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PeerJ ; 4: e2154, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441114


Studies of deep-sea benthic communities have largely focused on particular (macro) habitats in isolation, with few studies considering multiple habitats simultaneously in a comparable manner. Compared to mega-epifauna and macrofauna, much less is known about habitat-related variation in meiofaunal community attributes (abundance, diversity and community structure). Here, we investigated meiofaunal community attributes in slope, canyon, seamount, and seep habitats in two regions on the continental slope of New Zealand (Hikurangi Margin and Bay of Plenty) at four water depths (700, 1,000, 1,200 and 1,500 m). We found that patterns were not the same for each community attribute. Significant differences in abundance were consistent across regions, habitats, water and sediment depths, while diversity and community structure only differed between sediment depths. Abundance was higher in canyon and seep habitats compared with other habitats, while between sediment layer, abundance and diversity were higher at the sediment surface. Our findings suggest that meiofaunal community attributes are affected by environmental factors that operate on micro- (cm) to meso- (0.1-10 km), and regional scales (> 100 km). We also found a weak, but significant, correlation between trawling intensity and surface sediment diversity. Overall, our results indicate that variability in meiofaunal communities was greater at small scale than at habitat or regional scale. These findings provide new insights into the factors controlling meiofauna in these deep-sea habitats and their potential vulnerability to anthropogenic activities.

Zootaxa ; 3900(4): 505-25, 2014 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25543753


We describe two new species and provide one new species record of the family Comesomatidae from a submarine canyon habitat on the Southern Hikurangi margin, New Zealand. Vasostoma hexodontium n. sp. is characterized by having an amphideal fovea with three turns, buccal cavity with six teeth and gubernaculum with long and straight caudal apophyses. Sabatieria dispunctata n. sp. is characterized by the absence of cuticle punctations, large amphideal fovea with 4.5 turns, pharynx with posterior bulb, absence of pre-cloacal supplements, strongly arcuate and cuticularized spicules, simple gubernaculum with short caudal apophyses, and vulva opening directed posteriorly. Laimella subterminata Chen & Vincx, 2000, which was originally described from the Beagle Channel and the Magellan Strait (Chile), is recorded from the Southwest Pacific for the first time. 

Adenofórios/classificação , Adenofórios/anatomia & histologia , Adenofórios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão
PLoS One ; 8(9): e75160, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24086460


Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species' distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km(2) grid) for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusia unicornis, Cellaria immersa, Cellaria tenuirostris, Celleporaria agglutinans, Celleporina grandis, Cinctipora elegans, Diaperoecia purpurascens, Galeopsis porcellanicus, Hippomenella vellicata, Hornera foliacea, and Smittoidea maunganuiensis. The models confirmed known areas of habitat, and indicated other areas as potentially suitable. Water depth, vertical water mixing, tidal currents, and water temperature were useful for describing the distribution of the bryozoan species at broad scales. Areas predicted as suitable for multiple species were identified, and these 'hotspots' were compared to fishing effort data. This showed a potential conflict between fishing and the conservation of bryozoan-generated habitat. Fishing impacts are known from some sites, but damage to large areas of habitat-forming bryozoans is likely to have occurred throughout the study area. In the present study, spatial error associated with the use of historic records and the coarse native resolution of the environmental variables limited both the resolution at which the models could be interpreted and our understanding of the ecological requirements of the study species. However, these models show species distribution modelling has potential to further our understanding of habitat-forming bryozoan ecology and distribution. Importantly, comparisons between hotspots of suitable habitat and the distribution of bottom fishing in the study area highlight the need for management measures designed to mitigate the impact of seafloor disturbance on bryozoan-generated habitat in New Zealand waters.

Briozoários/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Demografia , Ecossistema , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Modelos Biológicos , Nova Zelândia , Oceano Pacífico , Densidade Demográfica , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura , Movimentos da Água
Forensic Sci Int ; 209(1-3): 1-10, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21074955


The process of decomposition of bodies in the marine environment is poorly understood and almost nothing is currently known about the microorganisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the microbes involved in decomposition in the sea and to evaluate the potential use of marine bacterial succession for postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) estimation, for which there is currently no reliable method. Partial pig remains were completely submerged during autumn and winter and were regularly sampled to document marine bacterial colonisation and the changes in community composition over time. Five stages of decomposition were recognised, some of which exhibited characters specific for partial carrion. Marine bacteria rapidly colonised the submerged remains in a successional manner. Seasonal differences were observed for the rate of decomposition and also for several groups of colonising bacteria. Marine bacteria specific for particular PMSIs were identified. This study provides an insight into the involvement of saprophytic marine bacteria in the decomposition of mammalian remains in the sea and is the first to explore the use of marine bacterial colonisation and succession as a novel tool for PMSI estimation. We propose that with further study, marine bacterial succession will prove useful for determination of the length of time a body may have been immersed in a marine environment.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Imersão , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Patologia Legal , Modelos Animais , Estações do Ano , Suínos
Dis Aquat Organ ; 57(1-2): 127-33, 2003 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14735930


The pathogenicity of shell lesions in Haliotis iris Martyn was examined in a laboratory experiment in which 73 apparently healthy and 106 lesion-bearing abalone were maintained for up to 12 mo. The abalone were collected from the wild and kept in cages (1 ind. cage(-1)) for 4, 8 or 12 mo, at which times estimates of survival, growth, condition and reproductive capacity were made for each of 3 groups: 'healthy' (n = 73), 'mildly affected' (n = 61) and 'severely affected' (n = 32). Unaffected abalone showed a 2.7% mortality (n = 73) compared to 7.5% (n = 93) in lesion-bearing individuals over the entire experiment. Growth rates were significantly decreased in mildly and severely affected abalone: the relative von Bertalanffy growth coefficient (K), calculated over 12 mo, was -0.176 for unaffected, -0.079 for mildly affected and -0.048 for severely affected individuals. The asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was calculated to be 131.5 mm for unaffected, 142.1 mm for mildly affected and 150.3 mm for severely affected abalone. Significantly (p < 0.05) lower condition indices and decreased reproductive capacity (p > 0.05) were obtained for the severely affected group compared to unaffected abalone. These trends were consistent over the course of the experiment.

Estruturas Animais/patologia , Moluscos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Moluscos/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Nova Zelândia , Reprodução/fisiologia
Dis Aquat Organ ; 50(2): 145-52, 2002 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12180705


Radiography, ultrasonography and endoscopy were examined for their efficacy as non-destructive techniques for the detection of shell lesions in the marine gastropod Haliotis iris Gmelin. X-rays provided 69% correct diagnoses, with detection being restricted to those lesions which were mineralised. Ultrasound also showed potential to reliably detect lesions (83% correct diagnoses), but only where the lesions demonstrated a clear 3-dimensional relief. Lesion dimensions were underestimated using ultrasound. Endoscopy, applied to anaesthetised individuals, provided the most accurate method (92% correct diagnoses) for lesion detection and, although invasive, had no discernible effect on survival of the abalone 8 mo after screening.

Endoscopia/métodos , Moluscos , Radiografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade