIN3 loci indicated nominal evidence for association with glucose levels (p < 0.05). We replicate associations of the established glucose raising variants in the Greek population and confirm directional consistency of effects (binomial sign test p = 6.96e-05). We also demonstrate that the cumulative effect of the established glucose loci yielded a significant association with increasing glucose levels.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 11008, 2017 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887542

RESUMO

Serum biomarker levels are associated with the risk of complex diseases. Here, we aimed to gain insights into the genetic architecture of biomarker traits which can reflect health status. We performed genome-wide association analyses for twenty serum biomarkers involved in organ function and reproductive health. 9,961 individuals from the UK Household Longitudinal Study were genotyped using the Illumina HumanCoreExome array and variants imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project and UK10K haplotypes. We establish a polygenic heritability for all biomarkers, confirm associations of fifty-four established loci, and identify five novel, replicating associations at genome-wide significance. A low-frequency variant, rs28929474, (beta = 0.04, P = 2 × 10-10) was associated with levels of alanine transaminase, an indicator of liver damage. The variant is located in the gene encoding serine protease inhibitor, low levels of which are associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency which leads to liver disease. We identified novel associations (rs78900934, beta = 0.05, P = 6 × 10-12; rs2911280, beta = 0.09, P = 6 × 10-10) for dihydroepiandrosterone sulphate, a precursor to major sex-hormones, and for glycated haemoglobin (rs12819124, beta = -0.03, P = 4 × 10-9; rs761772, beta = 0.05, P = 5 × 10-9). rs12819124 is nominally associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Our study offers insights into the genetic architecture of well-known and less well-studied biomarkers.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(12): 2346-2363, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28379579

RESUMO

Resting heart rate is a heritable trait, and an increase in heart rate is associated with increased mortality risk. Genome-wide association study analyses have found loci associated with resting heart rate, at the time of our study these loci explained 0.9% of the variation. This study aims to discover new genetic loci associated with heart rate from Exome Chip meta-analyses.Heart rate was measured from either elecrtrocardiograms or pulse recordings. We meta-analysed heart rate association results from 104 452 European-ancestry individuals from 30 cohorts, genotyped using the Exome Chip. Twenty-four variants were selected for follow-up in an independent dataset (UK Biobank, N = 134 251). Conditional and gene-based testing was undertaken, and variants were investigated with bioinformatics methods.We discovered five novel heart rate loci, and one new independent low-frequency non-synonymous variant in an established heart rate locus (KIAA1755). Lead variants in four of the novel loci are non-synonymous variants in the genes C10orf71, DALDR3, TESK2 and SEC31B. The variant at SEC31B is significantly associated with SEC31B expression in heart and tibial nerve tissue. Further candidate genes were detected from long-range regulatory chromatin interactions in heart tissue (SCD, SLF2 and MAPK8). We observed significant enrichment in DNase I hypersensitive sites in fetal heart and lung. Moreover, enrichment was seen for the first time in human neuronal progenitor cells (derived from embryonic stem cells) and fetal muscle samples by including our novel variants.Our findings advance the knowledge of the genetic architecture of heart rate, and indicate new candidate genes for follow-up functional studies.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
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