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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402509

RESUMO

Bisphosphonates, potent antiresorptive agents, have been found to be associated with mortality reduction. Accelerated bone loss is, in itself, an independent predictor of mortality risk, but the relationship between bisphosphonates, bone loss, and mortality is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether the association between bisphosphonates and mortality is mediated by a reduction in the rate of bone loss. Participants from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were followed prospectively between1996 and 2011. Comorbidities and lifestyle factors were collected at baseline and bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and at years 3 (for those aged 40 to 60 years), 5, and 10. Rate of bone loss was calculated using linear regression. Information on medication use was obtained yearly. Bisphosphonate users grouped into nitrogen bisphosphonates (nBP; alendronate or risedronate) and etidronate and non-users (NoRx) were matched by propensity score, including all baseline factors as well as time of treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models, unadjusted and adjusted for annual rate of bone loss, were used to determine the association between nBP and etidronate versus NoRx. For the treatment groups with significant mortality risk reduction, the percent of mortality reduction mediated by a reduction in the rate of bone loss was estimated using a causal mediation analysis. There were 271 pairs of nBP and matched NoRx and 327 pairs of etidronate and matched NoRx. nBP but not etidronate use was associated with significant mortality risk reduction (hazard ratios [HR] = 0.61 [95% confidence interval 0.39-0.96] and 1.35 [95% CI 0.86-2.11] for nBP and etidronate, respectively). Rapid bone loss was associated with more than 2-fold increased mortality risk compared with no loss. Mediation analysis indicated that 39% (95% CI 7%-84%) of the nBP association with mortality was related to a reduction in the rate of bone loss. This finding provides an insight into the mechanism of the relationship between nBP and survival benefit in osteoporotic patients. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 53, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098708

RESUMO

Using data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, several risk factors predictive of imminent (2-year) risk of low-trauma non-vertebral fracture among high-risk women were identified, including history of falls, history of low-trauma fracture, poorer physical function, and lower T score. Careful consideration should be given to targeting this population for therapy. PURPOSE: Fracture risk assessment has focused on a long-term horizon and populations with a broad risk range. For elderly women with osteoporosis or low bone mass, or a history of fragility fractures ("high-risk women"), risk prediction over a shorter horizon may have greater clinical relevance. METHODS: A repeated-observations design and data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study were employed. Study population comprised women aged ≥ 65 years with T score (total hip, femoral neck, spine) ≤ - 1.0 or prior fracture. Hazard ratios (HR) for predictors of low-trauma non-vertebral fracture during 2-year follow-up were estimated using multivariable shared frailty model. RESULTS: The study population included 3228 women who contributed 5004 observations; 4.8% experienced low-trauma non-vertebral fracture during the 2-year follow-up. In bivariate analyses, important risk factors included age, back pain, history of falls, history of low-trauma fracture, physical function, health status, and total hip T score. In multivariable analyses, only four independent predictors were identified: falls in past 12 months (≥ 2 falls: HR = 1.9; 1 fall: HR = 1.5), low-trauma fracture in past 12 months (≥ 1 fracture: HR = 1.7), SF-36 physical component summary score (≤ 42.0: HR = 1.6), and total hip T score (≤ - 3.5: HR = 3.7; > - 3.5 to ≤ - 2.5: HR = 2.5; > - 2.5 to ≤ - 1: HR = 1.3). CONCLUSIONS: Imminent risk of low-trauma non-vertebral fracture is elevated among high-risk women with a history of falls or low-trauma fracture, poorer physical function, and lower T score. Careful consideration should be given to identifying and targeting this population for therapy.

3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 49, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037359

RESUMO

Parity and lactation showed no associations with incident clinical fragility fractures or radiographic vertebral compression fractures in the 16-year CaMos prospective study. Parity was associated with slightly greater decline in femoral neck but not hip or spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD), while lactation showed no associations with aBMD change. PURPOSE: Pregnancy and especially lactation cause loss of bone mass and microarchitectural changes, which temporarily increase fracture risk. After weaning, aBMD increases but skeletal microarchitecture may be incompletely restored. Most retrospective clinical studies found neutral or even protective associations of parity and lactation with fragility fractures, but prospective data are sparse. CaMos is a randomly selected observational cohort that includes ~ 6500 women followed prospectively for over 16 years. METHODS: We determined whether parity or lactation were related to incident clinical fragility fractures over 16 years, radiographic (morphometric and morphologic) vertebral fractures over 10 years, and aBMD change (spine, total hip, and femoral neck) over 10 years. Parity and lactation duration were analyzed as continuous variables in predicting these outcomes using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred thirty-seven women completed 16 years of follow-up for incident clinical fractures, 3839 completed 10 years of morphometric vertebral fracture assessment, 3788 completed 10 years of morphologic vertebral fracture assessment, and 4464 completed 10 years of follow-up for change in aBMD. In the multivariate analyses, parity and lactation duration showed no associations with clinical fragility fractures, radiographic vertebral fractures, or change in aBMD, except that parity associated with a probable chance finding of a slightly greater decline in femoral neck aBMD. CONCLUSIONS: Parity and lactation have no adverse associations with clinical fragility or radiographic vertebral fractures, or the rate of BMD decline over 10 years, in this prospective, multicenter study of a randomly selected, population-based cohort of women.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(5): 838-848, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723960

RESUMO

Although the short-term impact of incident fragility fractures on health-related quality of life (HRQL) of older people has been confirmed, we lack long-term evidence. We explored the impact of incident fragility fractures on HRQL, among people aged 50 years and older, using 10-year prospective data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). This study was based on data from 7753 (2187 men and 5566 women) participants of CaMos. The HRQL, measured through the Health Utility Index (HUI), was captured at baseline and year 10. The incident fragility fractures were recorded over 10 years of follow-up at spine, hip, rib, shoulder, pelvis, or forearm. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to measure the mean difference, termed as deficit, in the HUI scores for participants with and without fractures. We examined the effects of single or multiple fragility fractures, time (fractures that occurred between year 1 to 5 and 6 to 10) and recovery to the prefracture level. Incident spine and hip fractures were associated with significant deficits (varied from -0.19 to -0.07) on the HUI scores. Hip and spine fractures were associated with negative impact on mobility, self-care, and ambulation. Fractures that occurred closer to the follow-up assessment were associated with significant impact on HRQL compared to fractures occurring a long time before it, except for hip fracture (deficits lasted 5 years or longer). Similarly, multiple hip (-0.14), spine (-0.16), and rib (-0.21) fractures significantly impacted the HRQL of women. Women with a hip fracture never recovered to their prefracture level score (OR = 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.98). Our analysis suggests that single and multiple hip fractures as well as multiple spine and rib fractures strongly impact the HRQL of older people over a prolonged period of time. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

6.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(4): 517-524, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many women use combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) during adolescence during which they are accruing peak areal bone mineral density (BMD) that relates to lifetime fracture risk. To build BMD requires formation with which CHC-related exogenous oestrogen may interfere. We compared peak BMD accrual in adolescents using and not using CHC. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: We performed literature searches for prospective published peer-reviewed articles providing 12- to 24-month BMD change in adolescent (12- to 19-year-old) women using CHC vs CHC-unexposed control women. METHODS: Meta-analyses used random-effects models to assess BMD change rate at lumbar spine (LS) and other sites in adolescent CHC users vs CHC nonusers. RESULTS: Literature searches yielded 84 publications of which nine were eligible. Adolescent-only data were sought from cohorts with wider age inclusions. The 12-month LS meta-analysis with eight paired comparisons in 1535 adolescents showed a weighted mean BMD difference of -0.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.05 to 0.00) g/cm2 in CHC-exposed adolescents (P = 0.04). The 24-month LS meta-analysis with five paired comparisons in 885 adolescents showed a highly significant weighted mean BMD difference of -0.02 (95% CI: -0.03 to -0.01) g/cm2 in CHC-exposed adolescents (P = 0.0006). Heterogeneities by I2 were 96% and 85%, respectively. Insufficient data for other bone sites precluded quantitative analysis. CONCLUSION: Given that adolescent exposure to CHC appears to be increasing, this evidence for potential impairment of peak spinal BMD accrual is of concern and suggests a potential public health problem. Randomized controlled trial data are needed to determine CHC effects on adolescent bone health.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(4): 1181-1186, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the 2017 Endocrine Society Guidelines for gender dysphoria stipulated that cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT) achieve gonadal steroid levels equivalent to those of a cisperson of the chosen sex, for transgender women (male-to-female gender dysphoria), current gonadal therapy is usually estradiol. Accumulated evidence indicates that normally ovulatory menstrual cycles are necessary for ciswomen's current fertility, as well as for later-life bone and cardiovascular health and the prevention of breast and endometrial cancers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Extensive past clinical experience with transgender women's CHT using estradiol/estrogen combined with progesterone/medroxyprogesterone and pioneering the addition of spironolactone. Comprehensive progesterone physiology research plus a brief review of transgender women's literature to assess current therapy and clinical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. PURPOSE: To emphasize that both ovarian hormones, progesterone as well as estradiol, are theoretically and clinically important for optimal transgender women's CHT. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: It is important to add progesterone to estradiol and an antiandrogen in transgender women's CHT. Progesterone may add the following: (i) more rapid feminization, (ii) decreased endogenous testosterone production, (iii) optimal breast maturation to Tanner stages 4/5, (iv) increased bone formation, (v) improved sleep and vasomotor symptom control, and (vi) cardiovascular health benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence has accrued that normal progesterone (and ovulation), as well as physiological estradiol levels, is necessary during ciswomen's premenopausal menstrual cycles for current fertility and long-term health; transgender women deserve progesterone therapy and similar potential physiological benefits.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(4): 507-513, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore whether frailty was associated with fracture risk and whether frailty could modify the propensity of type 2 diabetes toward increased risk of fractures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from a prospective cohort study. Our primary outcome was time to the first incident clinical fragility fracture; secondary outcomes included time to hip fracture and to clinical spine fracture. Frailty status was measured by a Frailty Index (FI) of deficit accumulation. The Cox model incorporating an interaction term (frailty × diabetes) was used for analyses. RESULTS: The analysis included 3,149 (70% women) participants; 138 (60% women) had diabetes. Higher bone mineral density and FI were observed in participants with diabetes compared with control subjects. A significant relationship between the FI and the risk of incident fragility fractures was found, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.02 (95% CI 1.01-1.03) and 1.19 (95% CI 1.10-1.33) for per-0.01 and per-0.10 FI increase, respectively. The interaction was also statistically significant (P = 0.018). The HR for per-0.1 increase in the FI was 1.33 for participants with diabetes and 1.19 for those without diabetes if combining the estimate for the FI itself with the estimate from the interaction term. No evidence of interaction between frailty and diabetes was found for risk of hip and clinical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Participants with type 2 diabetes were significantly frailer than individuals without diabetes. Frailty increases the risk of fragility fracture and enhances the effect of diabetes on fragility fractures. Particular attention should be paid to diabetes as a risk factor for fragility fractures in those who are frail.

10.
J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact ; 18(2): 227-236, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) use and adolescent women's peak areal bone mineral density (BMD) accrual. METHODS: We enrolled 527 randomly selected women across Canada (2004-6) divided by age into adolescents (16-19) and young adults (20-24) and by CHC use to ever (E-CHC)/never (N-CHC) users. At baseline and year 2 we measured height, weight, and BMD at lumbar spine (L1-4), femoral neck, and total hip sites. Interviewer-administered questionnaires addressed menarche age, cigarette and alcohol use, calcium/vitamin D intakes, physical activity and estrogen dose (≤30/>30 micrograms). Linear regression models examined associations of CHC use with 2-year BMD change adjusted for bone-related variables. RESULTS: Of 307 women with complete data, 229 (75%) used CHC. N-CHC adolescents gained significantly more unadjusted total hip BMD +0.012 g/cm2/2-y (95% C.I.: 0.001, 0.023) with similar trends at all sites. N-CHC adolescents tended to have greater adjusted femoral neck BMD gain: mean difference +0.009 g/cm2 (95% CI: -0.002; 0.021). In young women N-CHC, however, adjusted femoral neck BMD decreased significantly more -0.021 g/cm2 (95%CI: -0.006; -0.036) with similar trends at other sites. BMD changes were unrelated to estrogen dose and age at starting CHC. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent CHC users in a random population demonstrated less hip region peak BMD accrual than non-users. This requires randomized control trial confirmation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861446

RESUMO

Women's hot flushes and night sweats, collectively called vasomotor symptoms (VMS), are maximal (79%) in late perimenopause. The evidence describing whether VMS are associated with loss of areal bone mineral density (BMD) is mixed. We examined baseline and 2-year data for 1570 randomly selected women aged 43⁻63 in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective Canada-wide study; we used linear regression to assess the relationship of night sweats (VMSn) with BMD and its changes. Clinically important VMSn occurred for 12.2%. Women with VMSn were slightly younger (54.5 vs. 55.3 years, p = 0.02) and less likely to use sex steroid therapies (39.8% vs. 51.4%, p < 0.05). BMD at the lumbar spine (L1-4), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) were similar between those with/without VMSn. In adjusted models, we did not find a significant association between VMSn and 2-year change in L1-4, FN and TH BMD. Age, reproductive status, weight, sex steroid therapy and smoking status were associated with 2-year change in BMD. Incident fractures over 2 years also did not differ by VMSn. Our analyses were restricted to VMSn and may not truly capture the relationship between VMS and BMD. Additional research involving VMS, bone loss and fracture incidence is needed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783630

RESUMO

Approximately 33% of normal-length (21⁻35 days) cycles have subclinical ovulatory disturbances and lack sufficient progesterone, although their normal length ensures enough estrogen. Subclinical ovulatory disturbances are related to significant premenopausal spine bone loss (-0.86%/year). Molimina, non-distressing premenstrual experiences, may detect ovulation within normal-length cycles. This prospective study assessed the relationship between molimina and ovulation. After 1-cycle of daily diary and first morning urine collections, women answered the Molimina Question (MQ): "Can you tell by the way you feel that your period is coming?" and were invited to share (a) predictive premenstrual experience(s). A 3-fold increase in follicular-luteal pregnanediol levels confirmed ovulation. In 610 spontaneously menstruating women (not on hormonal contraception, mean age 31.5 ± 5.3, menarche age 12.7 ± 1.5, cycle length [CL] 29 days, MQ positive in 89%), reported premenstrual experiences which included negative moods (62%), cramps (48%), bloating (39%), and front (26%) or axillary (25%) breast tenderness. Of 432 women with pregnanediol-documented cycles, 398 (92%) were ovulatory (CL: 29 ± 5) and 34 (8%) had ovulatory disturbances (CL: 32 ± 14). Women with/without ovulatory cycles were similar in parity, body mass index, smoking, dietary restraint and the MQ; ovulatory-disturbed cycles were longer. Molimina did not confirm ovulation. A non-invasive, inexpensive ovulation indicator is needed to prevent osteoporosis.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783641

RESUMO

With advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV are now surviving to experience aging. Evidence suggests that individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fractures. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone health in women living with HIV (WLWH) is important for treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to explore new biological factors linked to low BMD in WLWH. Standardized BMD measures of WLWH were compared to reference values from an unselected population of women from the same geographical region of the same age range. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships among health-related characteristics, cellular aging (measured by leukocyte telomere length; LTL), cART, and BMD of WLWH. WLWH (n = 73; mean age 43 ± 9 years) had lower BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) (mean difference = -0.39, p < 0.001) and total hip (TH) (-0.29, p = 0.012) relative to controls (n = 290). WLWH between 50 and 60 years (n = 17) had lower Z-scores at the LS (p = 0.008) and TH (p = 0.027) compared to controls (n = 167). Among WLWH, LS BMD was significantly associated with LTL (R² = 0.09, p = 0.009) and BMI (R² = 0.06, p = 0.042). Spinal BMD was adversely affected in WLWH. Reduction of LTL was strongly associated with lower BMD and may relate to its pathophysiology and premature aging in WLWH.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783670

RESUMO

Amenorrhea is important for women's bone health. However, few have reported reproductive, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI], height) and bone health (areal bone mineral density [BMD], prevalent fractures) in a population-based study. The purposes of this cross-sectional study of women in the randomly-selected Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) population were: (1) to describe reproductive, demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables; and (2) in menstruating women, to relate reproductive and other variables to BMD at the lumbar spine (L1-4, LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) sites and to prevalent fragility fractures. This study describes the reproductive characteristics of 1532 women aged 30⁻60 years. BMD relationships with reproductive and other variables were described in the 499 menstruating women. Mean menarche age was 12.8 years, 96% of women were parous and 95% had used combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC). Infertility was reported by 9%, androgen excess by 13%, amenorrhea by 8% and nulliparity by 4%. LS BMD was negatively associated with amenorrhea and androgen excess and positively related to current BMI and height. A later age at menarche negatively related to FN BMD. BMI and height were strongly related to BMD at all sites. Prevalent fragility fractures were significantly associated with quartiles of both LS and TH BMD.

16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 569-579, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28722766

RESUMO

We compared two methods for osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) assessment on lateral spine radiographs, the Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) technique and a modified algorithm-based qualitative (mABQ) approach. We evaluated 4465 women and 1771 men aged ≥50 years from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study with available X-ray images at baseline. Observer agreement was lowest for grade 1 VFs determined by GSQ. Among physician readers, agreement was greater for VFs diagnosed by mABQ (ranging from 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-1.00] to 0.88 [0.76-1.00]) than by GSQ (ranging from 0.38 [0.17-0.60] to 0.69 [0.54-0.85]). GSQ VF prevalence (16.4% [95% CI 15.4-17.4]) and incidence (10.2/1000 person-years [9.2; 11.2]) were higher than with the mABQ method (prevalence 6.7% [6.1-7.4] and incidence 6.3/1000 person-years [5.5-7.1]). Women had more prevalent and incident VFs relative to men as defined by mABQ but not as defined by GSQ. Prevalent GSQ VFs were predominantly found in the mid-thoracic spine, whereas prevalent mABQ and incident VFs by both methods co-localized to the junction of the thoracic and lumbar spine. Prevalent mABQ VFs compared with GSQ VFs were more highly associated with reduced adjusted L1 to L4 bone mineral density (BMD) (-0.065 g/cm2 [-0.087 to -0.042]), femoral neck BMD (-0.051 g/cm2 [-0.065 to -0.036]), and total hip BMD (-0.059 g/cm2 [-0.076 to -0.041]). Prevalent mABQ VFs compared with prevalent GSQ were also more highly associated with incident VF by GSQ (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3 [2.2-5.0]), incident VF by mABQ (9.0 [5.3-15.3]), and incident non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (1.9 [1.2-3.0]). Grade 1 mABQ VFs, but not grade 1 GSQ VFs, were associated with incident non-vertebral major osteoporotic fractures (OR = 3.0 [1.4-6.5]). We conclude that defining VF by mABQ is preferred to the use of GSQ for clinical assessments. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3432, 2017 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611442

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. In 61 premenopausal women, 22 women with PCOS and 39 controls, we assessed bone parameters (total hip bone mineral density [BMD] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and radius strength-strain index [SSI] by peripheral quantitative computed tomography), inflammation (C-reactive protein/albumin), oxidative stress (leukocyte telomere length, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine); hemoglobin A1c; anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, cross-sectional muscle area). A diagnosis of PCOS negatively predicted (beta = -0.251, p = 0.022) hip BMD in a regression model including weight. In women with PCOS, inflammation, which was predicted by increased waist-to-height ratio and current use of oral contraceptives, attenuated the positive influences of increased weight and muscle mass on bone strength and was inversely associated with radial SSI (R2 = 0.25, p = 0.018). In conclusion, chronic subclinical inflammation may negatively impact bone physiology in women with PCOS. Strategies focused on reducing abdominal adiposity and avoiding medications that increase inflammation may counter this effect.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(9): 1802-1810, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256011

RESUMO

Data on long-term consequences of non-hip non-vertebral (NHNV) fractures, accounting for approximately two-thirds of all fragility fractures, are scanty. Our study aimed to quantify the population-wide impact of NHNV fractures on mortality. The national population-based prospective cohort study (Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study) included 5526 community dwelling women and 2163 men aged 50 years or older followed from July 1995 to September 2013. Population impact number was used to quantify the average number of people for whom one death would be attributable to fracture and case impact number to quantify the number of deaths out of which one would be attributable to a fracture. There were 1370 fragility fractures followed by 296 deaths in women (mortality rate: 3.49; 95% CI, 3.11 to 3.91), and 302 fractures with 92 deaths in men (5.05; 95% CI, 4.12 to 6.20). NHNV fractures accounted for three-quarters of fractures. In women, the population-wide impact of NHNV fractures on mortality was greater than that of hip and vertebral fractures because of the greater number of NHNV fractures. Out of 800 women, one death was estimated to be attributable to a NHNV fracture, compared with one death in 2000 women attributable to hip or vertebral fracture. Similarly, out of 15 deaths in women, one was estimated to be attributable to a NHNV fracture, compared with one in over 40 deaths for hip or vertebral fracture. The impact of forearm fractures (ie, one death in 2400 women and one out of 42 deaths in women attributable to forearm fracture) was similar to that of hip, vertebral, or rib fractures. Similar, albeit not significant, results were noted for men. The study highlights the important contribution of NHNV fractures on mortality because many NHNV fracture types, except for the most distal fractures, have serious adverse consequences that affect a significant proportion of the population. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/mortalidade , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Prev Med Rep ; 5: 289-294, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28180056

RESUMO

Our objective was to describe patterns and predictors of sedentary behavior (sitting time) over 10 years among a large Canadian cohort. Data are from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a prospective study of women and men randomly selected from the general population. Respondents reported socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors and health outcomes in interviewer-administered questionnaires; weight and height were measured. Baseline data were collected between 1995 and 1997 (n = 9418; participation rate = 42%), and at 5- (n = 7648) and 10-year follow-ups (n = 5567). Total sitting time was summed across domain-specific questions at three time points and dichotomized into "low" (≤ 7 h/day) and "high" (> 7 h/day), based on recent meta-analytic evidence on time sitting and all-cause mortality. Ten-year sitting patterns were classified as "consistently high", "consistently low", "increased", "decreased", and "mixed". Predictors of sedentary behavior patterns were explored using chi-square tests, ANOVA and logistic regression. At baseline (mean age = 62.1 years ± 13.4) average sitting was 6.9 h/day; it was 7.0 at 5- and 10-year follow-ups (p for trend = 0.12). Overall 23% reported consistently high sitting time, 22% consistently low sitting, 14% decreased sitting, 17% increased sitting with 24% mixed patterns. Consistently high sitters were more likely to be men, university educated, full-time employed, obese, and to report consistently low physical activity levels. This is one of the first population-based studies to explore patterns of sedentary behavior (multi-domain sitting) within men and women over years. Risk classification of sitting among many adults changed during follow-up. Thus, studies of sitting and health would benefit from multiple measures of sitting over time.

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