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1.
Nature ; 578(7795): 425-431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051592

RESUMO

Bacteriophages typically have small genomes1 and depend on their bacterial hosts for replication2. Here we sequenced DNA from diverse ecosystems and found hundreds of phage genomes with lengths of more than 200 kilobases (kb), including a genome of 735 kb, which is-to our knowledge-the largest phage genome to be described to date. Thirty-five genomes were manually curated to completion (circular and no gaps). Expanded genetic repertoires include diverse and previously undescribed CRISPR-Cas systems, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), tRNA synthetases, tRNA-modification enzymes, translation-initiation and elongation factors, and ribosomal proteins. The CRISPR-Cas systems of phages have the capacity to silence host transcription factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage-encoded functions. In addition, some phages may repurpose bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems to eliminate competing phages. We phylogenetically define the major clades of huge phages from human and other animal microbiomes, as well as from oceans, lakes, sediments, soils and the built environment. We conclude that the large gene inventories of huge phages reflect a conserved biological strategy, and that the phages are distributed across a broad bacterial host range and across Earth's ecosystems.

2.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 38: 33-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967575

RESUMO

Since the early time of space travel, planetary bodies undergoing chemical or biological evolution have been of particular interest for life detection missions. NASA's and ESA's Planetary Protection offices ensure responsible exploration of the solar system and aim at avoiding inadvertent contamination of celestial bodies with biomolecules or even living organisms. Life forms that have the potential to colonize foreign planetary bodies could be a threat to the integrity of science objectives of life detection missions. While standard requirements for assessing the cleanliness of spacecraft are still based on cultivation approaches, several molecular methods have been applied in the past to elucidate the full breadth of (micro)organisms that can be found on spacecraft and in cleanrooms, where the hardware is assembled. Here, we review molecular assays that have been applied in Planetary Protection research and list their significant advantages and disadvantages. By providing a comprehensive summary of the latest molecular methods yet to be applied in this research area, this article will not only aid in designing technological roadmaps for future Planetary Protection endeavors but also help other disciplines in environmental microbiology that deal with low biomass samples.

3.
ISME J ; 14(2): 623-634, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728021

RESUMO

Cable bacteria of the family Desulfobulbaceae couple spatially separated sulfur oxidation and oxygen or nitrate reduction by long-distance electron transfer, which can constitute the dominant sulfur oxidation process in shallow sediments. However, it remains unknown how cells in the anoxic part of the centimeter-long filaments conserve energy. We found 16S rRNA gene sequences similar to groundwater cable bacteria in a 1-methylnaphthalene-degrading culture (1MN). Cultivation with elemental sulfur and thiosulfate with ferrihydrite or nitrate as electron acceptors resulted in a first cable bacteria enrichment culture dominated >90% by 16S rRNA sequences belonging to the Desulfobulbaceae. Desulfobulbaceae-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unveiled single cells and filaments of up to several hundred micrometers length to belong to the same species. The Desulfobulbaceae filaments also showed the distinctive cable bacteria morphology with their continuous ridge pattern as revealed by atomic force microscopy. The cable bacteria grew with nitrate as electron acceptor and elemental sulfur and thiosulfate as electron donor, but also by sulfur disproportionation when Fe(Cl)2 or Fe(OH)3 were present as sulfide scavengers. Metabolic reconstruction based on the first nearly complete genome of groundwater cable bacteria revealed the potential for sulfur disproportionation and a chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. The presence of different types of hydrogenases in the genome suggests that they can utilize hydrogen as alternative electron donor. Our results imply that cable bacteria not only use sulfide oxidation coupled to oxygen or nitrate reduction by LDET for energy conservation, but sulfur disproportionation might constitute the energy metabolism for cells in large parts of the cable bacterial filaments.

4.
Environ Microbiol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742865

RESUMO

Subsurface ecosystems like groundwater harbour diverse microbial communities, including small-sized, putatively symbiotic organisms of the Candidate Phyla Radiation, yet little is known about their ecological preferences and potential microbial partners. Here, we investigated a member of the superphylum Microgenomates (Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133) from oligotrophic groundwater using mini-metagenomics and monitored its spatio-temporal distribution using 16S rRNA gene analyses. A Roizmanbacteria-specific quantitative PCR assay allowed us to track its abundance over the course of 1 year within eight groundwater wells along a 5.4 km hillslope transect, where Roizmanbacteria reached maximum relative abundances of 2.3%. In-depth genomic analyses suggested that Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 is a lactic acid fermenter, potentially able to utilize a range of complex carbon substrates, including cellulose. We hypothesize that it attaches to host cells using a trimeric autotransporter adhesin and inhibits their cell wall biosynthesis using a toxin-antitoxin system. Network analyses based on correlating Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 abundances with amplicon sequencing-derived microbial community profiles suggested one potential host organism, classified as a member of the class Thermodesulfovibrionia (Nitrospirae). By providing lactate as an electron donor Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 potentially mediates the transfer of carbon to other microorganisms and thereby is an important connector in the microbial community.

5.
Arch Microbiol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664492

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to reveal how different microbial communities evolve in diesel fuel/crude oil-contaminated environments under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. To investigate this question, aerobic and microaerobic bacterial enrichments amended with a diesel fuel/crude oil mixture were established and analysed. The representative aerobic enrichment community was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (64.5%) with high an abundance of Betaproteobacteriales (36.5%), followed by Alphaproteobacteria (8.7%), Actinobacteria (5.6%), and Candidatus Saccharibacteria (4.5%). The most abundant alkane monooxygenase (alkB) genotypes in this enrichment could be linked to members of the genus Rhodococcus and to a novel Gammaproteobacterium, for which we generated a high-quality draft genome using genome-resolved metagenomics of the enrichment culture. Contrarily, in the microaerobic enrichment, Gammaproteobacteria (99%) overwhelmingly dominated the microbial community with a high abundance of the genera Acinetobacter (66.3%), Pseudomonas (11%) and Acidovorax (11%). Under microaerobic conditions, the vast majority of alkB gene sequences could be linked to Pseudomonas veronii. Consequently, results shed light on the fact that the excellent aliphatic hydrocarbon degrading Rhodococcus species favour clear aerobic conditions, while oxygen-limited conditions can facilitate the high abundance of Acinetobacter species in aliphatic hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface environments.

6.
ISME J ; 13(8): 2135-2139, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048756

RESUMO

DPANN archaea have reduced metabolic capacities and are diverse and abundant in deep aquifer ecosystems, yet little is known about their interactions with other microorganisms that reside there. Here, we provide evidence for an archaeal host-symbiont association from a deep aquifer system at the Colorado Plateau (Utah, USA). The symbiont, Candidatus Huberiarchaeum crystalense, and its host, Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum, show a highly significant co-occurrence pattern over 65 metagenome samples collected over six years. The physical association of the two organisms was confirmed with genome-informed fluorescence in situ hybridization depicting small cocci of Ca. H. crystalense attached to Ca. A. hamiconexum cells. Based on genomic information, Ca. H. crystalense potentially scavenges vitamins, sugars, nucleotides, and reduced redox-equivalents from its host and thus has a similar metabolism as Nanoarchaeum equitans. These results provide insight into host-symbiont interactions among members of two uncultivated archaeal phyla that thrive in a deep subsurface aquifer.

7.
ISME J ; 13(6): 1618-1634, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809011

RESUMO

Blooms of planktonic cyanobacteria have long been of concern in lakes, but more recently, harmful impacts of riverine benthic cyanobacterial mats been recognized. As yet, we know little about how various benthic cyanobacteria are distributed in river networks, or how environmental conditions or other associated microbes in their consortia affect their biosynthetic capacities. We performed metagenomic sequencing for 22 Oscillatoriales-dominated (Cyanobacteria) microbial mats collected across the Eel River network in Northern California and investigated factors associated with anatoxin-a producing cyanobacteria. All microbial communities were dominated by one or two cyanobacterial species, so the key mat metabolisms involve oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon oxidation. Only a few metabolisms fueled the growth of the mat communities, with little evidence for anaerobic metabolic pathways. We genomically defined four cyanobacterial species, all which shared <96% average nucleotide identity with reference Oscillatoriales genomes and are potentially novel species in the genus Microcoleus. One of the Microcoleus species contained the anatoxin-a biosynthesis genes, and we describe the first anatoxin-a gene cluster from the Microcoleus clade within Oscillatoriales. Occurrence of these four Microcoleus species in the watershed was correlated with total dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and the species that contains the anatoxin-a gene cluster was found in sites with higher nitrogen concentrations. Microbial assemblages in mat samples with the anatoxin-a gene cluster consistently had a lower abundance of Burkholderiales (Betaproteobacteria) species than did mats without the anatoxin-producing genes. The associations of water nutrient concentrations and certain co-occurring microbes with anatoxin-a producing Microcoleus motivate further exploration for their roles as potential controls on the distributions of toxigenic benthic cyanobacteria in river networks.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Rios/microbiologia , Tropanos/metabolismo , California , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Lagos/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Filogenia , Rios/química
8.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 16(10): 629-645, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181663

RESUMO

Candidate phyla radiation (CPR) bacteria and DPANN (an acronym of the names of the first included phyla) archaea are massive radiations of organisms that are widely distributed across Earth's environments, yet we know little about them. Initial indications are that they are consistently distinct from essentially all other bacteria and archaea owing to their small cell and genome sizes, limited metabolic capacities and often episymbiotic associations with other bacteria and archaea. In this Analysis, we investigate their biology and variations in metabolic capacities by analysis of approximately 1,000 genomes reconstructed from several metagenomics-based studies. We find that they are not monolithic in terms of metabolism but rather harbour a diversity of capacities consistent with a range of lifestyles and degrees of dependence on other organisms. Notably, however, certain CPR and DPANN groups seem to have exceedingly minimal biosynthetic capacities, whereas others could potentially be free living. Understanding of these microorganisms is important from the perspective of evolutionary studies and because their interactions with other organisms are likely to shape natural microbiome function.


Assuntos
Archaea , Bactérias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/genética , Anaerobiose , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Archaea/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias Anaeróbias , Tamanho Celular , Genoma Arqueal/genética , Genoma Arqueal/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/fisiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose
9.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 122, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transformation of plant photosynthate into soil organic carbon and its recycling to CO2 by soil microorganisms is one of the central components of the terrestrial carbon cycle. There are currently large knowledge gaps related to which soil-associated microorganisms take up plant carbon in the rhizosphere and the fate of that carbon. RESULTS: We conducted an experiment in which common wild oats (Avena fatua) were grown in a 13CO2 atmosphere and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil was sampled for genomic analyses. Density gradient centrifugation of DNA extracted from soil samples enabled distinction of microbes that did and did not incorporate the 13C into their DNA. A 1.45-Mbp genome of a Saccharibacteria (TM7) was identified and, despite the microbial complexity of rhizosphere soil, curated to completion. The genome lacks many biosynthetic pathways, including genes required to synthesize DNA de novo. Rather, it requires externally derived nucleotides for DNA and RNA synthesis. Given this, we conclude that rhizosphere-associated Saccharibacteria recycle DNA from bacteria that live off plant exudates and/or phage that acquired 13C because they preyed upon these bacteria and/or directly from the labeled plant DNA. Isotopic labeling indicates that the population was replicating during the 6-week period of plant growth. Interestingly, the genome is ~ 30% larger than other complete Saccharibacteria genomes from non-soil environments, largely due to more genes for complex carbon utilization and amino acid metabolism. Given the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, starch, and 1,3-ß-glucan, we predict that this Saccharibacteria generates energy by fermentation of soil necromass and plant root exudates to acetate and lactate. The genome also encodes a linear electron transport chain featuring a terminal oxidase, suggesting that this Saccharibacteria may respire aerobically. The genome encodes a hydrolase that could breakdown salicylic acid, a plant defense signaling molecule, and genes to interconvert a variety of isoprenoids, including the plant hormone zeatin. CONCLUSIONS: Rhizosphere Saccharibacteria likely depend on other bacteria for basic cellular building blocks. We propose that isotopically labeled CO2 is incorporated into plant-derived carbon and then into the DNA of rhizosphere organisms capable of nucleotide synthesis, and the nucleotides are recycled into Saccharibacterial genomes.


Assuntos
Avena/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , DNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/biossíntese , Avena/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Marcação por Isótopo , Metagenômica , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose
10.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 102, 2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a recently discovered member of the DPANN superphylum, Woesearchaeota account for a wide diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences, but their ecology, evolution, and metabolism remain largely unknown. RESULTS: Here, we assembled 133 global clone libraries/studies and 19 publicly available genomes to profile these patterns for Woesearchaeota. Phylogenetic analysis shows a high diversity with 26 proposed subgroups for this recently discovered archaeal phylum, which are widely distributed in different biotopes but primarily in inland anoxic environments. Ecological patterns analysis and ancestor state reconstruction for specific subgroups reveal that oxic status of the environments is the key factor driving the distribution and evolutionary diversity of Woesearchaeota. A selective distribution to different biotopes and an adaptive colonization from anoxic to oxic environments can be proposed and supported by evidence of the presence of ferredoxin-dependent pathways in the genomes only from anoxic biotopes but not from oxic biotopes. Metabolic reconstructions support an anaerobic heterotrophic lifestyle with conspicuous metabolic deficiencies, suggesting the requirement for metabolic complementarity with other microbes. Both lineage abundance distribution and co-occurrence network analyses across diverse biotopes confirmed metabolic complementation and revealed a potential syntrophic relationship between Woesearchaeota and methanogens, which is supported by metabolic modeling. If correct, Woesearchaeota may impact methanogenesis in inland ecosystems. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide an ecological and evolutionary framework for Woesearchaeota at a global scale and indicate their potential ecological roles, especially in methanogenesis.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Archaea/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma Arqueal/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(7): 836-843, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807988

RESUMO

Microbial communities are critical to ecosystem function. A key objective of metagenomic studies is to analyse organism-specific metabolic pathways and reconstruct community interaction networks. This requires accurate assignment of assembled genome fragments to genomes. Existing binning methods often fail to reconstruct a reasonable number of genomes and report many bins of low quality and completeness. Furthermore, the performance of existing algorithms varies between samples and biotopes. Here, we present a dereplication, aggregation and scoring strategy, DAS Tool, that combines the strengths of a flexible set of established binning algorithms. DAS Tool applied to a constructed community generated more accurate bins than any automated method. Indeed, when applied to environmental and host-associated samples of different complexity, DAS Tool recovered substantially more near-complete genomes, including previously unreported lineages, than any single binning method alone. The ability to reconstruct many near-complete genomes from metagenomics data will greatly advance genome-centric analyses of ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Curadoria de Dados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Microbiologia da Água
13.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(4): 1115-1119, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672704

RESUMO

DPANN archaea are primarily known based on genomes from metagenomes and single cells. We reconstructed a complete population genome for Candidatus "Forterrea," a Diapherotrite with a predicted symbiotic lifestyle probably centered around nucleotide metabolism and RuBisCO. Genome-wide analysis of sequence variation provided insights into the processes that shape its population structure in the deep subsurface. The genome contains many transposons, yet reconstruction of a complete genome from a short-read insert data set was possible because most occurred only in some individuals. Accuracy of the final reconstruction could be verified because the genome displays the pattern of cumulative GC skew known for some archaea but more typically associated with bacteria. Sequence variation is highly localized, and most pronounced around transposons and relatively close to the origin of replication. Patterns of variation are best explained by homologous recombination, a process previously not described for DPANN archaea.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genoma Arqueal/genética , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Genética Populacional , Metagenômica
14.
Genome Res ; 28(4): 569-580, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496730

RESUMO

Microbial eukaryotes are integral components of natural microbial communities, and their inclusion is critical for many ecosystem studies, yet the majority of published metagenome analyses ignore eukaryotes. In order to include eukaryotes in environmental studies, we propose a method to recover eukaryotic genomes from complex metagenomic samples. A key step for genome recovery is separation of eukaryotic and prokaryotic fragments. We developed a k-mer-based strategy, EukRep, for eukaryotic sequence identification and applied it to environmental samples to show that it enables genome recovery, genome completeness evaluation, and prediction of metabolic potential. We used this approach to test the effect of addition of organic carbon on a geyser-associated microbial community and detected a substantial change of the community metabolism, with selection against almost all candidate phyla bacteria and archaea and for eukaryotes. Near complete genomes were reconstructed for three fungi placed within the Eurotiomycetes and an arthropod. While carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation were important functions in the geyser community prior to carbon addition, the organic carbon-impacted community showed enrichment for secreted proteases, secreted lipases, cellulose targeting CAZymes, and methanol oxidation. We demonstrate the broader utility of EukRep by reconstructing and evaluating relatively high-quality fungal, protist, and rotifer genomes from complex environmental samples. This approach opens the way for cultivation-independent analyses of whole microbial communities.


Assuntos
Eucariotos/genética , Genoma/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Archaea/genética , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ecossistema , Fungos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(11): 2670-2675, 2018 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483268

RESUMO

Traces of life are nearly ubiquitous on Earth. However, a central unresolved question is whether these traces always indicate an active microbial community or whether, in extreme environments, such as hyperarid deserts, they instead reflect just dormant or dead cells. Although microbial biomass and diversity decrease with increasing aridity in the Atacama Desert, we provide multiple lines of evidence for the presence of an at times metabolically active, microbial community in one of the driest places on Earth. We base this observation on four major lines of evidence: (i) a physico-chemical characterization of the soil habitability after an exceptional rain event, (ii) identified biomolecules indicative of potentially active cells [e.g., presence of ATP, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), metabolites, and enzymatic activity], (iii) measurements of in situ replication rates of genomes of uncultivated bacteria reconstructed from selected samples, and (iv) microbial community patterns specific to soil parameters and depths. We infer that the microbial populations have undergone selection and adaptation in response to their specific soil microenvironment and in particular to the degree of aridity. Collectively, our results highlight that even the hyperarid Atacama Desert can provide a habitable environment for microorganisms that allows them to become metabolically active following an episodic increase in moisture and that once it decreases, so does the activity of the microbiota. These results have implications for the prospect of life on other planets such as Mars, which has transitioned from an earlier wetter environment to today's extreme hyperaridity.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Clima Desértico , Solo/química , América do Sul
16.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(3): 328-336, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379208

RESUMO

An enormous diversity of previously unknown bacteria and archaea has been discovered recently, yet their functional capacities and distributions in the terrestrial subsurface remain uncertain. Here, we continually sampled a CO2-driven geyser (Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA) over its 5-day eruption cycle to test the hypothesis that stratified, sandstone-hosted aquifers sampled over three phases of the eruption cycle have microbial communities that differ both in membership and function. Genome-resolved metagenomics, single-cell genomics and geochemical analyses confirmed this hypothesis and linked microorganisms to groundwater compositions from different depths. Autotrophic Candidatus "Altiarchaeum sp." and phylogenetically deep-branching nanoarchaea dominate the deepest groundwater. A nanoarchaeon with limited metabolic capacity is inferred to be a potential symbiont of the Ca. "Altiarchaeum". Candidate Phyla Radiation bacteria are also present in the deepest groundwater and they are relatively abundant in water from intermediate depths. During the recovery phase of the geyser, microaerophilic Fe- and S-oxidizers have high in situ genome replication rates. Autotrophic Sulfurimonas sustained by aerobic sulfide oxidation and with the capacity for N2 fixation dominate the shallow aquifer. Overall, 104 different phylum-level lineages are present in water from these subsurface environments, with uncultivated archaea and bacteria partitioned to the deeper subsurface.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Simbiose , Archaea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processos Autotróficos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo do Carbono , Metagenômica , Filogenia
17.
Biodegradation ; 29(1): 23-39, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177812

RESUMO

An anaerobic culture (1MN) was enriched with 1-methylnaphthalene as sole source of carbon and electrons and Fe(OH)3 as electron acceptor. 1-Naphthoic acid was produced as a metabolite during growth with 1-methylnaphthalene while 2-naphthoic acid was detected with naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. This indicates that the degradation pathway of 1-methylnaphthalene might differ from naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation in sulfate reducers. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and pyrosequencing revealed that the culture is mainly composed of two bacteria related to uncultured Gram-positive Thermoanaerobacteraceae and uncultured gram-negative Desulfobulbaceae. Stable isotope probing showed that a 13C-carbon label from 13C10-naphthalene as growth substrate was mostly incorporated by the Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The presence of putative genes involved in naphthalene degradation in the genome of this organism was confirmed via assembly-based metagenomics and supports that it is the naphthalene-degrading bacterium in the culture. Thermoanaerobacteraceae have previously been detected in oil sludge under thermophilic conditions, but have not been shown to degrade hydrocarbons so far. The second member of the community belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae and has high sequence similarity to uncultured bacteria from contaminated sites including recently proposed groundwater cable bacteria. We suggest that the gram-positive Thermoanaerobacteraceae degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons while the Desulfobacterales are mainly responsible for Fe(III) reduction.


Assuntos
Deltaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Anaerobiose , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/farmacologia , Deltaproteobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Funções Verossimilhança , Metaboloma , Filogenia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 1435, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804480

RESUMO

Although once thought to be devoid of biology, recent studies have identified salt deposits as oases for life in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. To examine spatial patterns of microbial species and key nutrient sources, we genomically characterized 26 salt crusts from three sites along a fog gradient. The communities are dominated by a large variety of Halobacteriales and Bacteroidetes, plus a few algal and Cyanobacterial species. CRISPR locus analysis suggests the distribution of a single Cyanobacterial population among all sites. This is in stark contrast to the extremely high sample specificity of most other community members. Only present at the highest moisture site is a genomically characterized Thermoplasmatales archaeon (Marine Group II) and six Nanohaloarchaea, one of which is represented by a complete genome. Parcubacteria (OD1) and Saccharibacteria (TM7), not previously reported from hypersaline environments, were found at low abundances. We found no indication of a N2 fixation pathway in the communities, suggesting acquisition of bioavailable nitrogen from atmospherically derived nitrate. Samples cluster by site based on bacterial and archaeal abundance patterns and photosynthetic capacity decreases with increasing distance from the ocean. We conclude that moisture level, controlled by coastal fog intensity, is the strongest driver of community membership.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4039, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642547

RESUMO

The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.


Assuntos
Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Microbiota , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
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