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1.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-367845

RESUMO

O programa vai falar sobre os potenciais beneficios do café para a saúde, das pesquisas recentes como a que aponta que a cafeína pode ter efeitos benéficos em pessoas com a doença de Parkinson e outros estudos que mostram como a substância pode estar relacionada a benefícios para a saúde e prevenção de algumas doenças. O programa também vai ensinar a identificar o café saudável, falar da quantidade que pode ser consumida e tirar outras dúvidas sobre o assunto. Para saber mais sobre o tema, a apresentadora Marcela Morato conversa com a nutricionista e coordenadora do Núcleo de Café da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Adriana Farah. Participante: Priscila Soares, barista.


Assuntos
Café , Cafeína , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central
2.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 20(6): 341-350, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285509

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, a new method focused ultrasound (FUS) has been used in the treatment of localized fat. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the FUS in the treatment of abdominal subcutaneous fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one healthy women were divided into two groups: G1 (N = 7), 6 sessions, 3 passes, once a week and G2 (N = 23), 10 sessions, 2 passes, twice a week. Outcome measures were reduction of circumference and fat thickness. Safety monitoring included laboratory testing (serum lipids profile and liver function tests) and adverse events were also assessed. Patient satisfaction and tolerance questionnaires were also applied. One patient underwent abdominoplasty and received a single session of FUS 24 h before surgery and a skin sample was collected for histological analysis. RESULTS: The results showed improvement in body contouring and reduction of the thickness of the fat layer observed by ultrasonography in both groups: G1 (P < 0.001) and G2 (P < 0.0001). The histology showed disrupted adipocytes and collapsed membranes 24 h after the FUS treatment. CONCLUSION: FUS represents an effective and safe treatment for reducing localized adipose tissue by adipocytolysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/cirurgia , Adipócitos/patologia , Adulto , Contorno Corporal , Técnicas Cosméticas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 11(supl.12): 5382-5390, dez.2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: bde-33864

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar na literatura nacional dificuldades enfrentadas pelo enfermeiro na prática do manualAtenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância. Método: revisão integrativa, com dados coletados nasbases de dados Lilacs, Medline e Biblioteca Virtual SciELO. 13 artigos atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e osDescritores para nortear a pesquisa foram: Estratégia Saúde da Família; Enfermagem; Saúde da Criança;Crescimento e Desenvolvimento; Mortalidade Infantil; Indicadores de Mortalidade. Resultados: a pesquisaconstatou dificuldades encontradas pelos enfermeiros mediante sua prática na Estratégia Saúde da Família naaplicação à Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância, seja no aspecto de estrutura da rede deatenção primária, seja por parte da falta de conhecimento no desenvolvimento do protocolo. Conclusão: foide relevância enfocar a prática do enfermeiro ao manual da Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes naInfância para favorecer cuidados e desenvolvimento à saúde da criança, indicando que a aplicação destaprática ainda não é exercida por todos os profissionais, tendo em vista fatores que envolvem desde barreirasno setor de trabalho até falta de capacitação profissional.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância , Saúde da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mortalidade da Criança , MEDLINE
4.
Distúrb. comun ; 29(4): 749-758, dez. 2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-882445

RESUMO

Discussões e questionamentos comprometidos com a democratização do ensino superior têm ocupado importante espaço nos debates educacionais, tanto para garantir o ingresso de pessoas em tal nível de ensino, quanto à melhoria da qualidade do mesmo. Objetivo: descrever e analisar as diretrizes e ações que direcionam o Programa Incluir e a Comissão de Educação Inclusiva de uma universidade privada de Curitiba, bem como a visão de alunos com deficiência acerca de sua experiência acadêmica, no tocante à infraestrutura, às relações interpessoais e aos aspectos pedagógicos pertinentes à sua formação. Método: estudo de caso do tipo qualitativo. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com a presidente da Comissão e 5 graduandos que se autodenominam deficientes. A análise dos dados baseou-se na análise de conteúdo. Os enunciados produzidos pelos participantes foram analisados a partir dos seguintes eixos temáticos: comissão de Educação Inclusiva; relações interpessoais e experiências pedagógicas e a visão dos alunos sobre mudanças necessárias. Resultado: Embora os estudantes possuam uma visão positiva sobre as atividades desenvolvidas pela comissão, fica evidenciado que a mesma tem uma ação restrita no que tange aos aspectos relacionais e pedagógicos da vivência acadêmica dos alunos. Conclusão: No que se refere à Comissão Inclusiva da universidade e ao Programa Incluir, ambos possuem objetivos focados no trabalho para questões funcionais de acessibilidade. Quanto aos aspectos pedagógicos e relacionais, seu alcance apresenta-se frágil. Sugere-se o implemento de estudos que analisem os aspectos singulares das pessoas com deficiência e os determinantes sociais e históricos que perpassam o sistema educacional brasileiro.


Discussions on the democratization of higher education have occupied an important place in the Brazilian educational debates, both to ensure that an increasing number of people enter this level of education, as well as regarding its quality. Objective: to analyze the guidelines of the Programa Incluir as well as the work of the Inclusive Education Commission (IEC) of a university thereby analyzing the vision of a group of such students on their academic experience in terms of infrastructure, interpersonal relations and pedagogical aspects relevant to their training. Method: case study of the qualitative type. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the president of the Commission and 5 graduates who call themselves disabled. Data analysis was based on content analysis. The statements produced by the participants were analyzed from the following thematic axes: Inclusive Education Committee; interpersonal relationships and pedagogical experiences, and students' view of necessary changes. Results: Although the students have a positive view on the activities developed by the commission, it is evidenced that it has a restricted action regarding the relational and pedagogical aspects of student's academic experience. Conclusion: With regard to the University's Inclusive Commission and the Include Program, both have work-focused objectives for functional accessibility issues. As for the pedagogical and relational aspects, its scope is fragile. It is suggested the implementation of studies that analyze the unique aspects of people with disabilities and the social and historical determinants that permeate the Brazilian educational system.


Las discusiones y cuestionamientos comprometidos con la democratización de la enseñanza superior han ocupado un importante espacio en los debates educativos brasileños, tanto para garantizar el ingreso de un número cada vez mayor de personas en dicho nivel de enseñanza, en cuanto a la mejora de la calidad del mismo. Objetivo: analizar las directrices que orientan el Programa Incluir, así como el funcionamiento de la Comisión de Educación Inclusiva (CEI) de una universidad privada de Curitiba y analizar la visión de un grupo de estudiantes acerca de su experiencia académica, en lo que se refiere a la infraestructura, Las relaciones interpersonales y los aspectos pedagógicos pertinentes a su formación. Método: estudio de caso del tipo cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con la presidenta de la Comisión y 5 graduados que se autodenominan discapacitados. El análisis de los datos se basó en el análisis de contenido. Los enunciados producidos por los participantes fueron analizados a partir de los siguientes ejes temáticos: comisión de Educación Inclusiva; relaciones interpersonales y experiencias pedagógicas y la visión de los alumnos sobre cambios necesarios. Resultado: Aunque los estudiantes tienen una visión positiva sobre las actividades desarrolladas por la comisión, queda evidenciado que la misma tiene una acción restringida en lo que se refiere a los aspectos relacionales y pedagógicos de la vivencia académica de los alumnos. Conclusión: En lo que se refiere a la Comisión Inclusiva de la Universidad y al Programa Incluir, ambos tienen objetivos enfocados en el trabajo para cuestiones funcionales de accesibilidad. En cuanto a los aspectos pedagógicos y relacionales, su alcance se presenta frágil. Se sugiere el implemento de estudios que analizan los aspectos singulares de las personas con discapacidad y los determinantes sociales e históricos que atravesan el sistema educativo brasileño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Educação Superior , Inclusão Educacional
5.
Behav Brain Res ; 326: 44-51, 2017 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238824

RESUMO

Critical periods of plasticity (CPPs) are defined by developmental intervals wherein neuronal circuits are most susceptible to environmental influences. The CPP of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which controls executive functions, extends up to early adulthood and, like other cortical areas, reflects the maturation of perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding the cell bodies of specialized inhibitory interneurons. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of chronic stress on both structure and function of the adolescent's rat PFC. We subjected P28 rats to stressful situations for 7, 15 and 35days and evaluated the spatial distribution of histochemically-labeled PNNs in both the Medial Prefrontal Cortex (MPFC) and the Orbitofrontal Cortex (OFC) and PFC-associated behavior as well. Chronic stress affects PFC development, slowing PNN maturation in both the (MPFC) and (OFC) while negatively affecting functions associated with these areas. We speculate upon the risks of prolonged exposure to stressful environments in human adolescents and the possibility of stunted development of executive functions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia
6.
J Appl Biomech ; 33(2): 118-123, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27735227

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of instability on the EMG activity of scapular stabilizing and upper limb muscles during exercises with axial and rotational load. Twenty male volunteers (20.9 ± 1.8 years, 174.1 ± 0.04 cm, 73.17 ± 8.77 kg) experienced in strength training participated in a crossover design. Muscle activation of anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), pectoralis major (PM), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) were determined on both conditions. Participants performed a single series of 10 repetitions of bench press and fly exercises on stable (bench) and unstable (proprioceptive disc) conditions at 60% of 1-RM. The Friedman test and post hoc Dunn's indicated that the unstable condition showed greater EMG activity for AD (P = .001) and BB (P = .002) on the fly exercise, SA (P = .001) and LT (P = .048) on the bench press, and PM (P ≤ .002) on both exercises. These results show that using an unstable surface in exercises with rotational load provides superior EMG activity of the agonist muscles, while in exercise with axial load, the instability favors EMG activity of the scapular stabilizing muscles.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Rotação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Thromb Res ; 148: 32-37, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27770664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibodies directed against domain 1 of ß2 glycoprotein 1 (aß2GP1-Dm1) have been involved in the immunopathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, the clinical relevance of aß2GP1-Dm1 in thrombotic APS has not yet been fully explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of aß2GP1-Dm1 in a cohort of patients with thrombotic APS, and to evaluate whether testing for aß2GP1-Dm1 could have a clinical impact upon the risk assessment of the disease. METHODS: Patients were tested for aß2GP1-Dm1 antibodies by chemiluminescence (BioFlash/AcuStar®, ES). The presence of aß2GP1-Dm1 was evaluated in different clinical presentations of the disease. RESULTS: Eight-four patients with a history of venous or arterial thrombosis were included. Forty-five (54%) patients had aß2GP1 antibodies and 40% of them were positive for aß2GP1-Dm1. Levels of aß2GP1-Dm1 were higher in patients with systemic autoimmune disease (AUC=0.665; 95% CI=0.544-0.786; P=0.01), positive antinuclear antibody (AUC=0.654; 95% CI=0.535-0.772; P=0.01), triple antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) positivity (AUC=0.680; 95% CI=0.534-0.825; P=0.02) and positive lupus anticoagulant (AUC=0.639; 95% CI=0.502-0.776; P=0.07). In this cohort, aß2GP1-Dm1 antibodies were not associated with the site of the first thrombosis (OR=0,62, 95% CI=0.20-1.94, P=0.42), thrombosis recurrence (OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.37-2.71, P=1.0) or pregnancy morbidity (OR=1.5, 95% CI=0.33-7.34, P=0.58). In multivariate analysis, positivity for aß2GP1-Dm1 antibodies was associated with the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune disease (OR=4.01, 95% CI=1.14-14.2; P=0.03) and triple aPL positivity (OR=3.59, 95% CI=0.87-14.85; P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: In the present cohort of thrombotic-APS patients, aß2GP1-Dm1 antibodies were related to the diagnosis of systemic autoimmunity and complex serological profile of the disease, as triple aPL positivity and positive antinuclear antibody. Thus, our results suggest that testing for aß2GP1-Dm1 antibodies may be useful for improving APS risk assessment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/imunologia , Trombose/complicações , beta 2-Glicoproteína I/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/sangue , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/imunologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27042047

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 58: 870-81, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26478382

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to produce PLA (poly(lactic acid)) and PCL (polycaprolactone) oral carriers through the precipitation of the polymer solutions using supercritical CO2 as an antisolvent for the controlled release of the hydrophobic model drug 17α-methyltestosterone (MT). Such drug is a steroidal hormone used orally to develop and sustain primary and secondary male sex characteristics, e.g. for female Nile tilapia sex reversal in aquaculture. The influence of hormone, PLA and PCL concentrations on particle formation was analyzed, showing that high PCL concentrations produced particles with rougher surfaces and greater mean diameters. The incorporation efficiency of MT ranged from 20 to 51%, and its addition resulted in increases in particle mean diameter from 23 to 54 µm. Aggregation was observed for particles incorporating or not MT and high concentrations of MT led to the formation of more amorphous structures, changing the thermal behavior of the particles. The exposure of the PLA/PCL particles to pH conditions simulating gastrointestinal fish conditions showed that hormone release fraction at acidic pH ranged from 8 to 63% (over 2h), while in the basic pH the proportion released varied from 23 to 60% (over 10h), reaching levels adequate for the desired in vivo activity.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Metiltestosterona/química , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Masculino , Metiltestosterona/administração & dosagem , Metiltestosterona/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Caracteres Sexuais , Tilápia
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 662-668, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755900

RESUMO

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the aetiologic agent of diphtheria, also represents a global medical challenge because of the existence of invasive strains as causative agents of systemic infections. Although tellurite (TeO32-) is toxic to most microorganisms, TeO32--resistant bacteria, including C. diphtheriae, exist in nature. The presence of TeO32--resistance (TeR) determinants in pathogenic bacteria might provide selective advantages in the natural environment. In the present study, we investigated the role of the putative TeR determinant (CDCE8392_813gene) in the virulence attributes of diphtheria bacilli. The disruption of CDCE8392_0813 gene expression in the LDCIC-L1 mutant increased susceptibility to TeO32- and reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide), but not to other antimicrobial agents. The LDCIC-L1 mutant also showed a decrease in both the lethality of Caenorhabditis elegansand the survival inside of human epithelial cells compared to wild-type strain. Conversely, the haemagglutinating activity and adherence to and formation of biofilms on different abiotic surfaces were not regulated through the CDCE8392_0813 gene. In conclusion, the CDCE8392_813 gene contributes to the TeR and pathogenic potential of C. diphtheriae.

.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Telúrio/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Virulência
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 662-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26107188

RESUMO

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the aetiologic agent of diphtheria, also represents a global medical challenge because of the existence of invasive strains as causative agents of systemic infections. Although tellurite (TeO32-) is toxic to most microorganisms, TeO32--resistant bacteria, including C. diphtheriae, exist in nature. The presence of TeO32--resistance (TeR) determinants in pathogenic bacteria might provide selective advantages in the natural environment. In the present study, we investigated the role of the putative TeR determinant (CDCE8392_813gene) in the virulence attributes of diphtheria bacilli. The disruption of CDCE8392_0813 gene expression in the LDCIC-L1 mutant increased susceptibility to TeO32- and reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide), but not to other antimicrobial agents. The LDCIC-L1 mutant also showed a decrease in both the lethality of Caenorhabditis elegans and the survival inside of human epithelial cells compared to wild-type strain. Conversely, the haemagglutinating activity and adherence to and formation of biofilms on different abiotic surfaces were not regulated through the CDCE8392_0813 gene. In conclusion, the CDCE8392_813 gene contributes to the TeR and pathogenic potential of C. diphtheriae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Telúrio/farmacologia , Fatores de Virulência/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aderência Bacteriana , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Corynebacterium diphtheriae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Virulência
12.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 107(6): 1387-99, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25828766

RESUMO

Biofilm-related infections are considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environments. Biofilms allow microorganisms to exchange genetic material and to become persistent colonizers and/or multiresistant to antibiotics. Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (CPS), a commensal bacterium that colonizes skin and mucosal sites has become progressively multiresistant and responsible for severe nosocomial infections. However, virulence factors of this emergent pathogen remain unclear. Herein, we report the adhesive properties and biofilm formation on hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (plastic) abiotic surfaces by CPS strains isolated from patients with localized (ATCC10700/Pharyngitis) and systemic (HHC1507/Bacteremia) infections. Adherence to polystyrene attributed to hydrophobic interactions between bacterial cells and this negatively charged surface indicated the involvement of cell surface hydrophobicity in the initial stage of biofilm formation. Attached microorganisms multiplied and formed microcolonies that accumulated as multilayered cell clusters, a step that involved intercellular adhesion and synthesis of extracellular matrix molecules. Further growth led to the formation of dense bacterial aggregates embedded in the exopolymeric matrix surrounded by voids, typical of mature biofilms. Data also showed CPS recognizing human fibrinogen (Fbg) and fibronectin (Fn) and involvement of these sera components in formation of "conditioning films". These findings suggested that biofilm formation may be associated with the expression of different adhesins. CPS may form biofilms in vivo possibly by an adherent biofilm mode of growth in vitro currently demonstrated on hydrophilic and hydrophobic abiotic surfaces. The affinity to Fbg and Fn and the biofilm-forming ability may contribute to the establishment and dissemination of infection caused by CPS.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corynebacterium/fisiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Corynebacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Corynebacterium/microbiologia , Vidro , Humanos , Microscopia , Faringite/microbiologia , Plásticos
13.
Fisioter. mov ; 27(4): 555-563, Oct-Dec/2014.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-732493

RESUMO

Introduction Stroke (CVA) is a multifactorial disease, where the combination of risk factors may be associated with and contribute to its development. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of risk factors for stroke in the physically independent elderly in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Materials and methods This study was composed of the elderly individuals participating in the EELO project (Age and Ageing Study, Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil). In order to identify the risk factors for stroke, one used a structured questionnaire with information about socio-demographic and anthropometric data as well as lifestyle variables, such as physical inactivity and smoking, presence of comorbidities, and laboratory tests for diagnosis of diabetes and dyslipidemia. Results The study included 454 elderly with mean age of 69.7 years. There was a significant relationship between the number of risk factors and gender (p = 0.01), with higher prevalence among women. In separate analysis, the elderly between 60 and 69 years had a higher incidence of obesity (p = 0.03) and dyslipidemia (p = 0.04). Regarding gender, obesity (p = 0.01), smoking (p = 0.0001), vascular disease (p = 0.0001) and heart disease in the family (p = 0.01) higher incidence was shown in females, according toChi Square’s test. Conclusions It is concluded that elderly people aged less than 70 years and older women were those with the highest number of risk factors for CVA. Therefore, it may be suggested the development of primary care programs in order to promote information on the prevention of these risk factors and thus reduce the occurrence of stroke.


Introdução O Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) é uma doença multifatorial, de modo que a combinação de fatores de risco pode contribuir para o seu desenvolvimento. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência dos fatores de risco para o AVE na população idosa fisicamente independente do município de Londrina. Materiais e métodos O estudo foi composto por idosos integrantes do projeto EELO (Estudo sobre o Envelhecimento e Longevidade – Londrina (PR), Brasil). Para identificação dos fatores de risco do AVE, utilizou-se um questionário estruturado com informações sobre dados sociodemográficos, dados antropométricos, variáveis de estilo de vida como sedentarismo e hábito de fumar, análise da presença de comorbidades e avaliação laboratorial para o diagnóstico de diabetes e dislipidemias. Resultados Participaram deste estudo 454 idosos com idade média de 69,7 anos. Observou-se relação significativa entre o número de fatores de risco e o gênero (p = 0,01), com maior prevalência entre as mulheres. Em análise isolada, idosos entre 60 e 69 anos apresentaram maior incidência de obesidade (p = 0,03) e dislipidemias (p = 0,04). Em relação ao gênero, a obesidade (p = 0,01), tabagismo (p = 0,0001), doença vascular (p = 0,0001) e doença cardíaca na família (p = 0,01) apresentaram maior incidência no sexo feminino, segundo teste Qui Quadrado. Conclusões Conclui-se que os idosos com idade menor que 70 anos e mulheres idosas foram os que apresentaram maior número de fatores de risco para o AVE. Desta forma sugere-se a elaboração de programas de atenção primária com o objetivo de promover informações sobre a prevenção destes fatores de risco e a redução da ocorrência do acidente vascular encefálico.

14.
Rev. CEFAC ; 16(5): 1680-1690, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-729921

RESUMO

Para que sujeitos surdos estabeleçam relações entre a língua brasileira de sinais e a língua portuguesa, o uso de recursos de retextualização pode ser uma ferramenta capaz de levar tais sujeitos a produzirem gêneros textuais escritos de acordo com convenções ortográficas e gramaticais do português. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste trabalho é discutir o processo de retextualização usado como prática nas terapias fonoaudiológicas em grupo como um meio desses sujeitos se apropriarem da língua portuguesa em sua modalidade escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 8 surdos que fazem uso de Libras e da língua portuguesa em sua modalidade escrita. Inicialmente, os sujeitos produziam textos em língua de sinais que, depois de comentados e discutidos, em sessões em grupo, contando com a presença de uma fonoaudióloga, além de outros profissionais, eram retextualizados por meio da escrita. Após a retextualização, os sujeitos surdos foram convocados a reler o texto e, caso julgassem necessário, a modificá-lo. Na sequência, eles reliam os textos em conjunto com os profissionais e o retextualizavam em uma versão final escrita. Nos textos analisados, as operações de reestruturações sintáticas, de reconstruções textuais em função da norma da língua, bem como as de tratamento estilístico com seleção de novas estruturas sintáticas e opções lexicais foram as mais usadas nos processos de retextualização. A partir dos processos de retextualização, os surdos passaram a refletir sobre a escrita e sua função social, assumindo essa modalidade da linguagem com mais disposição e autoconfiança.


The use of retextualization resources is a helpful way to let deaf individuals to produce textual writing gender according to orthographic and grammatical Portuguese conventions. In this way, this work aims to discuss the retextualization processes used as a practice in speech language therapy group sessions as a way for this population to make use of writing Portuguese language. In this research there are writing samples wrote by 8 deaf individuals that use sign language and writing Portuguese language. These papers were produced in group sessions, with deaf individuals, a speech language therapist and other professionals. The deaf individuals at first produced the samples in sign language, after that, they commented and discussed and afterwards the samples were retextualized through writing language. After the retextualization, deaf individuals were asked to read the texts and if it was necessary modify it. Following that, the deaf individuals and the professionals read the text again and retextualizes it in a final writing version. In the analyzed texts the retextualization operations used with more frequency were: syntactic rebuilds, rebuilt some structures to make the sentences inside the language rules, and stylistics treatment selecting new syntactic and lexical structures Through retextualization processes, deaf individuals start to consider Portuguese writing language and its social function, using this modality of language with more disposition and confidence.

15.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2014: 102160, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24723744

RESUMO

The roles of eosinophils in antimicrobial defense remain incompletely understood. In ovalbumin-sensitized mice, eosinophils are selectively recruited to the peritoneal cavity by antigen, eotaxin, or leukotriene(LT)B4, a 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolite. 5-LO blockade prevents responses to both antigen and eotaxin. We examined responses to eotaxin in the absence of sensitization and their dependence on 5-LO. BALB/c or PAS mice and their mutants (5-LO-deficient ALOX; eosinophil-deficient GATA-1) were injected i.p. with eotaxin, eosinophils, or both, and leukocyte accumulation was quantified up to 24 h. Significant recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin in BALB/c, up to 24 h, was accompanied by much larger numbers of recruited neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. These effects were abolished by eotaxin neutralization and 5-LO-activating protein inhibitor MK886. In ALOX (but not PAS) mice, eotaxin recruitment was abolished for eosinophils and halved for neutrophils. In GATA-1 mutants, eotaxin recruited neither neutrophils nor macrophages. Transfer of eosinophils cultured from bone-marrow of BALB/c donors, or from ALOX donors, into GATA-1 mutant recipients, i.p., restored eotaxin recruitment of neutrophils and showed that the critical step dependent on 5-LO is the initial recruitment of eosinophils by eotaxin, not the secondary neutrophil accumulation. Eosinophil-dependent recruitment of neutrophils in naive BALB/c mice was associated with increased binding of bacteria.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL11/química , Eosinófilos/enzimologia , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Neutrófilos/enzimologia , Animais , Eosinófilos/citologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Granulócitos/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Monócitos/citologia , Mutação , Neutrófilos/citologia , Fagocitose
16.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-694520

RESUMO

Este estudo constou de um experimento descritivo de car�ter quali-quantitativo, com objetivo de avaliar a interfer�ncia da pr�tica do Tai Chi Chuan na sa�de mental de pessoas com les�o da medula espinhal nos par�metros autoestima, ansiedade e depress�o. Foi composto por um grupo de interven��o constitu�do de oito pessoas com les�o da medula espinhal que praticaram aulas de Tai Chi Chuan por um per�odo de seis meses, e grupo controle com oito integrantes que apenas realizavam o tratamento de fisioterapia. Os resultados demonstraram-se significativos para o grupo de interven��o quanto � ansiedade e depress�o (p= 0,021) e autoestima (p=0,015). Os benef�cios da pr�tica do Tai Chi Chuan t�m significado importante na melhora da sa�de mental e f�sica de pessoas com defici�ncia f�sica causada por les�o da medula espinhal. Desta forma, sugerimos mais estudos sobre a interven��o da pr�tica do Tai Chi Chuan como complemento no processo de reabilita��o da popula��o.


This study consisted of a quali-quantitative descriptive experiment aimed at assessing the interference of Tai Chi Chuan practice in the mental health of people with spinal cord injury, regarding the parameters self-esteem, anxiety and depression. It was composed by a intervention group consisting of eight people with spinal cord injury, who practiced Tai Chi Chuan classes for a period of six months, and a control group with eight members that just performed the physiotherapy treatment. There were significant results for the intervention group regarding the anxiety and depression (p=0,021) and self-esteem (p=0,015). We conclude that the practice of Tai Chi Chuan has an important meaning in improving the mental health of people with physical disabilities caused by a spinal cord injury. Thus, we suggest more studies on the practice of Tai Chi Chuan as complement of the rehabilitation process of the population.

17.
Rev. CEFAC ; 15(2): 334-340, mar.-abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-674596

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: analisar a inserção da disciplina de Libras em cursos nacionais de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, enfocando carga horária, período em que é ofertada, a natureza/estrutura da mesma; bem como, a avaliação de graduandos quanto à contribuição de tal disciplina na sua formação acadêmica e nas relações estabelecidas com sujeitos surdos. MÉTODO: foi aplicado um questionário a 240 acadêmicos de sete cursos de graduação em Fonoaudiologia, ofertados em Instituições de Ensino nacionais. Para tanto, adotou-se como critério de inclusão, acadêmicos que já tivessem cumprido a carga horária total da disciplina de Libras. O questionário foi respondido por escrito nas dependências dos cursos. Os resultados, analisados quantitativamente, foram organizados e apresentados em tabelas de frequências absolutas e relativas. RESULTADOS: os achados demonstram que se por um lado dentre os acadêmicos predomina a visão de que a carga horária destinada à referida disciplina é insuficiente, por outro existe uma conscientização por parte dos mesmos quanto à importância e à necessidade da formação em Libras. CONCLUSÃO: a partir de tal estudo pode-se evidenciar a necessidade do aprofundamento de discussões no contexto fonoaudiológico acerca da formação acadêmica voltada a Libras, bem como a definição de critérios e parâmetros que garantam um ensino de qualidade em torno de tal conteúdo. Esse estudo aponta para a necessidade do implemento de pesquisas que ofereçam elementos para o avanço na formação acadêmica fonoaudiológica voltada ao referido conteúdo, bem como, contribuam para a avanço de práticas fonoaudiológicas bilíngues, clínicas e educacionais, dirigidas a sujeitos surdos.


PURPOSE: to analyze the insertion of a sign language discipline in national speech language therapy courses, approaching the number of hours spent with the discipline, the period when its offered, the structure nature, and the students evaluation about this discipline’s contribution for their academic formation. METHOD: a questionnaire was applied to 240 speech language therapy students from seven national speech therapy graduation courses. For that, the insertion criterion adopted was that the students should have already concluded the discipline. The questionnaire was answered, in writing, inside their facilities. The results were quantitative and will be submitted in tables with absolute frequencies. RESULTS: the results show that the students believe that the number of hours spent with the discipline is insufficient; in addition, they are aware about the importance and the need of the sign language discipline. CONCLUSION: this study demonstrates that the discussion about sign language in speech language therapy courses must be broader. The definition of criteria and parameters must also be discussed in order assure learning quality in those contents. The study also shows the need for more research that offers allowance to the advance in the speech language therapy graduation courses in those contents and that also contributes to an advance in bilingual speech therapy clinical, educational and practical needs directed towards the deaf individuals.

18.
Lasers Med Sci ; 28(2): 431-6, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22399243

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative damage markers are increased after muscle damage. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) modulates many biochemical processes mainly those related to reduction of muscular injures, increment of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis, as well as acceleration of the healing process. The objective of the present investigation was to verify the influence of LLLT in some parameters of muscular injury, oxidative damage, antioxidant activity, and synthesis of collagen after traumatic muscular injury. Adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 6), namely, sham (uninjured muscle), muscle injury without treatment, and muscle injury with LLLT (GaAs, 904 nm). Each treated point received 5 J/cm(2) or 0.5 J of energy density (12.5 s) and 2.5 J per treatment (five regions). LLLT was administered 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after muscle trauma. The serum creatine kinase activity was used as an index of skeletal muscle injury. Superoxide anion, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) measurement, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were used as indicators of oxidative stress. In order to assess the synthesis of collagen, levels of hydroxyproline were measured. Our results have shown that the model of traumatic injury induces a significant increase in serum creatine kinase activity, hydroxyproline content, superoxide anion production, TBARS level, and activity of SOD compared to control. LLLT accelerated the muscular healing by significantly decreasing superoxide anion production, TBARS levels, the activity of SOD, and hydroxyproline content. The data strongly indicate that increased ROS production and augmented collagen synthesis are elicited by traumatic muscular injury, effects that were significantly decreased by LLLT.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação , Colágeno/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/radioterapia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
19.
Anat Res Int ; 2013: 323194, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24455269

RESUMO

Introduction. The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) links the margins of the suprascapular notch and converts it into a foramen, through which, the suprascapular nerve and, on some rare occasions, the suprascapular vessels pass. This conversion often results from partial or complete ossification of the STSL and may produce compressive symptoms in the suprascapular nerve. Material and Method. Twenty shoulders from human fetuses were dissected without the aid of optical instruments and, using a digital pachymeter of precision 0.01 millimeters, length measurements and thickness measurements were made. The fetal age was from 21 to 33 weeks of gestation, with a mean of 27.6 ± 4.14 weeks. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in STSL length or any difference in the thicknesses at the medial and lateral extremities between the halves of the body (P ≥ 0.05). However, in the left half of the body, the medial extremity of the STSL was significantly thinner than the lateral extremity (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion. Anatomical and morphometric details about the STSL were described in human fetuses. These findings, in fetuses, may encourage the pursuit of further studies to understand the morphofunctional role and meaning of this small ligament.

20.
Life Sci ; 91(3-4): 132-6, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22771699

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effects physical training exerts on markers of oxidative stress in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MAIN METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6): sham, CKD, exercise-sham and exercise-CKD. Surgical reduction of the renal mass was performed (5/6 nephrectomized) and exercise was conducted on a treadmill (50 min/day up to 1 km/h for, 5 days/week for eight weeks). Forty-eight hours after the last exercise session, blood (1 mL) was collected from the abdominal aorta and animals were decapitated. The left kidney was surgically removed and stored at -70 °C for subsequent analysis. KEY FINDINGS: An increase was observed in creatinine and urea levels, superoxide production, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative damage in the CKD group, as compared to sham animals (p<0.05). Physical training made superoxide production and oxidative damage decrease in the CKD group (p<0.05), increasing SOD and GPX activity, though it did not increase the antioxidant effects of CAT, and renal parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: Even without altering renal function in animals induced to CKD model, the results show that physical training is an important component in the treatment of CKD, because it exerted a positive influence on oxidative stress parameters, especially on the reduction in superoxide production and oxidative damage, as well as an improvement in the antioxidant defense system, like SOD and GPX.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nefrectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
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