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2.
J Clin Invest ; 130: 4245-4260, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310591

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PC) is initially dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling for survival and growth. Therapeutics designed to suppress AR activity serve as the primary intervention for advanced disease. However, supraphysiological androgen (SPA) concentrations can produce paradoxical responses leading to PC growth inhibition. We sought to discern the mechanisms by which SPA inhibits PC and to determine if molecular context associates with anti-tumor activity. SPA produced an AR-mediated, dose-dependent induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence. SPA repressed genes involved in DNA repair and delayed the restoration of damaged DNA which was augmented by PARP1 inhibition. SPA-induced DSBs were accentuated in BRCA2-deficient PCs, and combining SPA with PARP or DNA-PKcs inhibition further repressed growth. Next-generation sequencing was performed on biospecimens from PC patients receiving SPA as part of ongoing Phase II clinical trials. Patients with mutations in genes mediating homology-directed DNA repair were more likely to exhibit clinical responses to SPA. These results provide a mechanistic rationale for directing SPA therapy to PCs with AR amplification or DNA repair deficiency, and for combining SPA therapy with PARP inhibition.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11428-11436, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061129

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in the genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has become apparent through several comprehensive profiling efforts, but little is known about the impact of this heterogeneity on clinical outcome. Here, we report comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 429 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) linked with longitudinal clinical outcomes, integrating findings from whole-exome, transcriptome, and histologic analysis. For 128 patients treated with a first-line next-generation androgen receptor signaling inhibitor (ARSI; abiraterone or enzalutamide), we examined the association of 18 recurrent DNA- and RNA-based genomic alterations, including androgen receptor (AR) variant expression, AR transcriptional output, and neuroendocrine expression signatures, with clinical outcomes. Of these, only RB1 alteration was significantly associated with poor survival, whereas alterations in RB1, AR, and TP53 were associated with shorter time on treatment with an ARSI. This large analysis integrating mCRPC genomics with histology and clinical outcomes identifies RB1 genomic alteration as a potent predictor of poor outcome, and is a community resource for further interrogation of clinical and molecular associations.

4.
J Pathol ; 249(1): 79-89, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993692

RESUMO

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) most often appears associated with high-grade invasive prostate carcinoma (PCa), where it is believed to represent retrograde spread. However, IDC-P rarely occurs as an isolated finding at radical prostatectomy or with concurrent low-grade (Grade Group 1) invasive carcinoma. We hypothesized that isolated IDC-P (iIDC-P) in these unusual cases may represent a distinct in situ lesion and molecularly profiled 15 cases. iIDC-P was characterized by copy number alteration (CNA) profiling and targeted next generation sequencing in cases with sufficient tissue (n = 7). Immunohistochemistry for PTEN and ERG was performed on the total cohort (n = 15), where areas of iIDC-P and associated invasive disease were evaluated separately (n = 9). By copy number profiling, iIDC-P alterations were similar to those previously described in high-grade invasive PCa (PTEN, RB1, and CHD1 loss; MYC gain). However, in four cases, targeted sequencing revealed a striking number of activating oncogenic driver mutations in MAPK and PI3K pathway genes, which are extraordinarily rare in conventional PCa. In addition, pathogenic mutations in DNA repair genes were found in two cases of iIDC-P (BRCA2, CHEK2, CDK12) and other known PCa-associated mutations (FOXA1, SPOP) in two cases. Overall, ERG was expressed in 7% (1/15) of the iIDC-P lesions and PTEN was lost in 53% (8/15). Discordance for ERG or PTEN status between IDC-P and the low-grade PCa was observed in five of nine cases, with intact PTEN in the invasive tumor and PTEN loss in IDC-P in four. Despite a CNA profile similar to conventional PCa, iIDC-P is enriched with potentially targetable oncogenic driver mutations in MAPK/PI3K genes. Based on PTEN and ERG status, iIDC-P is not likely a precursor to the associated low-grade invasive PCa, but represents a molecularly unique in situ tumor of unclear clinical significance. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

5.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 293-307, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848956

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline alterations in the mismatch repair genes and is the most common etiology of hereditary colorectal cancer. While Lynch syndrome was initially defined by the clinical Amsterdam criteria, these criteria lack the sensitivity needed for clinical utility. This review covers the evolution of screening for Lynch syndrome from the use of tumor microsatellite instability and/or somatic alterations in mismatch repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry to the newest methods using next-generation sequencing. Additionally, it discusses the clinical implications of the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome as it affects cancer therapeutics and the role of screening in noncolorectal Lynch-associated cancers. As molecular oncology continues to evolve, it is crucial to remain current on the increasing complexity of Lynch syndrome diagnostics and treatment options.

6.
Prostate ; 79(7): 701-708, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma-based cell-free DNA is an attractive biospecimen for assessing somatic mutations due to minimally-invasive real-time sampling. However, next generation sequencing (NGS) of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) may not be appropriate for all patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). METHODS: Blood was obtained from advanced PC patients for plasma-based sequencing. UW-OncoPlex, a ∼2 Mb multi-gene NGS panel performed in the CLIA/CAP environment, was optimized for detecting cfDNA mutations. Tumor tissue and germline samples were sequenced for comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the clinical characteristic associated with the successful detection of somatic cfDNA alterations (ie detection of at least one clearly somatic PC mutation). RESULTS: Plasma for cfDNA sequencing was obtained from 93 PC patients along with tumor tissue (N = 67) and germline (N = 93) controls. We included data from 76 patients (72 prostate adenocarcinoma; 4 variant histology PC) in the analysis. Somatic DNA aberrations were detected in 34 cfDNA samples from patients with prostate adenocarcinoma. High PSA level, high tumor volume, and castration-resistance were significantly associated with successful detection of somatic cfDNA alterations. Among samples with somatic mutations detected, the cfDNA assay detected 93/102 (91%) alterations found in tumor tissue, yielding a clustering-corrected sensitivity of 92% (95% confidence interval 88-97%). All germline pathogenic variants present in lymphocyte DNA were also detected in cfDNA (N = 12). Somatic mutations from cfDNA were detected in 30/33 (93%) instances when PSA was >10 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Disease burden, including a PSA >10 ng/mL, is strongly associated with detecting somatic mutations from cfDNA specimens.

7.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 462-470, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumours without MLH1 methylation or germline MMR pathogenic variants (PV) were previously thought to have Lynch syndrome (LS). It is now appreciated that they can have double somatic (DS) MMR PVs. We explored the clinical characteristics between patients with DS tumours and LS in two population-based cohorts. METHODS: We included patients with CRC from Ohio 2013-2016 and Iceland 2000-2009. All had microsatellite instability testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) of MMR proteins, and MLH1 methylation testing when indicated. Germline next-generation sequencing was performed for all with dMMR tumours; tumour sequencing followed for patients with unexplained dMMR. Clinical characteristics of DS patients and patients with LS were compared. RESULTS: Of the 232 and 51 patients with non-methylated dMMR tumours in the Ohio and Iceland cohorts, respectively, 57.8% (n=134) and 45.1% (n=23) had LS, 32.8% (n=76) and 31.4% (n=16) had DS PVs, 6% (n=14) and 9.8% (n=5) were unexplained and 4.3% (n=10) and 13.7% (n=7) had incorrect IHC. Age of diagnosis for DS patients was older than patients with LS (p=3.73×10-4) in the two cohorts. Patients with LS were more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria (OR=15.81, p=8.47×10-6) and have multiple LS-associated tumours (OR=6.67, p=3.31×10-5). Absence of MLH1/PMS2 was predictive of DS PVs; isolated MSH6 and PMS2 absence was predictive of LS in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with LS are 15× more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria and >5× more likely to have multiple cancers as compared with those with DS tumours. Furthermore, isolated loss of MSH6 or PMS2 protein predicts LS.

8.
Histopathology ; 74(6): 836-843, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636012

RESUMO

AIMS: Prostatic adenocarcinomas with focal pleomorphic giant-cell features constitute a rare tumour subtype with abysmal clinical outcomes. More than one-third of patients with this histology die within a year of the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. We aimed to perform molecular profiling of these tumors to identify potential therapeutic targets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we performed next-generation sequencing with a highly validated targeted panel (UW-OncoPlex) on somatic tumour DNA extracted from eight cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma with focal pleomorphic giant-cell features, including cases with and without prior treatment for prostate cancer. We found that DNA damage repair mutations are common in this rare subset of prostate tumours, with two of eight having bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in homologous DNA repair genes (including BRCA2 and NBN) and two of eight having bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in mismatch repair genes (including MSH2 and MLH1). CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with emerging data showing that DNA repair alterations are enriched among castration-resistant prostate cancer and aggressive subsets of primary tumours. Given that these patients are potential candidates for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor and/or immune checkpoint blockade, and have a poor prognosis with standard therapy, we recommend that tumour and germline DNA sequencing with or without mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry be considered for all prostatic adenocarcinomas with focal pleomorphic giant-cell features.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dano ao DNA/genética , Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(6): 490-503, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline mutations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes are identified in a significant proportion of patients with metastatic prostate cancer, but the clinical implications of these genes remain unclear. This prospective multicenter cohort study evaluated the prevalence and effect of germline DDR (gDDR) mutations on metastatic castration-resistance prostate cancer (mCRPC) outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Unselected patients were enrolled at diagnosis of mCRPC and were screened for gDDR mutations in 107 genes. The primary aim was to assess the impact of ATM/BRCA1/BRCA2/ PALB2 germline mutations on cause-specific survival (CSS) from diagnosis of mCRPC. Secondary aims included the association of gDDR subgroups with response outcomes for mCRPC treatments. Combined progression-free survival from the first systemic therapy (PFS) until progression on the second systemic therapy (PFS2) was also explored. RESULTS: We identified 68 carriers (16.2%) of 419 eligible patients, including 14 with BRCA2, eight with ATM, four with BRCA1, and none with PALB2 mutations. The study did not reach its primary end point, because the difference in CSS between ATM/BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 carriers and noncarriers was not statistically significant (23.3 v 33.2 months; P = .264). CSS was halved in germline BRCA2 (g BRCA2) carriers (17.4 v 33.2 months; P = .027), and g BRCA2 mutations were identified as an independent prognostic factor for CCS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; P = .033). Significant interactions between g BRCA2 status and treatment type (androgen signaling inhibitor v taxane therapy) were observed (CSS adjusted P = .014; PFS2 adjusted P = .005). CSS (24.0 v 17.0 months) and PFS2 (18.9 v 8.6 months) were greater in g BRCA2 carriers treated in first line with abiraterone or enzalutamide compared with taxanes. Clinical outcomes did not differ by treatment type in noncarriers. CONCLUSION: g BRCA2 mutations have a deleterious impact on mCRPC outcomes that may be affected by the first line of treatment used. Determination of g BRCA2 status may be of assistance for the selection of the initial treatment in mCRPC. Nonetheless, confirmatory studies are required before these results can support a change in clinical practice.

11.
Eur Urol ; 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340782

RESUMO

Platinum-based regimens have not been proved to increase survival from advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Incontrovertible evidence that a proportion of prostate cancers have homologous recombination DNA (HRD) repair defects, and that such genomic aberrations are synthetically lethal with both poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibition and platinum, has increased interest in the utilisation of these drugs against a subset of these diseases. Here in we report three patients with advanced castration-resistant PCa with HRD defects having exceptional responses to carboplatin.

12.
J Clin Invest ; 128(10): 4441-4453, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the integrated immunogenomic landscape of advanced prostate cancer (APC) could impact stratified treatment selection. METHODS: Defective mismatch repair (dMMR) status was determined by either loss of mismatch repair protein expression on IHC or microsatellite instability (MSI) by PCR in 127 APC biopsies from 124 patients (Royal Marsden [RMH] cohort); MSI by targeted panel next-generation sequencing (MSINGS) was then evaluated in the same cohort and in 254 APC samples from the Stand Up To Cancer/Prostate Cancer Foundation (SU2C/PCF). Whole exome sequencing (WES) data from this latter cohort were analyzed for pathogenic MMR gene variants, mutational load, and mutational signatures. Transcriptomic data, available for 168 samples, was also performed. RESULTS: Overall, 8.1% of patients in the RMH cohort had some evidence of dMMR, which associated with decreased overall survival. Higher MSINGS scores associated with dMMR, and these APCs were enriched for higher T cell infiltration and PD-L1 protein expression. Exome MSINGS scores strongly correlated with targeted panel MSINGS scores (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001), and higher MSINGS scores associated with dMMR mutational signatures in APC exomes. dMMR mutational signatures also associated with MMR gene mutations and increased immune cell, immune checkpoint, and T cell-associated transcripts. APC with dMMR mutational signatures overexpressed a variety of immune transcripts, including CD200R1, BTLA, PD-L1, PD-L2, ADORA2A, PIK3CG, and TIGIT. CONCLUSION: These data could impact immune target selection, combination therapeutic strategy selection, and selection of predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy in APC. FUNDING: We acknowledge funding support from Movember, Prostate Cancer UK, The Prostate Cancer Foundation, SU2C, and Cancer Research UK.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154229

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish a cohort of high-risk women undergoing intensive surveillance for breast cancer. METHODS: We performed dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) every 6 months in conjunction with annual mammography (MG). Eligible participants had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk ≥ 20% and/or tested positive for a pathogenic mutation in a known breast cancer susceptibility gene. RESULTS: Between 2004-2016, we prospectively enrolled 295 women, including 157 mutation carriers (75 BRCA1, 61 BRCA2); participants' mean age at entry was 43.3 years. Seventeen cancers were later diagnosed: four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and thirteen early stage invasive breast cancers. Fifteen cancers occurred in mutation carriers (11 BRCA1, 3 BRCA2, 1 CDH1). Median size of the invasive cancers was 0.61 cm. No patients had lymph node metastasis at time of diagnosis and no interval invasive cancers occurred. The sensitivity of bi-annual MRI alone was 88.2% and annual MG plus bi-annual MRI was 94.1%. The cancer detection rate of bi-annual MRI alone was 0.7% per 100 screening episodes, which is similar to the cancer detection rate of 0.7% per 100 screening episodes for annual MG plus bi-annual MRI. The number of recalls and biopsies needed to detect one cancer by bi-annual MRI were 2.8 and 1.7 in BRCA1 carriers, 12.0 and 8.0 in BRCA2 carriers, and 11.7 and 5.0 in non-BRCA1/2 carriers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bi-annual MRI performed well for early detection of invasive breast cancer in genomically stratified high-risk women. No benefit was associated with annual MG screening plus bi-annual MRI screening.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063105

RESUMO

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) refers to a group of disorders of segmental overgrowth of a wide variety of tissues as well as venous and lymphatic malformations. Clinical and molecular diagnosis can be challenging due to phenotypic heterogeneity and difficulties detecting low-level mosaicism using standard methods. Here, we report a patient with a severe presentation of PIK3CA-related overgrowth with analysis of 27 posthumously collected tissues by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at autopsy. This patient had a complicated medical course, with coagulopathy, ischemic brain injury, and sepsis resulting in multi-organ failure and death at age 2 months despite sirolimus therapy. Five of the 27 tissues analyzed possessed a mosaic PIK3CA mutation (p.E545K), with mutation levels ranging from 3 to 20% across affected tissues. We found no correlation between tissue-specific disease severity and mutation levels, likely reflecting sampling limitations. We also tested a series of 22 individuals with somatic overgrowth and/or vascular-lymphatic malformations using a targeted next generation sequencing panel and found PIK3CA mutations in nine individuals, identifying three novel PIK3CA variants. This report expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of PROS, emphasizes that different molecular methods can be complimentary in the diagnosis of these disorders, and highlights the risk of coagulopathy in a subset of patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 31(12): 1891-1900, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967423

RESUMO

Universal screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer is recommended, and immunohistochemistry for the mismatch repair proteins is commonly used. To reduce cost, some screen using only MSH6 and PMS2, with reflex to the partner stain if either are absent (two-stain method). An expression pattern revealing absent MSH2 and intact MSH6 is not expected, but could result in failed Lynch syndrome detection. We analyzed tumors with absent MSH2 but any degree of MSH6 expression to determine if the two-stain method could miss MSH2 mutations. One-thousand seven-hundred thirty colorectal cancer patients from the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative underwent tumor screening using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry. The two-stain method was used for 1235 cases; staining for all four proteins was completed for 495 cases. The proportion of positive cells and staining intensity were reviewed for MSH6, as well as MSH2 when available. Patients with mismatch repair deficiency underwent next-generation sequencing of germline DNA for mismatch repair genes. If negative, tumor next-generation sequencing was performed to assess for somatic mutations. Overall, thirty-three (1.9%, 33/1730) MSH2-absent cases were identified. Of those, fourteen had no MSH6 expression but eight (0.5%, 8/1730) had ambiguous and eleven (0.6%, 11/1730) had convincing MSH6 expression that could have been interpreted as intact. Germline next-generation sequencing identified MSH2 mutations in 11/14 cases with absence of both stains, 7/8 cases with ambiguous MSH6 expression, and 9/11 cases with convincing MSH6 expression. All remaining cases, except one, had double somatic mutations. The two-stain method fails to detect some patients with Lynch syndrome: (1) significant staining weaker than the control may be incorrectly interpreted as intact MSH6, or (2) Weak or focal/patchy MSH6 can be retained with the absence of MSH2. Accordingly, we recommend the four-stain method be used for optimal Lynch syndrome screening detection.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 19-29, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887214

RESUMO

Present guidelines for classification of constitutional variants do not incorporate inferences from mutations seen in tumors, even when these are associated with a specific molecular phenotype. When somatic mutations and constitutional mutations lead to the same molecular phenotype, as for the mismatch repair genes, information from somatic mutations may enable interpretation of previously unclassified variants. To test this idea, we first estimated likelihoods that somatic variants in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 drive microsatellite instability and characteristic IHC staining patterns by calculating likelihoods of high versus low normalized variant read fractions of 153 mutations known to be pathogenic versus those of 760 intronic passenger mutations from 174 paired tumor-normal samples. Mutations that explained the tumor mismatch repair phenotype had likelihood ratio for high variant read fraction of 1.56 (95% CI 1.42-1.71) at sites with no loss of heterozygosity and of 26.5 (95% CI 13.2-53.0) at sites with loss of heterozygosity. Next, we applied these ratios to 165 missense, synonymous, and splice variants observed in tumors, combining in a Bayesian analysis the likelihood ratio corresponding with the adjusted variant read fraction with pretest probabilities derived from published analyses and public databases. We suggest classifications for 86 of 165 variants: 7 benign, 31 likely benign, 22 likely pathogenic, and 26 pathogenic. These results illustrate that for mismatch repair genes, characterization of tumor mutations permits tumor mutation data to inform constitutional variant classification. We suggest modifications to incorporate molecular phenotype in future variant classification guidelines.

18.
Prostate ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic biomarkers for localized prostate cancer (PCa) could improve personalized medicine. Our group previously identified a panel of differentially methylated CpGs in primary tumor tissue that predict disease aggressiveness, and here we further validate these biomarkers. METHODS: Pyrosequencing was used to assess CpG methylation of eight biomarkers previously identified using the HumanMethylation450 array; CpGs with strongly correlated (r >0.70) results were considered technically validated. Logistic regression incorporating the validated CpGs and Gleason sum was used to define and lock a final model to stratify men with metastatic-lethal versus non-recurrent PCa in a training dataset. Coefficients from the final model were then used to construct a DNA methylation score, which was evaluated by logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses in an independent testing dataset. RESULTS: Five CpGs were technically validated and all were retained (P < 0.05) in the final model. The 5-CpG and Gleason sum coefficients were used to calculate a methylation score, which was higher in men with metastatic-lethal progression (P = 6.8 × 10-6 ) in the testing dataset. For each unit increase in the score there was a four-fold increase in risk of metastatic-lethal events (odds ratio, OR = 4.0, 95%CI = 1.8-14.3). At 95% specificity, sensitivity was 74% for the score compared to 53% for Gleason sum alone. The score demonstrated better prediction performance (AUC = 0.91; pAUC = 0.037) compared to Gleason sum alone (AUC = 0.87; pAUC = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The DNA methylation score improved upon Gleason sum for predicting metastatic-lethal progression and holds promise for risk stratification of men with aggressive tumors. This prognostic score warrants further evaluation as a tool for improving patient outcomes.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 6(1): 35, 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754585

RESUMO

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved pembrolizumab, an anti- programmed cell death protein 1 cancer immunotherapeutic, for use in advanced solid tumors in patients with the microsatellite-high/DNA mismatch repair-deficient biomarker. This is the first example of a tissue-agnostic FDA approval of a treatment based on a patient's tumor biomarker status, rather than on tumor histology. Here we discuss key issues and implications arising from the biomarker-based disease classification implied by this historic approval.

20.
Hum Pathol ; 78: 125-130, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723603

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common form of hereditary colon cancer. Germline mutations in the mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2 (EPCAM), MSH6, and PMS2, followed by a second hit to the remaining allele, lead to cancer development. Universal tumor screening for LS is routinely performed on colon cancer, and screening has identified patients with unexplained MMR deficiency that lack MLH1 methylation and a germline mutation. Tumor sequencing has since identified double somatic (DS) mutations in the MMR gene corresponding with the absent protein in 69% of these patients. We assessed whether histomorphology could distinguish patients with DS mutations from those with LS. Colorectal cancer patients with DS mutations were identified from population-based cohorts from Iceland (2000-2009); Columbus, Ohio (1999-2005); and the state of Ohio (2013-2016). Next-generation sequencing was performed on tumors with unexplained MMR deficiency. Patients with LS from Ohio cohorts were the comparison group. The histologic features associated with MMR deficiency (tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, Crohn-like reaction, histologic subtype, necrosis) were evaluated. We identified 43 tumors with DS mutations and 48 from patients with LS. There was no significant difference in histologic features between tumors in LS patients and tumors with DS mutations. Because histology of tumors with DS mutations is indistinguishable from those caused by LS, tumor sequencing for evaluation of DS mutations should be considered to help clarify sporadic versus hereditary causes of unexplained MMR deficiency.

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